"జిహాద్" కూర్పుల మధ్య తేడాలు

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{{అనువాదము}}
జిహాద్ (Jihad) అనగా ఆశయ సాధన కోసం శక్తివంచన లేకుండా నిర్విరామంగా కృషి చేయడం, పోరాడటం. దీన్ని కొంతవరకూ స్ట్రగుల్ అనే ఆంగ్ల పదంతో పోల్చవచ్చు. ఇంకా విసృతంగావిస్తృతంగా చెప్పాలంటే నిరంతరం ఆశయాన్నే దృష్టిలో పెట్టుకొని దాని కోసం పధకాలు రూపొందిచడం, వాక్కు , వ్రాతల ద్వారా ప్రచారం చేయడం, అందుబాటులో ఉండే వనరులన్నీ వినియోగించుకోవడం, అనివార్యమైతే ఆయుధం చేపట్టి పోరాడటం, అవసరమైతే ఆ మార్గంలో ప్రాణాలు సైతం ధారబోయడం - ఇవన్నీ జిహాద్ క్రిందికే వస్తాయి. దైవ ప్రసన్నత పొందే సత్సంకల్పంతో ధర్మ పరిరక్షణ కోసం హింసా దౌర్జన్యాలను అరికట్టేందుకు చేసే ఇలాంటి పోరాటాన్ని 'జిహాద్ ఫీ సబిలిల్లాహ్' (దైవ మార్గంలో పోరాటం) అందురు. <ref>ఖురాన్ భావామృతం - అబుల్ ఇర్ఫాన్ , పబ్లిషర్ష్ - ఇస్లామిచ్ రీసెర్చ్ సెంటర్, హైదరాబాద్</ref> [[ఇస్లాం మతం]]లో నాల్గవ స్థంభముస్తంభము జిహాద్. దీనిని గురించి పవిత్ర ఖురాన్ లో ఈ క్రింది విధంగా చెప్పబడింది.
 
*మీతో పోరాడే వారితో మీరు దైవ మార్గంలో పోరాడండి. అయితే హద్దు మీరకూడదు. హద్దు మీరి ప్రవర్తించేవారిని దేవుడు ఎన్నటికీ ప్రేమించడు. వారు మీకు ఎక్కడ ఎదురైనా సరే పోరాడండి. వారు మిమ్మల్ని ఎక్కడనుండి వెళ్ళగొట్టారో ఆక్కడనుండి మీరూ వారిని వెళ్ళగొట్టండి. హత్య తీవ్రమైన విషయమేగాని హింసా పీడనలు అంతకంటే తీవ్రమైన విషయాలు. వారు ప్రతిష్టాలయం దగ్గర మీతో పోరాడనంత వరకూ మీరు కూడా వారితో పోరాడకండి. అయితే వారు అక్కడా కయ్యానికి కాలు దువ్వితే మీరు కూడా వారిని నిస్సంకోచంగా ఎదుర్కొని హతమార్చండి. సత్య తిరస్కారులకు ఇదే తగిన శిక్ష. (సురా 2: 190, 191)
 
*మీతో పోరాడే వారితో మీరు దైవ మార్గంలో పోరాడండి. అయితే హద్దు మీరకూడదు. హద్దు మీరి ప్రవర్తించేవారిని దేవుడు ఎన్నటికీ ప్రేమించడు. వారు మీకు ఎక్కడ ఎదురైనా సరే పోరాడండి. వారు మిమ్మల్ని ఎక్కడనుండి వెళ్ళగొట్టారో ఆక్కడనుండి మీరూ వారిని వెళ్ళగొట్టండి. హత్య తీవ్రమైన విషయమేగాని హింసా పీడనలు అంతకంటే తీవ్రమైన విషయాలు. వారు ప్రతిష్టాలయంప్రతిష్ఠాలయం దగ్గర మీతో పోరాడనంత వరకూ మీరు కూడా వారితో పోరాడకండి. అయితే వారు అక్కడా కయ్యానికి కాలు దువ్వితే మీరు కూడా వారిని నిస్సంకోచంగా ఎదుర్కొని హతమార్చండి. సత్య తిరస్కారులకు ఇదే తగిన శిక్ష. (సురా 2: 190, 191)
*పవిత్ర మాసాలు ముగిసిపోగానే విగ్రహారాధికులను యుద్ధంలో ఎక్కడ ఎదురైతే అక్కడ వధించండి. వారిని పట్టుకోండి. వారిని చుట్టుముట్టండి. వారి కోసం అనువైన ప్రతిచోటా మాటువేసి కూర్చోండి. ఒకవేళ వారు క్షమాణ చెప్పుకొని [[నమాజ్]], జకాత విధులు పాటించడం ప్రారంభిస్తే వారిని వదిలిపెట్టండి. (సురా 9:5)
 
