"ఈ-మెయిల్" కూర్పుల మధ్య తేడాలు

25 bytes removed ,  6 సంవత్సరాల క్రితం
చి
Wikipedia python library
చి (Bot: Migrating 1 interwiki links, now provided by Wikidata on d:Q9158)
చి (Wikipedia python library)
ఎలక్ట్రానిక్ ఉత్తరము లో రెండు భాగాలు ఉంటాయి, హెడర్, మరియు బాడీ. బాడీ అనగా ఉత్తరము లో మనము పంపించే సారాంశము. హెడర్ లో ఉత్తరము పంపించిన వారి ఈ-మెయిల్ అడ్రస్, ఒకటి లేదా అంతకన్నా ఎక్కువగా ఉత్తరము అందుకొంటున్న వారి ఈ-మెయిలు అడ్రస్ ఉంటాయి. అలానే, ఉత్తర సారాంశమును తెలిపే సబ్జెక్టు కూడా ఉంటుంది.
<!--
The foundation for today's global Internet e-mail service was created in the early [[ARPANET]] and standards for encoding of messages were proposed as early as, for example, in 1973 (RFC 561). An e-mail sent in the early 1970s looked very similar to one sent on the Internet today. Conversion from the ARPANET to the Internet in the early 1980s produced the core of the current service.
 
Network-based email was initially exchanged on the ARPANET in extensions to the [[File Transfer Protocol]] (FTP), but is today carried by the [[Simple Mail Transfer Protocol]] (SMTP), first published as [[Internet Standard]] 10 (RFC 821) in 1982. In the process of transporting email messages between systems, SMTP communicates delivery parameters using a message ''envelope'' separately from the message (headers and body) itself.
 
== Spelling ==
The [[spelling]] variations ''e-mail'' and ''email'' are both common. Several prominent journalistic and technical [[style guide]]s recommend ''e-mail'',<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/CMS_FAQ/HyphensEnDashesEmDashes/HyphensEnDashesEmDashes05.html|title=Hyphens, En Dashes, Em Dashes - Q&A|accessdate=2008-05-18}}</ref><ref>[http://safari.oreilly.com/0735617465 O'Reilly - Safari Books Online - 0735617465 - Microsoft Manual of Style for Technical Publications Third Edition]</ref><ref>[http://standards.ieee.org/guides/style/annexa.html 2007 IEEE Standards Style Manual-Annex A]</ref><ref name=APStyleBook>[http://www.apstylebook.com/ask_editor.php APStylebook.com]</ref> and the spelling ''email'' is also recognized in many dictionaries.<ref>[http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/email Reference.com]</ref><ref>Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2006</ref><ref>The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition</ref><ref>Princeton University WordNet 3.0</ref><ref>The American Heritage Science Dictionary, 2002</ref> In the original [[Request for Comments|RFC]] neither spelling is used; the service is referred to as ''mail'', and a single piece of electronic mail is called a ''message''.<ref>[http://www.faqs.org/rfcs/rfc821.html RFC 821 (rfc821) - Simple Mail Transfer Protocol]</ref><ref name="11above">[http://www.faqs.org/rfcs/rfc1939.html RFC 1939 (rfc1939) - Post Office Protocol - Version 3 ]</ref><ref name="12above">[http://www.faqs.org/rfcs/rfc3501.html RFC 3501 (rfc3501) - Internet Message Access Protocol - version 4rev1 ]</ref> The plural form "e-mails" (or emails) is also recognized.<ref name=APStyleBook/>
 
Newer RFCs and [[IETF]] working groups require ''email'' for consistent capitalization, hyphenation, and spelling of terms<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.rfc-editor.org/rfc-style-guide/rfc-style-manual-08.txt |title=RFC Document Style |accessdate=2008-11-24 |author=R. Braden |coauthors=S. Ginoza; A. Hagens |date=2007-11-30 |work=Style Guide |publisher=[[RFC Editor]]}} That refers to [http://www.rfc-editor.org/rfc-style-guide/terms-online-03.txt terms-online] that explicitly requires ''email'' spelling.</ref>. [[ARPANET]] users and early developers from [[Unix]], [[CMS]], [[AppleLink]], [[eWorld]], [[AOL]], [[GEnie]], and [[HotMail]] used ''eMail'' with the letter ''M'' capitalized. The authors of some of the original RFCs used ''eMail'' when giving their own addresses.<ref name="11above"/><ref name="12above"/>
 
