"వ్యోమగామి" కూర్పుల మధ్య తేడాలు

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అనువాదం కాని ఆంగ్ల భాగం తొలగింపు
(-వర్గం)
ట్యాగు: 2017 source edit
(అనువాదం కాని ఆంగ్ల భాగం తొలగింపు)
వ్యోమగామి ని అమెరికన్లు "ఆస్ట్రోనాట్" అని, రష్యన్ లు "కాస్మోనాట్" అని అంటారు. రోదసీయాత్ర "శూన్యం" లో యాత్ర. కావున రోదసీ యాత్రీకులకు ప్రత్యేకమైన శిక్షణ అవసరం. వీరి దుస్తులు, ఆహారపుటలవాట్లు, శారీరకశ్రమ అన్నీ రోదసీలో ప్రయాణించుటకు తగినట్లుగా వుంటాయి. ప్రపంచంలోనే ప్రథమ రోదసీ యాత్రికుడు [[యూరీ గగారిన్]], (1961) రష్యాకు చెందినవాడు. భారత మొదటి వ్యోమగామి [[రాకేశ్ శర్మ]] (1984).
[[దస్త్రం:Astronaut-EVA.jpg|thumb|250px|1984లో తీయబడిన ఒక వ్యోమగామి ఛాయాచిత్రం]]
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[[File:Astronaut-EVA.jpg|thumb|250px|Astronaut [[Bruce McCandless II]] using a [[Manned Maneuvering Unit]] outside the United States [[Space Shuttle]] ''[[Space Shuttle Challenger|Challenger]]'' in 1984.]]
<!--*** DO NOT ADD "TAIKONAUT", "SPATIONAUT" ETC. TO INTRO SECTION - SEE TALK PAGE ***-->
An '''astronaut''' or '''cosmonaut''' is a person trained by a [[List of human spaceflight programs|human spaceflight program]] to command, pilot, or serve as a crew member of a [[spacecraft]].
While generally reserved for professional space travelers, the terms are sometimes applied to anyone who travels into space, including scientists, politicians, journalists, and tourists.<ref name="fact">{{cite web|url=http://spaceflight.nasa.gov/spacenews/factsheets/pdfs/astro.pdf|title=Astronaut Fact Book|accessdate=October 4, 2007 |publisher=[[NASA|National Aeronautics and Space Administration]]|year=2006|author=[[NASA]]|format=PDF| archiveurl= http://web.archive.org/web/20070926023336/http://spaceflight.nasa.gov/spacenews/factsheets/pdfs/astro.pdf| archivedate= 26 September 2007 <!--DASHBot-->| deadurl= no}}</ref><ref name="utah">{{cite web|url=http://www.utahstatesman.com/campus_news/1.563784|title=Former astronaut visits USU|accessdate=October 4, 2007 |publisher=The Utah Statesman|year=2005|author=Marie MacKay}}</ref>
 
Until 2002, astronauts were sponsored and trained exclusively by governments, either by the military, or by civilian space agencies. With the sub-orbital flight of the privately funded [[Scaled Composites SpaceShipOne|SpaceShipOne]] in 2004, a new category of astronaut was created: the [[commercial astronaut]].
 
==Definition==
The criteria for what constitutes human [[human spaceflight|spaceflight]] vary. The [[Fédération Aéronautique Internationale]] (FAI) Sporting Code for astronautics recognizes only flights that exceed an [[Edge of space|altitude of {{convert|100|km|mi|sp=us}}]].<ref>[ftp://www.fai.org/sporting_code/sc08_20012.pdf FAI Sporting Code, Section 8, Paragraph 2.12.1]</ref> In the United States, professional, military, and commercial astronauts who travel above an altitude of {{convert|50|mi|km}}<ref>[http://www.nasa.gov/centers/dryden/news/NewsReleases/2005/05-57.html NASA – X-15 Space Pioneers Now Honored as Astronauts<!-- Bot generated title -->]</ref> are awarded [[Astronaut Badge|astronaut wings]].
 
