"వ్యోమగామి" కూర్పుల మధ్య తేడాలు

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(ఆంగ్ల వ్యాసాన్ని అనువాదం కొరకు చేర్చితిని)
చి (Wikipedia python library)
Official English-language texts issued by the government of the People's Republic of China use ''astronaut'' while texts in Russian use космонавт (''cosmonaut'').<ref name="rus">{{cite web|url=http://www.fmprc.gov.cn/ce/ceka/rus/xwdt/t216370.htm|title=Chinese embassy in Kazakhstan press-release|accessdate=October 4, 2007 |publisher=fmprc.gov.cn|author=реконмендовать другому|language=Russian| archiveurl= http://web.archive.org/web/20070929125754/http://www.fmprc.gov.cn/ce/ceka/rus/xwdt/t216370.htm| archivedate= 29 September 2007 <!--DASHBot-->| deadurl= no}} {{Dead link|date=April 2012|bot=H3llBot}}</ref><ref name="rus2">{{cite web|url=http://ru.china-embassy.org/rus/xwdt/t73142.htm|title=Chinese embassy in Russia press-release|accessdate=October 4, 2007 |publisher=ru.china-embassy.org|author=ru.china-embassy.org|language=Russian| archiveurl= http://web.archive.org/web/20070927002145/http://ru.china-embassy.org/rus/xwdt/t73142.htm| archivedate= 27 September 2007 <!--DASHBot-->| deadurl= no}}</ref> In official Chinese-language texts, "yǔ háng yuán" ({{lang|zh-cn|宇航员}}, "space navigating personnel") are used for astronaut and cosmonaut, and "háng tiān yuán" ({{lang|zh-cn|航天员}}, "space navigating personnel") is specially used for Chinese astronaut. The phrase "tài kōng rén" ({{lang|zh-tw|太空人}}, "spaceman") is often used in [[Taiwan]] and Hong Kong.
 
The term ''taikonaut'' is used by some English-language news media organizations for professional [[Chinese space program|space travelers from China]].<ref>{{cite web|url=http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2008-01/26/content_7500262.htm|title=Chinese taikonaut dismisses environment worries about new space launch center|date=2008-01-26|accessdate=2008-09-25|publisher=[[China View]]| archiveurl= http://web.archive.org/web/20081003201652/http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2008-01/26/content_7500262.htm| archivedate= 3 October 2008 <!--DASHBot-->| deadurl= no}}</ref> The word has featured in the [[Longman]] and [[Oxford English Dictionary|Oxford English]] dictionaries, the latter of which describes it as "a hybrid of the Chinese term ''taikong'' (space) and the Greek ''naut'' (sailor)"; the term became more common in 2003 when China sent its first astronaut [[Yang Liwei]] into space aboard the ''[[Shenzhou 5]]'' spacecraft.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2008-09/25/content_10111749.htm|title="Taikonauts" a sign of China's growing global influence|date=2008-09-25|accessdate=2008-09-25|publisher=[[China View]]| archiveurl= http://web.archive.org/web/20080928044453/http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2008-09/25/content_10111749.htm| archivedate= 28 September 2008 <!--DASHBot-->| deadurl= no}}</ref> This is the term used by [[Xinhua News Agency]] in the English version of the Chinese People's Daily since the advent of the Chinese space program.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://english.peopledaily.com.cn/90001/90776/90881/6507790.html|title=Chinese taikonaut debuts spacewalk|accessdate=September 28, 2008 |publisher=People's Daily Online|author=Xinhua|year=2008| archiveurl= http://web.archive.org/web/20080930071226/http://english.peopledaily.com.cn/90001/90776/90881/6507790.html| archivedate= 30 September 2008 <!--DASHBot-->| deadurl= no}}</ref> The origin of the term is unclear; as early as May 1998, Chiew Lee Yih ({{lang|zh|趙裡昱}}) from [[Malaysia]], used it in [[newsgroup]]s.<ref name="chiew">{{cite web | first=Lee Yih | last=Chiew | coauthors= |date=1998-05-19| title=Google search of "taikonaut" sort by date |url = http://groups.google.com/groups/search?hl=en&safe=off&q=taikonaut&btnG=Search&as_mind=1&as_minm=1&as_miny=1981&as_maxd=24&as_maxm=5&as_maxy=1998&as_drrb=b&sitesearch= | work = Usenet posting | publisher = Chiew Lee Yih | author=Chiew Lee Yih| accessdate = 2008-09-27}}</ref><ref name="chiew2">{{cite web | first=Lee Yih | last=Chiew |date=1996-03-10| coauthors= | title=Chiew Lee Yih misspelled "taikonaut" 2 years before it first appear |url = http://groups.google.com/group/alt.chinese.text/browse_thread/thread/a7f02b9489c59c5b/dd9e7a1b78d7d5c7?hl=en&lnk=st&q=taikonout#dd9e7a1b78d7d5c7 | work = Usenet posting | publisher = Chiew Lee Yih | author=Chiew Lee Yih| accessdate = 2008-09-27}}</ref>
 