[[Donald Knuth]] considers the spelling "e-mail" to be archaic and notes that it is more often spelled "email" in the UK. In some other European languages (French, German, Dutch, Romanian), "email" (ignoring diacritics) is the word for "enamel".<ref>http://www-cs-faculty.stanford.edu/~knuth/email.html - this page is undated but has been in the [[Internet Archive]] since 1997 (with a time stamp of 1996), and may be as old as 1991 according to [http://www.webmasterworld.com/content_copywriting/3107680.htm a blog post]</ref>
The [[ARPANET]] [[computer network]] made a large contribution to the development of e-mail. There is one report that indicates experimental inter-system e-mail transfers began shortly after its creation in 1969.<ref>[http://www.multicians.org/thvv/mail-history.html The History of Electronic Mail ]</ref> [[Ray Tomlinson]] initiated the use of the "[[At sign|@]]" sign to separate the names of the user and their machine in 1971.<ref>[http://openmap.bbn.com/~tomlinso/ray/firstemailframe.html The First Email ]</ref> The [[ARPANET]] significantly increased the popularity of e-mail, and it became the [[Killer application|killer app]] of the ARPANET.
 
Most other networks had their own email protocols and [[Email address|address]] formats; as the influence of the [[ARPANET]] and later the Internet grew, central sites often hosted email gateways that passed mail between the Internet and these other networks. Internet email addressing is still complicated by the need to handle mail destined for these older networks. Some well-known examples of these were [[UUCP]] (mostly Unix computers), [[BITNET]] (mostly IBM and VAX mainframes at universities), [[FidoNet]] (personal computers), and DECNET (various networks).
 
An example of an Internet email address that routed mail to a user at a UUCP host:
 
== పనిచేయు విధానం ==
కుడి ప్రక్క చుపిన పటంలో అలీస్ మెయిల్ యుజర్ ఏజెంట్ ([[E-mail client|mail user agent]] (MUA)). ఉపయొగించి మెసెజ్ కంపొజ్ చెసెటప్పుడు జరిగె పరిణమాన్ని చూపించటమైనది. అలీస్([[Placeholder names in cryptography|Alice]] ) తన ఇ-మెయిల్ అడ్రస్ ([[e-mail address]]) టైప్ చేసి “send” బటన్ నోక్కినప్పుడు ఈ క్రిందవి జరుగుతాయి.
<ref>{{cite video | title = How E-mail Works | medium = internet video | publisher = howstuffworks.com | year = 2008 | url = http://www.webcastr.com/videos/informational/how-email-works.html}}</ref>
<span style="float:right">[[దస్త్రం:email.svg|400px|How e-mail works]]</span>
 
== మెస్సేజ్ ఫార్మాట్ ==
The Internet e-mail message format is defined in RFC 5322 and a series of [[Request for Comments|RFCs]], RFC 2045 through RFC 2049, collectively called, ''[[Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions]]'', or ''MIME''. Although as of July 13, 2005, RFC 2822 is technically a proposed [[Internet Engineering Task Force|IETF]] standard and the MIME RFCs are draft IETF standards,<ref>{{citeweb|title=RFC Index|url=http://www.ietf.org/iesg/1rfc_index.txt}}</ref> these documents are the standards for the format of Internet e-mail. Prior to the introduction of RFC 2822 in 2001, the format described by RFC 822 was the standard for Internet e-mail for nearly 20 years; it is still the official IETF standard. The IETF reserved the numbers 5321 and 5322 for the updated versions of RFC 2821 (SMTP) and RFC 2822, as it previously did with RFC 821 and RFC 822, honoring the extreme importance of these two RFCs. RFC 822 was published in 1982 and based on the earlier RFC 733 (see<ref>Ken Simpson, "An update to the email standards" (October 3, 2008), ''blog.mailchannels.com'', web: [http://blog.mailchannels.com/2008/10/update-to-email-standards.html MailChannels Blog Entry].
</ref>).
 
Internet e-mail messages consist of two major sections:
* Header — Structured into [[Field (computer science)|fields]] such as summary, sender, receiver, and other information about the e-mail.
* Body — The message itself as unstructured text; sometimes containing a [[signature block]] at the end. This is exactly the same as the body of a regular letter.
 
The header is separated from the body by a blank line.
* To: The e-mail address(es), and optionally name(s) of the message's recipient(s). Indicates primary recipients (multiple allowed), for secondary recipients see Cc: and Bcc: below.
* Subject: A brief summary of the contents of the message.
* Date: The local time and date when the message was written. Like the ''From:'' field, many email clients fill this in automatically.
* Message-ID: Also an automatically generated field; used to prevent multiple delivery and for reference in In-Reply-To: (see below).
 
[[దస్త్రం:Mozilla thunderbird empty screenshot.png|thumb|right|300px|The interface of an e-mail client, [[Mozilla Thunderbird|Thunderbird]].]]
 