As of June 20, 2011, a total of 654 people from [[Timeline of space travel by nationality|38 countries]]<ref>Counting [[Anousheh Ansari]] as a representative of Iran.</ref> have reached {{convert|100|km|0|abbr=on}} or more in altitude, of which 520 reached [[low Earth orbit]] or beyond.<ref name="CBSQL">{{cite web|url=http://www.cbsnews.com/network/news/space/democurrent.html|title=Current Space Demographics|accessdate=September 27, 2009 |publisher=CBS News|year=2009|author=William Harwood}}</ref><ref name="astr">{{cite web|url=http://www.astronautix.com/articles/womspace.htm|title=Women of Space |accessdate=October 4, 2007 |publisher=Encyclopedia Astronautica|year=2007|author=Encyclopedia Astronautica| archiveurl= http://web.archive.org/web/20071018022814/http://www.astronautix.com/articles/womspace.htm| archivedate= 18 October 2007 <!--DASHBot-->| deadurl= no}}</ref>
Of these, [[List of Apollo astronauts|24 people]] have traveled beyond Low Earth orbit, to either lunar or trans-lunar orbit or to the surface of the moon; three of the 24 did so twice: [[Jim Lovell]], [[John Watts Young|John Young]] and [[Eugene Cernan]].<ref name="hundred">{{cite web|url=http://www-pao.ksc.nasa.gov/kscpao/factoids/hundred.htm|title=NASA's First 100 Human Space Flights|accessdate=October 4, 2007 |publisher=NASA|author=NASA |archiveurl = http://web.archive.org/web/20070827140010/http://www-pao.ksc.nasa.gov/kscpao/factoids/hundred.htm <!-- Bot retrieved archive --> |archivedate = August 27, 2007}}</ref> The three astronauts who have not reached low Earth orbit are [[spaceplane]] pilots [[Joseph A. Walker|Joe Walker]], [[Mike Melvill]], and [[Brian Binnie]].
 
Under the U.S. definition, as of June 20, 2011, 529 people qualify as having reached space, above {{convert|50|mi|km}} altitude. Of eight [[X-15]] pilots who exceeded {{convert|50|mi|km}} in altitude, only one exceeded 100 kilometers (about 62 miles).<ref name="stats">{{cite web|url=http://www.astronautix.com/articles/aststics.htm|title=Astronaut Statistics – as of 14 November 2008|accessdate=October 4, 2007 |publisher=Encyclopedia Astronautica|year=2007|author=Encyclopedia Astronautica| archiveurl= http://web.archive.org/web/20070930195311/http://www.astronautix.com/articles/aststics.htm| archivedate= 30 September 2007 <!--DASHBot-->| deadurl= no}}</ref>
Space travelers have spent over 30,400 [[Man hour|man-days]] (83 man-years) in space, including over 100 astronaut-days of [[Extra-vehicular activity|spacewalks]].<ref name="stats"/><ref name="void">{{cite web|url=http://www.nasa.gov/vision/space/workinginspace/eva_stats.html|title=Walking in the Void|accessdate=October 4, 2007 |publisher=NASA|year=2004|author=NASA}}</ref>
As of 2008, the man with the longest cumulative time in space is [[Sergei Krikalev|Sergei K. Krikalev]], who has spent 803 days, 9 hours and 39 minutes, or 2.2 years, in space.<ref name="skk">{{cite web|url=http://www.jsc.nasa.gov/Bios/htmlbios/krikalev.html|title=Sergei Konstantinovich Krikalev Biography|accessdate=October 4, 2007 | publisher=NASA| year=2005| author=NASA| archiveurl= http://web.archive.org/web/20071031135208/http://www.jsc.nasa.gov/Bios/htmlbios/krikalev.html| archivedate= 31 October 2007 <!--DASHBot-->| deadurl= no}}</ref><ref name="skk2">{{cite web |url=http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/expeditions/expedition11/krikalev_record.html| title=Krikalev Sets Time-in-Space Record| accessdate=October 4, 2007 |publisher=NASA|year=2005 |author=NASA | archiveurl= http://web.archive.org/web/20070910020401/http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/expeditions/expedition11/krikalev_record.html| archivedate= 10 September 2007 <!--DASHBot-->| deadurl= no}}</ref>
[[Peggy Whitson|Peggy A. Whitson]] holds the record for the most time in space by a woman, 377 days.<ref name="paw">{{cite web | url = http://www.jsc.nasa.gov/Bios/htmlbios/whitson.html | title = Peggy A. Whitson (Ph.D.) | work = Biographical Data | publisher = [[NASA|National Aeronautics and Space Administration]] | author=NASA| accessdate = 2008-05-13| archiveurl= http://web.archive.org/web/20080509130749/http://www.jsc.nasa.gov/Bios/htmlbios/whitson.html| archivedate= 9 May 2008 <!--DASHBot-->| deadurl= no}}</ref>
 