'''జిహాద్''' (ఆంగ్లం :'''Jihad''' : అరబ్బీ :جهاد ), ఒక ఇస్లామీయ పదజాలము (అరబ్బీ పదజాలము). జిహాద్ లో పాల్గొనువారిని "ముజాహిద్" (ఏకవచనం) లేదా "ముజాహిదీన్" (బహువచనం) అని పిలుస్తారు.
 
;జిహాద్ లు రెండు రకాలు
; 1. జిహాద్-ఎ-కుబ్రా : మనలోని మంచి చెడు ల మధ్య జరిగే అంతర్గతపోరాటం
; 2. జిహాద్-ఎ-సొగ్రా : మన చుట్టూ జరిగే చెడును నివారించటంకోసం చేసే బహిర్గత పోరాటం.
 
==పద ఉపయోగం ==
జిహాద్ అనే పదము ముస్లిం సమాజములో ఒక సాధారణ పదము, కానీ ప్రపంచవ్యాప్తంగా ఈ పదము ''ఇస్లాం కొరకు "పవిత్ర యుద్ధం"'' (holy war on behalf of Islam) అనే భావంతో ఉపయోగింపబడుచున్నది.<ref name="firestone"/> విశాల దృష్టితో చూసిన యెడల, ఈ పదము, హింస మరియు అహింస అనే రెండు భావనలనూ కలిగివున్నది. దీని సాధారణ అర్థం " దైనందిన జీవితంలో చెడు, అన్యాయం మరియు అణగార్పుకు వ్యతిరేకంగా పోరాడుతూ, ఇస్లామిక్ విలువలతో గూడిన స్వచ్ఛమైన సాధారణ జీవితం గడిపే విధము" <ref>Esposito (2002a), p.26</ref> అయిననూ ఈ పదము చర్చనీయాంశముగానూ వివాదాస్పదం గానూ వున్నదిఉంది.
 
===జిహాద్-ఎ-కుబ్రా (పెద్ద జిహాద్)===
Within Islamic belief, Muhammad is said to have regarded the inner struggle for faith the "greater jihad", prioritizing it over physical fighting in defense of the [[Ummah]], or members of the global Islamic community.<ref>{{cite web | url=http://www.bbc.co.uk/religion/religions/islam/beliefs/jihad_2.shtml | title=BBC - Religion & Ethics - Jihad: The internal Jihad | accessdate=2007-01-09}}</ref> One famous [[hadith]] has the prophet saying: "We have returned from the lesser jihad (battle) to the greater jihad (jihad of the soul)."<ref>[http://www.religioscope.com/info/doc/jihad/azzam_caravan_6_conclusion.htm JOIN THE CARAVAN Imam Abdullah Azzam]</ref> Muslim scholar Mahmoud Ayoub states that "The goal of true ''jihad'' is to attain a harmony between ''islam'' (submission), ''[[iman]]'' (faith), and ''[[ihsan]]'' (righteous living)."<ref>Mahmoud M. Ayoub, ''Islam: Faith and History'', pp. 68-69)</ref> Greater jihad can be compared to the struggle that Christians refer to as "resisting sin", i.e. fighting temptation, doubt, disbelief, or detraction. The greater jihad is about holding fast against any ideas and practices that run contrary to the Muhammad's revelations (Qur'an), sayings ([[Hadith]]) and the examples set by how he lived his life ([[Sunnah]]). This concept of jihad has does not correspond to any military action.
 
