Trichoglossus is a genus of lorikeet in the Psittacidae or true parrot family. The genus is distributed widely through Australia, Wallacea and Melanesia, with outliers in the Philippines and Micronesia. Members of the genus are characterised by barring, sometimes prominently, on the upper breast.[1]

Rainbow Lorikeet (Trichoglossus moluccanus) on fence, Sydney.jpg
Rainbow Lorikeet (T. h. moluccanus)
perching on a garden fence in Sydney, Australia
Scientific classification

Stephens, 1826


The genus name is derived from the Ancient Greek terms tricho- "hair", and glõssa "tongue".[2] There are uncertainties in the classification. The main uncertainty is the delineation of the species Trichoglossus haematodus, which has until now been broadly defined with many subspecies. However several are found in remote areas and have been little studied, with some arguing for their classification as separate species. Furthermore, the three species of the related genus Psitteuteles have been sometimes classified as members of Trichoglossus.

The genus contains several species and subspecies:[3]

Trichoglossus Stephens 1826

  • Trichoglossus ornatus (Linnaeus, 1758) (Ornate Lorikeet)
  • Trichoglossus (haematodus) forsteni Bonaparte, 1850 (Scarlet-breasted Lorikeet)
    • T. h./f. djampeanus Hartert, 1897
    • T. h./f. forsteni Bonaparte, 1850
    • T. h./f. mitchellii Gray,GR, 1859
    • T. h./f. stresemanni Meise, 1929
  • Trichoglossus (haematodus) weberi (Buttikofer, 1894) (Flores Lorikeet)
  • Trichoglossus (haematodus) capistratus (Bechstein, 1811) (Marigold Lorikeet)
    • T. h./c. capistratus (Bechstein, 1811)
    • T. h./c. flavotectus Hellmayr, 1914
    • T. h./c. fortis Hartert, 1898
  • Trichoglossus haematodus (Linnaeus, 1771) (Rainbow Lorikeet)
    • T. h. caeruleiceps Albertis & Salvadori, 1879
    • T. h. deplanchii Verreaux,J & Des Murs, 1860
    • T. h. eyrei Mathews, 1912
    • T. h. flavicans Cabanis & Reichenow, 1876
    • T. h. haematodus (Linnaeus, 1771)
    • T. h. intermedius Rothschild & Hartert, 1901
    • T. h. massena Bonaparte, 1854
    • T. h. moluccanus (Gmelin, 1788)
    • T. h. nesophilus Neumann, 1929
    • T. h. nigrogularis Gray,GR, 1858
    • T. h. rosenbergii Schlegel, 1871
    • T. h. septentrionalis Robinson, 1900
  • Trichoglossus (haematodus) rubritorquis Vigors & Horsfield, 1827 (Red-collared Lorikeet)
  • Trichoglossus euteles (Temminck, 1835) (Olive-headed Lorikeet)
  • Trichoglossus flavoviridis Wallace, 1863 (Yellow-and-green Lorikeet)
    • T. f. flavoviridis Wallace, 1863
    • T. f. meyeri Walden, 1871
  • Trichoglossus johnstoniae Hartert, 1903 (Mindanao Lorikeet)
  • Trichoglossus rubiginosus (Bonaparte, 1850) (Pohnpei Lorikeet)
  • Trichoglossus chlorolepidotus (Kuhl, 1820) (Scaly-breasted Lorikeet)