==Terminology==
{{See also|Astronaut ranks and positions}}
 
===English===
In the United States, Canada, Ireland, the United Kingdom, and many other English-speaking nations, a professional space traveler is called an ''astronaut''.<ref>[http://www.thespacerace.com/glossary/index.php?term=54 TheSpaceRace.com – Glossary of Space Exploration Terminology<!-- Bot generated title -->]</ref> The term derives from the Greek words ''ástron'' (ἄστρον), meaning "star", and ''nautes'' (ναύτης), meaning "sailor". The first known use of the term "astronaut" in the modern sense was by [[Neil R. Jones]] in his short story "The Death's Head Meteor" in 1930. The word itself had been known earlier. For example, in [[Percy Greg]]'s 1880 book ''Across the Zodiac'', "astronaut" referred to a spacecraft. In ''Les Navigateurs de l'Infini'' (1925) of [[J.-H. Rosny aîné]], the word ''astronautique'' (astronautic) was used. The word may have been inspired by "aeronaut", an older term for an air traveler first applied (in 1784) to [[balloon (aircraft)|balloon]]ists. An early use in a non-fiction publication is [[Eric Frank Russell]]'s poem "The Astronaut" in the November 1934 ''Bulletin of the [[British Interplanetary Society]]''.<ref>Ingham, John L.: ''Into Your Tent'', Plantech (2010): page 82.</ref>
 
The first known formal use of the term [[astronautics]] in the scientific community was the establishment of the annual [[International Astronautical Congress]] in 1950 and the subsequent founding of the [[International Astronautical Federation]] the following year.<ref name="IAFpage">{{cite web | last = |first = | title = IAF History | publisher = [[International Astronautical Federation]] |author=IAF |date = 2010-08-16| url = http://www.iafastro.org/index.html?title=History| accessdate = 2010-08-16 }}</ref>
 
[[NASA]] applies the term astronaut to any crew member aboard NASA spacecraft bound for Earth orbit or beyond. NASA also uses the term as a title for those selected to join its [[NASA Astronaut Corps|Astronaut Corps]].<ref name="biopage">{{cite web | last = Dismukes |first = Kim – NASA Biography Page Curator | title = Astronaut Biographies | publisher = [[Johnson Space Center]],NASA |author=NASA|date = 2005-12-15| url = http://www.jsc.nasa.gov/Bios/| accessdate = 2007-03-06 | archiveurl= http://web.archive.org/web/20070307132816/http://www.jsc.nasa.gov/Bios/| archivedate= 7 March 2007 <!--DASHBot-->| deadurl= no}}</ref> The European Space Agency similarly uses the term astronaut for members of its [[European Astronaut Corps|Astronaut Corps]].<ref name="ESApage">{{cite web | last = |first = | title = The European Astronaut Corps | publisher = [[ESA]] |author=ESA |date = 2008-04-10| url = http://www.esa.int/esaHS/ESA75G0VMOC_astronauts_0.html| accessdate = 2008-12-28 | archiveurl= http://web.archive.org/web/20081220054618/http://www.esa.int/esaHS/ESA75G0VMOC_astronauts_0.html| archivedate= 20 December 2008 <!--DASHBot-->| deadurl= no}}</ref>
 