===Other terms===
[[Alan Shepard]] became the first American and second person in space on May 5, 1961 on a 15-minute sub-orbital flight. The first American woman in space was [[Sally Ride]], during [[Space Shuttle Challenger]]'s mission [[STS-7]], on June 18, 1983.<ref name="ride1">{{cite web|url=http://www.jsc.nasa.gov/Bios/htmlbios/ride-sk.html|title=Sally K. Ride, Ph.D. Biography|accessdate=October 4, 2007 |publisher=NASA|year=2006|author=NASA| archiveurl= http://web.archive.org/web/20071016072450/http://www.jsc.nasa.gov/Bios/htmlbios/ride-sk.html| archivedate= 16 October 2007 <!--DASHBot-->| deadurl= no}}</ref> In 1992 [[Mae Jemison]] became the first African American woman to travel in space aboard [[STS-47]]. In 1984, [[Rakesh Sharma]] of India became the first Indian to fly in space when he boarded the Soyuz T-11.In 1997,[[ Kalpana Chawla ]] became the first Indian woman to fly in space when she flew in Space shuttle Columbia.
 
Cosmonaut [[Alexei Leonov]] was the first person to conduct an [[extra-vehicular activity]] (EVA), (commonly called a "spacewalk"), on March 18, 1965, on the Soviet Union's Voshkhod 2 mission. This was followed two and a half months later by astronaut [[Ed White]] who made the first American EVA on NASA's Gemini 4 mission.<ref>http://www.nasa.gov/audience/foreducators/k-4/features/F_Going_Out.html</ref>
 
The first manned mission to orbit the Moon, ''[[Apollo 8]]'', included American [[William Anders]] who was born in Hong Kong, making him the first Asian-born astronaut in 1968.
 
In April 1985, [[Taylor Wang]] became the first ethnic Chinese person in space.<ref name="taylorbio">{{cite web |url=http://www.jsc.nasa.gov/Bios/htmlbios/wang-t.html|title=Taylor G. Wang Biography| accessdate=October 4, 2007 | publisher=NASA| year=1985| author=NASA| archiveurl= http://web.archive.org/web/20070919003409/http://www.jsc.nasa.gov/Bios/htmlbios/wang-t.html| archivedate= 19 September 2007 <!--DASHBot-->| deadurl= no}}</ref><ref name="taylor">{{cite web|url=http://www.astronautix.com/astros/wang.htm|title=Taylor Wang| accessdate=October 4, 2007 |publisher=Encyclopedia Astronautica|year=2007|author=Encyclopedia Astronautica| archiveurl= http://web.archive.org/web/20070827132048/http://www.astronautix.com/astros/wang.htm| archivedate= 27 August 2007 <!--DASHBot-->| deadurl= no}}</ref> On 15 October 2003, [[Yang Liwei]] became China's first astronaut on the [[Shenzhou 5]] spacecraft.
 
The Soviet Union, through its [[Intercosmos]] program, allowed people from other "[[socialism|socialist]]" (i.e. [[Warsaw Pact]] and other Soviet-allied) countries to fly on its missions. An example is [[Czechoslovak]] [[Vladimír Remek]], the first cosmonaut from a country other than the [[Soviet space program|Soviet Union]] or the [[NASA|United States]], who flew to space in 1978 on a [[Soyuz-U]] rocket.<ref name="enc">{{cite web|url=http://www.astronautix.com/astros/remek.htm|title=Vladimir Remek Czech Pilot Cosmonaut|accessdate=October 4, 2007 |publisher=Encyclopedia Astronautica|year=2007|author=Encyclopedia Astronautica| archiveurl= http://web.archive.org/web/20071013100622/http://astronautix.com/astros/remek.htm| archivedate= 13 October 2007 <!--DASHBot-->| deadurl= no}}</ref>
On July 23, 1980, [[Pham Tuan]] of [[Vietnam]] became the first [[Asian people|Asian]] in space when he flew aboard [[Soyuz 37]].<ref name="tuan">{{cite web|url=http://www.astronautix.com/flights/salt6ep7.htm|title=Salyut 6 EP-7|accessdate=October 4, 2007 |publisher=Encyclopedia Astronautica|year=2007|author=Encyclopedia Astronautica| archiveurl= http://web.archive.org/web/20070930195347/http://www.astronautix.com/flights/salt6ep7.htm| archivedate= 30 September 2007 <!--DASHBot-->| deadurl= no}}</ref>
 