In [[Literary Arabic|Modern Standard Arabic]], ''jihad'' is one of the correct terms for a struggle for any cause, violent or not, religious or [[secularism|secular]] (though كفاح ''kifāḥ'' is also used).{{Fact|date=February 2008}} For instance, [[Mahatma Gandhi]]'s struggle for [[Indian independence]] is called a "jihad" in [[Arabic language|Modern Standard Arabic]] (as well as many other dialects of Arabic); the terminology is applied to the fight for [[feminism|women's liberation]].<ref> {{cite book | last = Al-Batal | first = Mahmoud | coauthors = Kristen Brustad, and Abbas Al-Tonsi | title = Al-Kitaab fii Ta<sup>c</sup>llum al-<sup>c</sup>Arabiyya, Part II | edition = 2 | year = 2006 | month = | publisher = Georgetown University Press | location = Washington, DC | language = Arabic, English | isbn = 978-1-58901-096-3 | chapter = 6-"من رائدات الحركة النسائية العربية" (One of the Pioneers of the Arabic Feminist Movement) | quote= To struggle or exert oneself for a cause........جاهََدَ، يجاهِد، الجهاد | ref = }}</ref>
 
In modern times, [[Pakistan]]i scholar and professor [[Fazlur Rahman Malik]] has used the term to describe the struggle to establish "just moral-social order",<ref>Fazlur Rahman, ''Major Themes of the Qur'an'', (Minneapolis: Bibliotheca Islamica, 1980), pp. 63-64.</ref> while President [[Habib Bourguiba]] of [[Tunisia]] has used it to describe the struggle for economic development in that country.<ref>Rudolph Peters, ''Jihad in Classical and Modern Islam'' (Princeton, N.J.: Markus Weiner, 1996), pp. 116-17</ref>
===జిహాద్-ఎ-సొగ్రా (జిహాద్ బిల్ సైఫ్)===
[[Image:Taheri-azar letter.jpg|thumb|right|A part of Meditation II from [[Mohammed Reza Taheri-azar]]'s justification for his [[terrorist]] attack at the [[University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill]]. Meditation II has appeared on numerous websites critical of Islam.]]
Within [[fiqh|Islamic jurisprudence]] jihad is the only form of warfare permissible under [[Sharia|Islamic law]], and may be declared against [[Apostasy|apostates]], rebels, highway robbers, violent groups, non-Islamic leaders or non-Muslim combatants, but there are other ways to perform jihad as well, including [[civil disobedience]]. The primary aim of jihad as warfare is not the conversion of non-Muslims to Islam by force, but rather the expansion and defense of the [[Islamic state]].<ref name="firestone"/><ref name=autogenerated5 /><ref name="JPeters">R. Peters (1977), pp.3-5</ref><ref name="firestone"/>
 
In the classical manuals of Islamic jurisprudence, the [[Rules of war in Islam|rules associated with armed warfare]] are covered at great length.<ref name="JPeters"/> Such rules include not killing women, children and non-combatants, as well as not damaging cultivated or residential areas.<ref>{{cite web | author=Maududi | title=Human Rights in Islam, Chapter Four | url=http://www.witness-pioneer.org/vil/Books/M_hri/index.htm#CHAPTER%20FOUR:%20RIGHTS%20OF%20ENEMIES%20AT%20WAR | accessdate=2006-01-09}}</ref> More recently, modern Muslims have tried to re-interpret the Islamic sources, stressing that Jihad is essentially defensive warfare aimed at protecting Muslims and Islam.<ref name="JPeters"/> Although [[Opinion of Islamic scholars on Jihad|some Islamic scholars have differed on the implementation of Jihad]], there is consensus amongst them that the concept of jihad will always include armed struggle against persecution and oppression.<ref name="jihad">{{cite book | last = Ghamidi | first = Javed | authorlink = Javed Ahmed Ghamidi | title = [[Mizan]] | publisher = [[Al-Mawrid|Dar ul-Ishraq]] |chapter=[http://www.studying-islam.org/articletext.aspx?id=771 The Islamic Law of Jihad] | year = 2001 | doi = | {{OCLC|52901690}} }}</ref>
|month=October | year=2005
|publisher=[[Human Rights Watch]]
|accessdate=2007-01-17 }}</ref> [[Terrorist]] attacks like that of [[September 11 attacks|September 11, 2001]], which was planned and executed by radical [[Islamic fundamentalism|Islamic fundamentalists]], have not been sanctioned by more [[centrism|centrist]] groups of Muslims.<ref> John K. Roth, ''Ethics'', p.775</ref>
This kind of terrorism has been condemned by Muslims all around the world.<ref>see e.g. [http://groups.colgate.edu/aarislam/response.htm], [http://www.unc.edu/~kurzman/terror.htm] and [http://home.wlu.edu/~lubint/islamonWTC.htm]</ref><ref>{{cite news|url=http://atimes.com/atimes/South_Asia/JJ10Df01.html|title=Making a mockery of jihad|author=Asghar Ali Engineer |date=October 10, 2008 |publisher=Asia Times|quote= Recent terror attacks in India and abroad have created an impression that jihad is central to Koranic teaching. First of all, as we have asserted repeatedly, jihad does not mean war in the Koran as there are other words for it like qital and harb. Jihad has been used in the Koran in its root meaning: to strive for betterment of society, to spread goodness (maruf) and contain evil (munkar). | accessdate=2008-10-10}}</ref>
 