===Russian===
{{Main|Soviet space program}}
By convention, an astronaut employed by the [[Russian Federal Space Agency]] (or its [[Soviet space program|Soviet]] predecessor) is called a ''cosmonaut'' in English texts.<ref name="biopage"/> The word is an [[anglicisation]] of the Russian word ''kosmonavt'' ({{lang-ru|космонавт}} {{IPA-ru|kəsmɐˈnaft}}), one who works in space outside the Earth's atmosphere, a space traveler,<ref name="space traveller">[http://books.google.com/books?id=6DhWw_cYLicC&lpg=PA49&dq=%D0%BA%D0%BE%D1%81%D0%BC%D0%BE%D0%BD%D0%B0%CC%81%D0%B2%D1%82%20space%20traveler&pg=PA49#v=onepage&q&f=false Elsevier's dictionary of geography: in English, Russian, French, ... – Page 49]</ref> which derives from the Greek words ''kosmos'' (κόσμος), meaning "universe", and ''nautes'' (ναύτης), meaning "sailor".
 
The Soviet Air Force pilot [[Yuri Gagarin]] was the first cosmonaut—indeed the first person—in space. [[Valentina Tereshkova]], a Russian factory worker, was the first female in space, as well as arguably the first civilian to make it there (see [[#Civilian and non-government milestones|below]] for a further discussion of civilians in space). On March 14, 1995, [[Norman Thagard]] became the first American to ride to space on board a Russian launch vehicle, and thus became the first "American cosmonaut".
 
===Chinese===
{{Main|Chinese space program}}
Official English-language texts issued by the government of the People's Republic of China use ''astronaut'' while texts in Russian use космонавт (''cosmonaut'').<ref name="rus">{{cite web|url=http://www.fmprc.gov.cn/ce/ceka/rus/xwdt/t216370.htm|title=Chinese embassy in Kazakhstan press-release|accessdate=October 4, 2007 |publisher=fmprc.gov.cn|author=реконмендовать другому|language=Russian| archiveurl= http://web.archive.org/web/20070929125754/http://www.fmprc.gov.cn/ce/ceka/rus/xwdt/t216370.htm| archivedate= 29 September 2007 <!--DASHBot-->| deadurl= no}} {{Dead link|date=April 2012|bot=H3llBot}}</ref><ref name="rus2">{{cite web|url=http://ru.china-embassy.org/rus/xwdt/t73142.htm|title=Chinese embassy in Russia press-release|accessdate=October 4, 2007 |publisher=ru.china-embassy.org|author=ru.china-embassy.org|language=Russian| archiveurl= http://web.archive.org/web/20070927002145/http://ru.china-embassy.org/rus/xwdt/t73142.htm| archivedate= 27 September 2007 <!--DASHBot-->| deadurl= no}}</ref> In official Chinese-language texts, "yǔ háng yuán" ({{lang|zh-cn|宇航员}}, "space navigating personnel") are used for astronaut and cosmonaut, and "háng tiān yuán" ({{lang|zh-cn|航天员}}, "space navigating personnel") is specially used for Chinese astronaut. The phrase "tài kōng rén" ({{lang|zh-tw|太空人}}, "spaceman") is often used in [[Taiwan]] and Hong Kong.
 