Messages are exchanged between hosts using the [[SMTP|Simple Mail Transfer Protocol]] with software programs called [[mail transfer agent]]s. Users can retrieve their messages from servers using standard protocols such as [[Post Office Protocol|POP]] or [[IMAP]], or, as is more likely in a large [[corporation|corporate]] environment, with a [[Proprietary software|proprietary]] protocol specific to [[Lotus Notes]] or [[Microsoft Exchange Server]]s. [[Webmail]] interfaces allow users to access their mail with any standard [[web browser]], from any computer, rather than relying on an e-mail client.
 
Mail can be stored on the [[client (computing)|client]], on the [[Server (computing)|server]] side, or in both places. Standard formats for mailboxes include [[Maildir]] and [[mbox]]. Several prominent e-mail clients use their own proprietary format and require conversion software to transfer e-mail between them.
[[Flaming (Internet)|Flaming]] occurs when a person sends a message with angry or antagonistic content. Flaming is assumed to be more common today because of the ease and impersonality of e-mail communications: confrontations in person or via telephone require direct interaction, where social norms encourage civility, whereas typing a message to another person is an indirect interaction, so civility may be forgotten.{{Fact|date=June 2009}} Flaming is generally looked down upon by Internet communities as it is considered rude and non-productive.
 
==== ఈ-మెయిల్ దివాళా ====
Also known as "ఈ-మెయిల్ అలసట", ఈ-మెయిల్ దివాళా is when a user ignores a large number of e-mail messages after falling behind in reading and answering them. The reason for falling behind is often due to information overload and a general sense there is so much information that it is not possible to read it all. As a solution, people occasionally send a boilerplate message explaining that the e-mail inbox is being cleared out. [[Stanford University]] law professor [[Lawrence Lessig]] is credited with coining this term, but he may only have popularized it.<ref>{{cite news |title=All We Are Saying. |url=http://www.nytimes.com/2007/12/23/weekinreview/23buzzwords.html?ref=weekinreview |publisher=[[New York Times]] |date=[[December 23]] [[2007]]|accessdate=2007-12-24 }}</ref>
 
=== వ్యాపారంలో ===
</ref>
 
ఈ-మెయిల్ worms use e-mail as a way of replicating themselves into vulnerable computers. Although the [[Morris (computer worm)|first e-mail worm]] affected [[UNIX]] computers, the problem is most common today on the more popular [[Microsoft Windows]] operating system.
 
The combination of spam and worm programs results in users receiving a constant drizzle of junk e-mail, which reduces the usefulness of e-mail as a practical tool.
A number of [[anti-spam techniques (e-mail)|anti-spam techniques]] mitigate the impact of spam. In the [[United States]], [[Congress of the United States|U.S. Congress]] has also passed a law, the [[Can Spam Act of 2003]], attempting to regulate such e-mail. Australia also has very strict spam laws restricting the sending of spam from an Australian ISP,<ref>{{citeweb|title=Spam Bill 2003|url=http://www.aph.gov.au/library/pubs/bd/2003-04/04bd045.pdf|format=PDF}}</ref> but its impact has been minimal since most spam comes from regimes that seem reluctant to regulate the sending of spam.
 
=== ఈ-మెయిల్ spoofing ===
[[ఈ-మెయిల్ spoofing]] occurs when the header information of an email is altered to make the message appear to come from a known or trusted source. It is often used as a ruse to collect personal information.
 
=== ఈ-మెయిల్ బాంబింగ్ ===
 
=== గోప్యతా సమస్యలు ===
{{main|ఈ-మెయిల్ privacy}}
 
కొన్ని భద్రతాపరమైన జాగ్రత్తలు తీసుకోనట్లైతే ఈ-మెయిల్ గోప్యత విషయంలో రాజీ పడవలసి వస్తుంది, ఎందువలనగా:
 
=== పంపిన ఉత్తరం చేరిందో లేదో చూడటం ===
మొట్టమొదట వచ్చిన SMTP మెయిల్ సర్విసులో పంపిన ఉత్తరము వెళ్ళే మార్గము తెలుసుకోవడానికి చాలా తక్కువ విధానాలు ఉండేవి. ఉత్తరము చేరిందో లేదో కూడా అవతల వారు సమాధానము ఇచ్చే దాక తెలిసేది కాదు. ఇది ఒక రకంగా లాభం అయితే,(సమాధానం చెప్పడం ఇష్టం లేక పొతే ఉత్తరం అందలేదు అని తప్పించుకోవచ్చు), మరొక విధం గా చాల పెద్ద ఇబ్బంది. అత్యవసరమైనవి, ముఖ్యమైనవి చేరాయో లేదో తెలియక, అలానే, చదవకూడని వాడి చేతి లో అది పడిందేమో అని ఆందోళన, ఇలా వుండేది. ప్రతి మెయిల్ సర్వర్ వుత్తరం అందజేయాలి, లేదా అందచేయలేదు అని తిరిగు సమాధానం చెప్పాలి. చాల మటుకు, సాఫ్టువేరు లో తప్పులతోను, లేదా చతికిలపడ్డ సర్వర్ల మూలంగా ఇవి జరిగేవి కాదు. ఐ పరిస్థితిని కెక్క దిద్దడము కోసము, [[ఇంటర్నెట్ ఇంజనీరింగ్ టాస్క్ ఫోర్స్|IETF]] వారు [[డెలివరీ స్టేటస్ నోటిఫికేషన్]] లను (డెలివరీ రేసీప్ట్) మరియు [[రిటర్న్ రేసీప్ట్#ఈ-మెయిల్|ఉత్తరము పంపించే నోటిఫికేషన్స్]] (రిటర్న్ రేసీప్ట్] లను ప్రవేశ పెట్టారు. అయితే, వీటిని అమలుపరచలేదు.
<!--
== అమెరికా ప్రభుత్వం ==
The US Government has been involved in ఈ-మెయిల్ in several different ways.
 