[[Spain in the Middle Ages|Medieval Spain]] was the scene of almost constant [[warfare]] between Muslims and Christians. Periodic raiding expeditions were sent from [[Al-Andalus]] to ravage the Christian [[Iberia]]n kingdoms, bringing back treasure and [[slave]]s. In raid against [[Lisbon]] in 1189, for example, the [[Almohad]] caliph [[Yaqub al-Mansur]] took 3,000 female and child captives, while his governor of [[Córdoba, Spain|Córdoba]], in a subsequent attack upon [[Silves]] in 1191, took 3,000 Christian slaves.<ref>[http://libro.uca.edu/rc/rc1.htm Ransoming Captives in Crusader Spain: The Order of Merced on the Christian-Islamic Frontier]</ref>
 
The [[Almohad Dynasty]] (From [[Arabic]] الموحدون ''[[Al-Muwahhidūn|al-Muwahhidun]]'', i.e. "[[monotheist|the monotheists]]" or "the [[Wahhabism|Unitarians]]"), was a [[Berber people|Berber]], Muslim dynasty that was founded in the 12th century, and conquered all [[Northern Africa]] as far as [[Libya]], together with [[Al-Andalus]] ([[Moors|Moorish]] [[Iberian peninsula|Spain]]). The Almohads, who declared an everlasting Jihad against the Christians, far surpassed the [[Almoravides]] in fundamentalist outlook, and they treated the ''dhimmis'' harshly.<ref>[http://www.myjewishlearning.com/history_community/Medieval/IntergroupTO/JewishMuslim/Almohads.htm The Almohads]</ref> Faced with the choice of either death or conversion, many [[Jew]]s and Christians emigrated.<ref name=frank>Frank and Leaman, 2003, p. 137-138.</ref><ref>[http://www.theforgottenrefugees.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=66&Itemid=39 The Forgotten Refugees]</ref> Some, such as the family of [[Maimonides]], fled east to more tolerant Muslim lands,<ref name=frank/> while others went northward to settle in the growing Christian kingdoms.<ref>[http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Judaism/Sephardim.html Sephardim]</ref><ref> Kraemer, 2005, pp. 16-17.</ref>
 
===భారత ఉపఖండం===
[[Sir Jadunath Sarkar]] contends that several Muslim invaders were waging a systematic Jihad against [[Hindu]]s in [[India]] to the effect that "Every device short of massacre in cold blood was resorted to in order to convert heathen subjects."<ref> {{cite book |last=Sarkar |first= Jadunath |authorlink=Jadunath Sarkar |title=How the Muslims forcibly converted the Hindus of India, Pakistan and Bangladesh to Islam }}</ref> In particular the records kept by al-Utbi, [[Mahmud Ghazni|Mahmud al-Ghazni]]'s secretary, in the Tarikh-i-Yamini document several episodes of bloody military campaigns. In 1527, [[Babur]] ordered a Jihad against [[Rajput]]s at the [[battle of Khanwa]]. Publicly addressing his men, he declared the forthcoming battle a Jihad. His soldiers were facing a non-Muslim army for the first time ever. This, he said, was their chance to become either a ''Ghazi'' (soldier of Islam) or a ''Shaheed'' (Martyr of Islam). The [[Mughal Empire|Mughal]] emperor [[Aurangzeb]] waged a Jihad against those identified as heterodox within India's Islamic community, such as [[Shi'a]] Muslims.<ref> [http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1G1-98572377.html The Shade of Swords Jihad and the Conflict between Islam and Christianity M. J. Akbar]</ref><ref>K. S. Lal: ''[[Growth of Muslim Population in Medieval India]]'', 1973</ref>
 