The term ''taikonaut'' is used by some English-language news media organizations for professional [[Chinese space program|space travelers from China]].<ref>{{cite web|url=http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2008-01/26/content_7500262.htm|title=Chinese taikonaut dismisses environment worries about new space launch center|date=2008-01-26|accessdate=2008-09-25|publisher=[[China View]]| archiveurl= http://web.archive.org/web/20081003201652/http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2008-01/26/content_7500262.htm| archivedate= 3 October 2008 <!--DASHBot-->| deadurl= no}}</ref> The word has featured in the [[Longman]] and [[Oxford English Dictionary|Oxford English]] dictionaries, the latter of which describes it as "a hybrid of the Chinese term ''taikong'' (space) and the Greek ''naut'' (sailor)"; the term became more common in 2003 when China sent its first astronaut [[Yang Liwei]] into space aboard the ''[[Shenzhou 5]]'' spacecraft.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2008-09/25/content_10111749.htm|title="Taikonauts" a sign of China's growing global influence|date=2008-09-25|accessdate=2008-09-25|publisher=[[China View]]| archiveurl= http://web.archive.org/web/20080928044453/http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2008-09/25/content_10111749.htm| archivedate= 28 September 2008 <!--DASHBot-->| deadurl= no}}</ref> This is the term used by [[Xinhua News Agency]] in the English version of the Chinese People's Daily since the advent of the Chinese space program.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://english.peopledaily.com.cn/90001/90776/90881/6507790.html|title=Chinese taikonaut debuts spacewalk|accessdate=September 28, 2008 |publisher=People's Daily Online|author=Xinhua|year=2008| archiveurl= http://web.archive.org/web/20080930071226/http://english.peopledaily.com.cn/90001/90776/90881/6507790.html| archivedate= 30 September 2008 <!--DASHBot-->| deadurl= no}}</ref> The origin of the term is unclear; as early as May 1998, Chiew Lee Yih ({{lang|zh|趙裡昱}}) from [[Malaysia]], used it in [[newsgroup]]s.<ref name="chiew">{{cite web | first=Lee Yih | last=Chiew | coauthors= |date=1998-05-19| title=Google search of "taikonaut" sort by date |url = http://groups.google.com/groups/search?hl=en&safe=off&q=taikonaut&btnG=Search&as_mind=1&as_minm=1&as_miny=1981&as_maxd=24&as_maxm=5&as_maxy=1998&as_drrb=b&sitesearch= | work = Usenet posting | publisher = Chiew Lee Yih | author=Chiew Lee Yih| accessdate = 2008-09-27}}</ref><ref name="chiew2">{{cite web | first=Lee Yih | last=Chiew |date=1996-03-10| coauthors= | title=Chiew Lee Yih misspelled "taikonaut" 2 years before it first appear |url = http://groups.google.com/group/alt.chinese.text/browse_thread/thread/a7f02b9489c59c5b/dd9e7a1b78d7d5c7?hl=en&lnk=st&q=taikonout#dd9e7a1b78d7d5c7 | work = Usenet posting | publisher = Chiew Lee Yih | author=Chiew Lee Yih| accessdate = 2008-09-27}}</ref>
 
===Other terms===
With the rise of [[space tourism]], [[NASA]] and the [[Russian Federal Space Agency]] agreed to use the term "[[spaceflight participant]]" to distinguish those space travelers from professional astronauts on missions coordinated by those two agencies.
 
While no nation other than the Russian Federation (and previously the former Soviet Union), the United States, and China have launched a manned spacecraft, several other nations have sent people into space in cooperation with one of these countries. Inspired partly by these missions, other synonyms for astronaut have entered occasional English usage. For example, the term ''spationaut'' (French spelling: ''spationaute'') is sometimes used to describe French space travelers, from the [[Latin]] word ''spatium'' for "space", and the [[Malay language|Malay]] term ''angkasawan'' was used to describe participants in the [[Angkasawan program]].
 
==Space travel milestones==
<!--First Man, First Woman, First on the Moon, in chronological order.-->
[[File:Gagarin in Sweden.jpg|thumb|Right|150px|[[Yuri Gagarin]], first human in space (1961)]]
[[File:RIAN archive 612748 Valentina Tereshkova.jpg|thumb|150px|[[Valentina Tereshkova]], 1963 first woman in space.]]
[[File:Neil Armstrong pose.jpg|thumb|150px|right|[[Neil Armstrong]], first person to walk on the moon (1969).]]
{{See also|Spaceflight records|Timeline of space travel by nationality}}
The first human in space was Soviet [[Yuri Gagarin]], who was launched on April 12, 1961 aboard [[Vostok 1]] and orbited around the Earth for 108 minutes. The first woman in space was Soviet [[Valentina Tereshkova]], who launched on June 16, 1963 aboard [[Vostok 6]] and orbited Earth for almost three days.
 