Also in 1980, [[Cubans|Cuban]] [[Arnaldo Tamayo Méndez]] became the first person of [[Hispanic]] and black African descent to fly in space, and [[Guion Bluford]] became the first African American to fly into space. The first person born in Africa to fly in space was [[Patrick Baudry]], in 1985.<ref name="mendez">{{cite web|url=http://www.astronautix.com/astros/tamendez.htm|title=Tamayo-Mendez|accessdate=October 4, 2007 |publisher=Encyclopedia Astronautica|year=2007|author=Encyclopedia Astronautica| archiveurl= http://web.archive.org/web/20070930214432/http://www.astronautix.com/astros/tamendez.htm| archivedate= 30 September 2007 <!--DASHBot-->| deadurl= no}}</ref><ref name="buadry">{{cite web|url=http://www.astronautix.com/astros/baudry.htm|title=Baudry|accessdate=October 4, 2007 |publisher=Encyclopedia Astronautica|year=2007|author=Encyclopedia Astronautica| archiveurl= http://web.archive.org/web/20071013100617/http://astronautix.com/astros/baudry.htm| archivedate= 13 October 2007 <!--DASHBot-->| deadurl= no}}</ref> In 1985, [[Saudi arabia|Saudi Arabian]] [[Sultan Salman al-Saud|Prince Sultan Bin Salman Bin AbdulAziz Al-Saud]] became the first Arab Muslim astronaut in space.<ref name="MC">{{cite web|url=http://www.jsc.nasa.gov/Bios/htmlbios/al-saud.html|title=Sultan Bin Salman Al-Saud Biography|accessdate=May 1, 2011 |publisher=NASA|year=2006|author=NASA| archiveurl= http://web.archive.org/web/20110525174947/http://www.jsc.nasa.gov/Bios/htmlbios/al-saud.html| archivedate= 25 May 2011 <!--DASHBot-->| deadurl= no}}</ref> In 1988, [[Abdul Ahad Mohmand]] became the first [[Afghanistan|Afghan]] to reach space, spending nine days aboard the [[Mir]] space station.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.spacefacts.de/bios/international/english/mohmand_abdol.htm|title=Biographies of International Astronauts|accessdate=August 11, 2007 |publisher=Space Facts|year=2007|author=Joachim Wilhelm Josef Becker and Heinz Hermann Janssen| archiveurl= http://web.archive.org/web/20070812133400/http://www.spacefacts.de/bios/international/english/mohmand_abdol.htm| archivedate= 12 August 2007 <!--DASHBot-->| deadurl= no}}</ref>
 