Starting in 1977, the [[US Postal Service]] (USPS) recognized that electronic mail and electronic transactions posed a significant threat to First Class mail volumes and revenue. Therefore, the USPS initiated an experimental e-mail service known as E-COM. Electronic messages were transmitted to a post office, printed out, and delivered as hard copy. To take advantage of the service, an individual had to transmit at least 200 messages. The delivery time of the messages was the same as First Class mail and cost 26 cents. Both the [[Postal Regulatory Commission]] and the [[Federal Communications Commission]] opposed E-COM. The FCC concluded that E-COM constituted common carriage under its jurisdiction and the USPS would have to file a [[tariff]].<ref>In re Request for declaratory ruling and investigation by Graphnet Systems, Inc., concerning the proposed E-COM service, FCC Docket No. 79-6 (September 4, 1979)</ref> Three years after initiating the service, USPS canceled E-COM and attempted to sell it off.<ref>[http://www.usps.com/history/history/his1.htm History of the United States Postal Service, USPS]</ref><ref>Hardy, Ian R; The Evolution of ARPANET Email; 1996-05-13; History Thesis; University of California at Berkeley</ref><ref>James Bovard, The Law Dinosaur: The US Postal Service, CATO Policy Analysis (February 1985) </ref><ref>[http://www.cs.ucsb.edu/~almeroth/classes/F04.176A/homework1_good_papers/jay-akkad.html Jay Akkad, The History of Email]</ref><ref>[http://www.cybertelecom.org/notes/email.htm Cybertelecom : Email]</ref><ref>[http://www.gao.gov/archive/2000/gg00188.pdf US Postal Service: Postal Activities and Laws Related to Electronic Commerce, GAO-00-188 ]</ref><ref>[http://govinfo.library.unt.edu/ota/Ota_4/DATA/1982/8214.PDF Implications of Electronic Mail and Message Systems for the U.S. Postal Service , Office of Technology Assessment, Congress of the United States, August 1982]</ref>
The [[జాతీయ సైన్స్ ఫౌండేషన్]] took over operations of the ARPANET and Internet from the Department of Defense, and initiated [[NSFNet]], a new [[backbone]] for the network. A part of the NSFNet AUP forbade commercial traffic.<ref>[http://www.cybertelecom.org/notes/internet_history80s.htm Cybertelecom : Internet History]</ref> In 1988, [[Vint Cerf]] arranged for an interconnection of [[MCI Mail]] with NSFNET on an experimental basis. The following year Compuserve e-mail interconnected with NSFNET. Within a few years the commercial traffic restriction was removed from NSFNETs AUP, and NSFNET was privatized.
 
In the late 1990s, the [[Federal Trade Commission]] grew concerned with fraud transpiring in ఈ-మెయిల్ , and initiated a series of procedures on spam, fraud, and phishing.<ref>[http://www.cybertelecom.org/spam/Spamref.htm Cybertelecom : SPAM Reference]</ref> In 2004, FTC jurisdiction over spam was codified into law in the form of the [[Can Spam Act|CAN SPAM Act.]]<ref>[http://www.cybertelecom.org/spam/canspam.htm Cybertelecom : Can Spam Act]</ref> Several other US Federal Agencies have also exercised jurisdiction including the Department of Justice and the Secret Service.
 
== ఇవీ చూడండి ==
* [[HTML ఈ-మెయిల్]]
* [[Internet fax]]
* [[ఈ-మెయిల్ Letter|L- or letter mail, ఈ-మెయిల్ letter and letter ఈ-మెయిల్]]
* [[Privacy-enhanced Electronic Mail]]
* [[Push ఈ-మెయిల్]]
* [[Google Wave]]
 
=== ఈ-మెయిల్ social issues ===
{{top}}
* [[Anti-spam techniques (ఈ-మెయిల్)]]
"https://te.wikipedia.org/wiki/ప్రత్యేక:MobileDiff/1168254" నుండి వెలికితీశారు