===తైమూర్ లంగ్===
In response to the [[Hazara people|Hazara]] uprising of 1892, the Afghan Emir [[Abdur Rahman]] declared a "Jihad" against the [[Shiites]]. The large army defeated the rebellion at its center, in [[Oruzgan]], by 1892 and the local population was severely massacred. According to S. A. Mousavi, ''"thousands of Hazara men, women, and children were sold as slaves in the markets of Kabul and Qandahar, while numerous towers of human heads were made from the defeated rebels as a warning to others who might challenge the rule of the Amir"''. Until the 20th century, some Hazaras were still kept as slaves by the [[Pashtun]]s; although [[Amanullah Khan]] banned [[slavery]] in Afghanistan during his reign,<ref>[http://www.afghangovernment.com/Constitution1923.htm Afghan Constitution: 1923]</ref> the tradition carried on unofficially for many more years.<ref>[http://www.afghanmagazine.com/2004_06/articles/hsadat.shtml Afghan History: kite flying, kite running and kite banning By Mir Hekmatullah Sadat]</ref>
 
The [[First Anglo-Afghan War]] (1838–42) was one of Britain’s most ill-advised and disastrous wars. [[William Brydon]] was the sole survivor of the invading British army of 16,500 soldiers and civilians.<ref>[http://www.britishbattles.com/first-afghan-war/kabul-gandamak.htm First Afghan War - Battle of Kabul and Retreat to Gandamak]</ref> As in the earlier [[Invasions of Afghanistan|wars against the British]] and [[Soviet war in Afghanistan|Soviets]], Afghan resistance to the [[Invasions_of_AfghanistanInvasions of Afghanistan#American_invasionAmerican invasion|American invaders]] took the traditional form of a Muslim holy war against the infidels.<ref>[http://www.canada.com/edmontonjournal/news/opinion/story.html?id=1db342f6-7872-4c39-8410-81ad3a916908&k=25970 Reason to hope Canadians don't repeat history in Afghanistan], Alan G. Jamieson, The Edmonton Journal, July 31 2006</ref> During September 2002, the remnants of the [[Taliban]] forces began a recruitment drive in [[Pashtun people|Pashtun]] areas in both [[Afghanistan]] and [[Pakistan]] to launch a renewed "jihad" or holy war against the pro-Western Afghan government and the U.S-led coalition. [[Pamphlet]]s distributed in secret during the night also began to appear in many villages in the former Taliban heartland in southeastern Afghanistan that called for jihad.<ref>{{cite web|title= Leaflet War Rages in Afghan Countryside|author=|publisher=[[Associated Press]]|date=2003-02-14|url=http://www.intellnet.org/news/2003/02/14/16788-1.html|accessdate=2007-02-28}}</ref> Small mobile training camps were established along the border with Pakistan by al-Qaeda and Taliban fugitives to train new recruits in [[guerrilla warfare]] and [[terrorism|terrorist tactics]], according to Afghan sources and a United Nations report.<ref>{{cite web|title=Taliban regroups - on the road|author=Tohid, Owias|publisher=[[Christian Science Monitor]]|date=2003-06-27|url=http://www.csmonitor.com/2003/0627/p06s01-wosc.html?related |accessdate=2007-02-28}}</ref>
 