With the larger number of seats available on the Space Shuttle, the U.S. began taking international astronauts. In 1983, [[Ulf Merbold]] of West Germany became the first non-US citizen to fly in a US spacecraft. In 1984, [[Marc Garneau]] became the first of 8 [[Canadian astronauts]] to fly in space (through 2010).<ref>[http://www.asc-csa.gc.ca/eng/missions/default.asp Canadian Space Agency, retrieved October 9, 2010.]</ref>
In 1985, [[Rodolfo Neri Vela]] became the first Mexican-born person in space.<ref name="vela">{{cite web|url=http://www.jsc.nasa.gov/Bios/htmlbios/nerivela-r.html|title=Rodolfo Neri Vela (Ph.D.) Biography|accessdate=October 4, 2007 |publisher=NASA|year=1985|author=NASA| archiveurl= http://web.archive.org/web/20071027235759/http://www.jsc.nasa.gov/Bios/htmlbios/nerivela-r.html| archivedate= 27 October 2007 <!--DASHBot-->| deadurl= no}}</ref> In 1991, [[Helen Sharman]] became the first Briton to fly in space.<ref name="bbcsharmon">{{cite news|url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/may/18/newsid_2380000/2380649.stm|title=1991: Sharman becomes first Briton in space|accessdate=October 4, 2007 |publisher=BBC News|author=BBC News | date=May 18, 1991, 2005| archiveurl= http://web.archive.org/web/20070905072027/http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/may/18/newsid_2380000/2380649.stm| archivedate= 5 September 2007 <!--DASHBot-->| deadurl= no}}</ref>
In 2002, [[Mark Shuttleworth]] became the first citizen of an African country to fly in space, as a paying spaceflight participant.<ref name="mark">{{cite web|url=http://www.africaninspace.com/home/mission/logs/1/20020610.shtml|title=First African in Space|accessdate=October 4, 2007 |publisher=HBD|year=2002|author=africaninspace.com| archiveurl= http://web.archive.org/web/20071013043906/http://africaninspace.com/home/mission/logs/1/20020610.shtml| archivedate= 13 October 2007 <!--DASHBot-->| deadurl= no}}</ref> In 2003, [[Ilan Ramon]] became the first Israeli to fly in space, although he died during a [[Space Shuttle Columbia disaster|re-entry accident]].
Depending on the exact definition of 'civilian', the first civilian in space was either [[Valentina Tereshkova]]<ref name="Valentina Vladimirovna TERESHKOVA">{{cite web|url=http://www.adm.yar.ru/english/section.aspx?section_id=74|title=Valentina Vladimirovna TERESHKOVA}}</ref> aboard [[Vostok 6]] (she also became the first woman in space on that mission) or [[Joseph Albert Walker]]<ref name="Civilians in Space">{{cite web|url=http://www.fourmilab.ch/fourmilog/archives/2006-08/000736.html|title=Civilians in Space}}</ref><ref name="Space.com Joseph A Walker">{{cite web|url=http://www.space.com/adastra/adastra_joewalker_061127.html|title=Space.com Joseph A Walker}}</ref> on [[X-15 Flight 90]] a month later. Tereshkova was only honorarily inducted into the USSR's Air Force, which had no female pilots whatsoever at that time. Joe Walker had joined the US Army Air Force but was not a member during his flight. The first people in space who had never been a member of any country's armed forces were both [[Konstantin Feoktistov]] and [[Boris Yegorov]] aboard [[Voskhod 1]].
 
The first non-governmental space traveler was [[Byron K. Lichtenberg]], a researcher from the [[Massachusetts Institute of Technology]] who flew on [[STS-9]] in 1983.<ref name="lichten">{{cite web|url=http://www.jsc.nasa.gov/Bios/htmlbios/lichtenberg-bk.html|title=Byron K. Lichtenberg Biography|accessdate=October 4, 2007 |publisher=NASA|year=2002|author=NASA| archiveurl= http://web.archive.org/web/20070919000449/http://www.jsc.nasa.gov/Bios/htmlbios/lichtenberg-bk.html| archivedate= 19 September 2007 <!--DASHBot-->| deadurl= no}}</ref> In December 1990, [[Toyohiro Akiyama]] became the first paying space traveler as a reporter for [[Tokyo Broadcasting System]], a visit to [[Mir]] as part of an estimated $12 million ([[USD]]) deal with a Japanese TV station, although at the time, the term used to refer to Akiyama was "Research Cosmonaut".<ref name="smith">{{cite web|url=http://www.nasm.si.edu/exhibitions/GAL114/SpaceRace/sec500/sec535.htm|title=Paying for a Ride|accessdate=October 4, 2007 |publisher=Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum|year=2007|author=Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum| archiveurl= http://web.archive.org/web/20071026073942/http://www.nasm.si.edu/exhibitions/gal114/SpaceRace/sec500/sec535.htm| archivedate= 26 October 2007 <!--DASHBot-->| deadurl= no}}</ref><ref name="bbc1">{{cite news|url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/static/in_depth/sci_tech/2001/mir/1990.stm|title=Mir Space Station 1986–2001|accessdate=October 4, 2007 |publisher=BBC News|year=1990|author=BBC News}}</ref><ref name="de">{{cite web|url=http://www.spacefacts.de/bios/international/english/akiyama_toyohiro.htm|title=Akiyama|accessdate=October 4, 2007 |publisher=Spacefacts|year=1990|author=Spacefacts| archiveurl= http://web.archive.org/web/20070930033534/http://www.spacefacts.de/bios/international/english/akiyama_toyohiro.htm| archivedate= 30 September 2007 <!--DASHBot-->| deadurl= no}}</ref> Akiyama suffered severe [[space adaptation syndrome|space sickness]] during his mission, which affected his productivity.<ref name="bbc1"/>
 
The first self-funded [[space tourist]] was [[Dennis Tito]] on board the Russian spacecraft Soyuz TM-3 on 28 April 2001.
 