Species detailsసవరించు

Species of Trichoglossus in taxonomic sequence
Common and binomial names[3] Image Description Range
Ornate Lorikeet
Trichoglossus ornatus
25 cm (10.0 in) long. The head is dark blue on top and face below eyes and chin is red. Red at back of the head and yellow on sides of neck. Front of neck to chest has transverse bars of red and blue. Green abdomen with sparse variable yellow scalloping. Beak is orange-red, irises are dark orange, eye-ring is dark grey, and legs are grey.[4] Indonesia[5]
Rainbow Lorikeet
Trichoglossus haematodus
Some classifications list about about 20 subspecies; although, several are sometimes listed as separate species (see below). The photograph (left) is T. h. haematodus. Australia, Indonesia, New Caledonia, Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands, Timor-Leste, Vanuatu. (Introduced to Hong Kong.)[6]
Olive-headed Lorikeet
Trichoglossus euteles
24 cm (9.5 in) long. Mainly green with an olive coloured head which is demarcated by a green collar. Its beak is orange-red, its irises are red, and its legs are grey.[4] Indonesia and Timor-Leste[7]
Yellow-and-green Lorikeet
Trichoglossus flavoviridis
20 cm (8.0 in) long. Mainly green with green and yellow scalloping on its front. Its head is yellow and brown.[4] Indonesia[8]
Mindanao Lorikeet
Trichoglossus johnstoniae
20 cm (8 in) long. Mainly green with yellow transverse striations on its front. Its face is red and there is a dark purple band around its head. There is extensive yellow areas on the lower surface of its wings. Its legs are greenish-grey. The beak is orange, the eye-ring is dark grey, the irises are red.[4] Philippines[9]
Pohnpei Lorikeet
Trichoglossus rubiginosus
24 cm long. It is mainly reddish-maroon with vague approximately transverse striations of darker maroon. The head a slightly darker maroon. The flight feathers and tail are olive-yellow. Its legs are grey. The male has an orange beak and yellow-orange irises, while the female has a yellow beak and light grey irises.[4] Micronesia[10]
Scaly-breasted Lorikeet
Trichoglossus chlorolepidotus
23 cm (9.0 in) long. Mainly green with an all green head. Lowerparts are barred with short transverse yellow and green striations. Orange on lower surface of wings.[4] Eastern Australia[11]

Rainbow Lorikeet species complexసవరించు

మూస:Incomplete table The Rainbow Lorikeet has about 20 subspecies in some classifications; although, several of these are sometimes split off to form up to four additional species: The parentheses in the scientific names of the birds in the table are used to indicate that a taxon is sometimes considered to be a full species and sometimes listed as a subspecies of the Rainbow Lorikeet.

Subspecies of Rainbow Lorikeet that are sometime classified as separate species
Common and binomial names[3] Image Description Range
Scarlet-breasted Lorikeet
Trichoglossus (haematodus) forsteni
Sometimes classified as a subspecies of the Rainbow Lorikeet The Indonesian island of Bali, Lombok, Sumbawa, Tanahjampea and Kalaotoa
Flores Lorikeet also called Weber's Lorikeet
Trichoglossus (haematodus) weberi
Mostly green. Sometimes classified as a subspecies of the Rainbow Lorikeet Flores, one of the Lesser Sunda Islands of Indonesia[12]
Marigold Lorikeet
Trichoglossus (haematodus) capistratus
Sometimes classified as a subspecies of the Rainbow Lorikeet Islands of Sumba, Wetar and Timor in south-east Asian
Red-collared Lorikeet
Trichoglossus (haematodus) rubritorquis
Sometimes classified as a subspecies of the Rainbow Lorikeet Northern Australia, including north Kimberley and North West Queensland, but excluding Far North Queensland.[13]


  1. Low, p.69.
  2. Liddell, Henry George and Robert Scott (1980). A Greek-English Lexicon (Abridged Edition). United Kingdom: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-910207-4.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 "Zoological Nomenclature Resource: Psittaciformes (Version 9.020)". Retrieved 20 March 2009. Cite web requires |website= (help)
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 Forshaw (2006). plate 13.
  5. BirdLife International (2008). Trichoglossus ornatus. In: IUCN 2008. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Retrieved 16 April 2009.
  6. BirdLife International (2008). Trichoglossus haematodus. In: IUCN 2008. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Retrieved 16 April 2009.
  7. BirdLife International (2008). Trichoglossus euteles. In: IUCN 2008. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Retrieved 16 April 2009.
  8. BirdLife International (2008). Trichoglossus flavoviridis. In: IUCN 2008. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Retrieved 16 April 2009.
  9. BirdLife International (2008). Trichoglossus johnstoniae. In: IUCN 2008. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Retrieved 16 April 2009.
  10. BirdLife International (2008). Trichoglossus rubiginosus. In: IUCN 2008. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Retrieved 16 April 2009.
  11. BirdLife International (2008). Trichoglossus chlorolepidotus. In: IUCN 2008. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Retrieved 16 April 2009.
  12. Forshaw (2006). plate 15.
  13. Forshaw (2006). plate 12.

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