[[Alan Shepard]] became the first American and second person in space on May 5, 1961 on a 15-minute sub-orbital flight. The first American woman in space was [[Sally Ride]], during [[Space Shuttle Challenger]]'s mission [[STS-7]], on June 18, 1983.<ref name="ride1">{{cite web|url=http://www.jsc.nasa.gov/Bios/htmlbios/ride-sk.html|title=Sally K. Ride, Ph.D. Biography|accessdate=October 4, 2007 |publisher=NASA|year=2006|author=NASA| archiveurl= http://web.archive.org/web/20071016072450/http://www.jsc.nasa.gov/Bios/htmlbios/ride-sk.html| archivedate= 16 October 2007 <!--DASHBot-->| deadurl= no}}</ref> In 1992 [[Mae Jemison]] became the first African American woman to travel in space aboard [[STS-47]]. In 1984, [[Rakesh Sharma]] of India became the first Indian to fly in space when he boarded the Soyuz T-11.In 1997,[[Kalpana Chawla]] became the first Indian woman to fly in space when she flew in Space shuttle Columbia.
 
Cosmonaut [[Alexei Leonov]] was the first person to conduct an [[extra-vehicular activity]] (EVA), (commonly called a "spacewalk"), on March 18, 1965, on the Soviet Union's Voshkhod 2 mission. This was followed two and a half months later by astronaut [[Ed White]] who made the first American EVA on NASA's Gemini 4 mission.<ref>http://www.nasa.gov/audience/foreducators/k-4/features/F_Going_Out.html</ref>
 
The first manned mission to orbit the Moon, ''[[Apollo 8]]'', included American [[William Anders]] who was born in Hong Kong, making him the first Asian-born astronaut in 1968.
 
In April 1985, [[Taylor Wang]] became the first ethnic Chinese person in space.<ref name="taylorbio">{{cite web |url=http://www.jsc.nasa.gov/Bios/htmlbios/wang-t.html|title=Taylor G. Wang Biography| accessdate=October 4, 2007 | publisher=NASA| year=1985| author=NASA| archiveurl= http://web.archive.org/web/20070919003409/http://www.jsc.nasa.gov/Bios/htmlbios/wang-t.html| archivedate= 19 September 2007 <!--DASHBot-->| deadurl= no}}</ref><ref name="taylor">{{cite web|url=http://www.astronautix.com/astros/wang.htm|title=Taylor Wang| accessdate=October 4, 2007 |publisher=Encyclopedia Astronautica|year=2007|author=Encyclopedia Astronautica| archiveurl= http://web.archive.org/web/20070827132048/http://www.astronautix.com/astros/wang.htm| archivedate= 27 August 2007 <!--DASHBot-->| deadurl= no}}</ref> On 15 October 2003, [[Yang Liwei]] became China's first astronaut on the [[Shenzhou 5]] spacecraft.
 
The Soviet Union, through its [[Intercosmos]] program, allowed people from other "[[socialism|socialist]]" (i.e. [[Warsaw Pact]] and other Soviet-allied) countries to fly on its missions. An example is [[Czechoslovak]] [[Vladimír Remek]], the first cosmonaut from a country other than the [[Soviet space program|Soviet Union]] or the [[NASA|United States]], who flew to space in 1978 on a [[Soyuz-U]] rocket.<ref name="enc">{{cite web|url=http://www.astronautix.com/astros/remek.htm|title=Vladimir Remek Czech Pilot Cosmonaut|accessdate=October 4, 2007 |publisher=Encyclopedia Astronautica|year=2007|author=Encyclopedia Astronautica| archiveurl= http://web.archive.org/web/20071013100622/http://astronautix.com/astros/remek.htm| archivedate= 13 October 2007 <!--DASHBot-->| deadurl= no}}</ref>
On July 23, 1980, [[Pham Tuan]] of [[Vietnam]] became the first [[Asian people|Asian]] in space when he flew aboard [[Soyuz 37]].<ref name="tuan">{{cite web|url=http://www.astronautix.com/flights/salt6ep7.htm|title=Salyut 6 EP-7|accessdate=October 4, 2007 |publisher=Encyclopedia Astronautica|year=2007|author=Encyclopedia Astronautica| archiveurl= http://web.archive.org/web/20070930195347/http://www.astronautix.com/flights/salt6ep7.htm| archivedate= 30 September 2007 <!--DASHBot-->| deadurl= no}}</ref>
 