Most of the new recruits were drawn from the [[madrassa]]s or religious schools of the tribal areas of Pakistan, from which the Taliban had originally arisen. As of 2008, the [[insurgency]], in the form of a [[War in Afghanistan (2001–present)|Taliban guerrilla war]], continues.
** "As used in this First Superseding Indictment, 'Jihad' is the Arabic word meaning 'holy war'. In this context, jihad refers to the use of violence, including paramilitary action against persons, governments deemed to be enemies of the fundamentalist version of Islam."<ref>http://www.milnet.com/2nd-indictment-hayat-dist-court.pdf</ref>
** "As used in this Superseding Indictment, 'violent jihad' or 'jihad' include planning, preparing for, and engaging in, acts of physical violence, including murder, maiming, kidnapping, and hostage-taking."<ref>http://news.findlaw.com/hdocs/docs/padilla/uspad111705ind.pdf</ref> in the indictment against several individuals including [[José Padilla (prisoner)|José Padilla]].
* ''[[:en:Muhammad: a Biography of the Prophet (book)|''ముహమ్మద్: ప్రవక్త జీవిత గాధగాథ]]'' లో, బి.ఎ. రాబిన్సన్ అనే రచయిత్రి ఇలా వ్రాశారు:
 
* ''[[:en:Muhammad: a Biography of the Prophet (book)|''ముహమ్మద్: ప్రవక్త జీవిత గాధ]]'' లో, బి.ఎ. రాబిన్సన్ అనే రచయిత్రి ఇలా వ్రాశారు:
 
:"పోరాటం మరియు యుద్ధం కొన్ని సార్లు అనివార్యమౌతుంది, కాని, జిహాద్ లేదా సంఘర్షణలో ఇదొక చిన్న భాగమే" ("Fighting and warfare might sometimes be necessary, but it was only a minor part of the whole jihad or struggle.")<ref name="Robinson">{{cite web |url=http://www.religioustolerance.org/isl_jihad.htm |title= The Concept of Jihad "Struggle" in Islam |dateformat= mdy |accessdate=August 16 2006 |author= B.A. Robinson |authorlink= |coauthors= |date= 2003-03-28 |format= HTML |publisher= Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance |archiveurl= |archivedate=}}</ref>
 
* [[:en:Maxime Rodinson|Maxime Rodinson]], an [[Orientalism|Orientalist]], wrote that "Jihad is a propagandistic device which, as need be, resorts to armed struggle &ndash; two ingredients common to many ideological movements."<ref>Maxime Rodinson. ''Muhammad''. Random House, Inc., New York, 2002. p. 351.</ref>
 
* In English-speaking countries, especially the [[United States]], the term '''jihadist''', technically a derogatory term for [[mujahid]], is frequently used to describe [[militant Islam]]ic groups, including but not restricted to [[Islamic terrorism]].
 
 
== ఇతర పఠనాలు ==
* ''Djihad'' in: ''[[:en:The_Encyclopaedia_of_IslamThe Encyclopaedia of Islam#2nd_edition2nd edition.2C_EI22C EI2|ఇస్లాం ఎన్‌సైక్లోపీడియా]]''.
* Alfred Morabia, Le Ğihâd dans l’Islâm médiéval. “Le combat sacré” des origines au XIIe siècle, Albin Michel, Paris 1993
* [[:en:Rudolph Peters|Rudolph Peters]]: ''Jihad in Classical and Modern Islam''
* Nicola Melis, “A Hanafi treatise on rebellion and ğihād in the Ottoman age (XVII c.)”, in ''Eurasian Studies'', Istituto per l’Oriente/Newham College, Roma-Napoli-Cambridge, Volume II; Number 2 (December 2003), pp. 215-226&nbsp;215–226.
* [[:en:Rudolph Peters|రుడాల్ఫ్ పీటర్]], ''Islam and Colonialism: The Doctrine of Jihad in Modern History'', “Religion and Society”, Mouton, The Hague 1979.
* [[:en:Andrew G. Bostom, ed.]]: "[[The Legacy of Jihad]]: Islamic Holy War and the Fate of Non-Muslims"
*{{cite news|url=http://atimes.com/atimes/South_Asia/JJ10Df01.html|title=Making a mockery of jihad|author=Asghar Ali Engineer |date=October 10, 2008 |publisher=Asia Times|accessdate=2008-10-10}}
*[http://forums.sunnahinspirations.org/index.php?topic=89.msg252#msg252 Explaining the Concept of Jihad]
 
 
 
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