===Self-funded travelers===
{{Main|Astronaut Training}}
{{See also|Astronaut ranks and positions}}
The first NASA astronauts were selected for training in 1959.<ref name="comet">{{cite web|url=http://aerospacescholars.jsc.nasa.gov/HAS/cirr/ss/3/3.cfm|archiveurl=http://web.archive.org/web/20070819111027/http://aerospacescholars.jsc.nasa.gov/HAS/cirr/ss/3/3.cfm|archivedate=2007-08-19|title=Astronaut Candidate Training|accessdate=October 4, 2007 |publisher=NASA|year=2006|author=NASA}}</ref> Early in the space program, military jet test piloting and engineering training were often cited as prerequisites for selection as an astronaut at NASA, although neither John Glenn nor Scott Carpenter (of the [[Mercury Seven]]) had any university degree, in engineering or any other discipline at the time of their selection. Selection was initially limited to military pilots.<ref name="training">{{cite web|url=http://liftoff.msfc.nasa.gov/academy/astronauts/training.html|archiveurl=http://web.archive.org/web/20070910124735/http://liftoff.msfc.nasa.gov/academy/astronauts/training.html|archivedate=2007-09-10|title=Selection and Training of Astronauts|accessdate=October 4, 2007 |publisher=NASA|year=1995|author=NASA}}</ref><ref name="nolen">{{cite book |author=Nolen, Stephanie |title=Promised The Moon: The Untold Story of the First Women in the Space Race |publisher=Penguin Canada |location=Toronto |year=2002 |page=235 |isbn=0-14-301347-5}}</ref> The earliest astronauts for both America and the USSR tended to be [[fighter aircraft|jet fighter]] pilots, and were often test pilots.
 
Once selected, NASA astronauts go through twenty months of training in a variety of areas, including training for [[extra-vehicular activity]] in a facility such as NASA's [[Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory]].<ref name="fact"/><ref name="training"/> Astronauts-in-training may also experience short periods of [[weightlessness]] in aircraft called the "[[vomit comet]]", the nickname given to a pair of modified [[KC-135]]s (retired in 2000 and 2004 respectively, and replaced in 2005 with a [[McDonnell Douglas C-9|C-9]]) which perform [[Parabola|parabolic]] flights.<ref name="comet"/> Astronauts are also required to accumulate a number of flight hours in high-performance jet aircraft. This is mostly done in [[T-38 Talon|T-38 jet aircraft]] out of [[Ellington Field]], due to its proximity to the [[Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center|Johnson Space Center]]. Ellington Field is also where the [[Shuttle Training Aircraft]] is maintained and developed, although most flights of the aircraft are done out of [[Edwards Air Force Base]].
 
===NASA candidacy requirements===
* Height must be 5&nbsp;ft 2 in to 6&nbsp;ft 2 in (1.58 to 1.88 m).
* Distant visual acuity must be correctable to 20/20 in each eye.
*The refractive surgical procedures of the eye, PRK ([[Photorefractive keratectomy]]) and [[LASIK]], are now allowed, providing at least 1 year has passed since the date of the procedure with no permanent adverse aftereffects. For those applicants under final consideration, an operative report on the surgical procedure will be requested.
 
====Mission Specialist====
 
==Insignia==
In Russia, cosmonauts are awarded [[Pilot-Cosmonaut of the Russian Federation]] upon completion of their missions, often accompanied with the award of [[Hero of the Russian Federation]]. This follows the practice established in the Soviet Union.
 
At NASA, those who complete astronaut candidate training receive a silver [[Astronaut Badge#NASA Astronaut Pins|lapel pin]]. Once they have flown in space, they receive a gold pin. U.S. astronauts who also have active-duty military status receive a special qualification badge, known as the [[Astronaut Badge]], after participation on a spaceflight. The [[United States Air Force]] also presents an Astronaut Badge to its pilots who exceed {{convert|50|mi|km}} in altitude.
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