Also in 1980, [[Cubans|Cuban]] [[Arnaldo Tamayo Méndez]] became the first person of [[Hispanic]] and black African descent to fly in space, and [[Guion Bluford]] became the first African American to fly into space. The first person born in Africa to fly in space was [[Patrick Baudry]], in 1985.<ref name="mendez">{{cite web|url=http://www.astronautix.com/astros/tamendez.htm|title=Tamayo-Mendez|accessdate=October 4, 2007 |publisher=Encyclopedia Astronautica|year=2007|author=Encyclopedia Astronautica| archiveurl= http://web.archive.org/web/20070930214432/http://www.astronautix.com/astros/tamendez.htm| archivedate= 30 September 2007 <!--DASHBot-->| deadurl= no}}</ref><ref name="buadry">{{cite web|url=http://www.astronautix.com/astros/baudry.htm|title=Baudry|accessdate=October 4, 2007 |publisher=Encyclopedia Astronautica|year=2007|author=Encyclopedia Astronautica| archiveurl= http://web.archive.org/web/20071013100617/http://astronautix.com/astros/baudry.htm| archivedate= 13 October 2007 <!--DASHBot-->| deadurl= no}}</ref> In 1985, [[Saudi arabia|Saudi Arabian]] [[Sultan Salman al-Saud|Prince Sultan Bin Salman Bin AbdulAziz Al-Saud]] became the first Arab Muslim astronaut in space.<ref name="MC">{{cite web|url=http://www.jsc.nasa.gov/Bios/htmlbios/al-saud.html|title=Sultan Bin Salman Al-Saud Biography|accessdate=May 1, 2011 |publisher=NASA|year=2006|author=NASA| archiveurl= http://web.archive.org/web/20110525174947/http://www.jsc.nasa.gov/Bios/htmlbios/al-saud.html| archivedate= 25 May 2011 <!--DASHBot-->| deadurl= no}}</ref> In 1988, [[Abdul Ahad Mohmand]] became the first [[Afghanistan|Afghan]] to reach space, spending nine days aboard the [[Mir]] space station.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.spacefacts.de/bios/international/english/mohmand_abdol.htm|title=Biographies of International Astronauts|accessdate=August 11, 2007 |publisher=Space Facts|year=2007|author=Joachim Wilhelm Josef Becker and Heinz Hermann Janssen| archiveurl= http://web.archive.org/web/20070812133400/http://www.spacefacts.de/bios/international/english/mohmand_abdol.htm| archivedate= 12 August 2007 <!--DASHBot-->| deadurl= no}}</ref>
 
With the larger number of seats available on the Space Shuttle, the U.S. began taking international astronauts. In 1983, [[Ulf Merbold]] of West Germany became the first non-US citizen to fly in a US spacecraft. In 1984, [[Marc Garneau]] became the first of 8 [[Canadian astronauts]] to fly in space (through 2010).<ref>[http://www.asc-csa.gc.ca/eng/missions/default.asp Canadian Space Agency, retrieved October 9, 2010.]</ref>
In 1985, [[Rodolfo Neri Vela]] became the first Mexican-born person in space.<ref name="vela">{{cite web|url=http://www.jsc.nasa.gov/Bios/htmlbios/nerivela-r.html|title=Rodolfo Neri Vela (Ph.D.) Biography|accessdate=October 4, 2007 |publisher=NASA|year=1985|author=NASA| archiveurl= http://web.archive.org/web/20071027235759/http://www.jsc.nasa.gov/Bios/htmlbios/nerivela-r.html| archivedate= 27 October 2007 <!--DASHBot-->| deadurl= no}}</ref> In 1991, [[Helen Sharman]] became the first Briton to fly in space.<ref name="bbcsharmon">{{cite news|url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/may/18/newsid_2380000/2380649.stm|title=1991: Sharman becomes first Briton in space|accessdate=October 4, 2007 |publisher=BBC News|author=BBC News | date=May 18, 1991, 2005| archiveurl= http://web.archive.org/web/20070905072027/http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/may/18/newsid_2380000/2380649.stm| archivedate= 5 September 2007 <!--DASHBot-->| deadurl= no}}</ref>
In 2002, [[Mark Shuttleworth]] became the first citizen of an African country to fly in space, as a paying spaceflight participant.<ref name="mark">{{cite web|url=http://www.africaninspace.com/home/mission/logs/1/20020610.shtml|title=First African in Space|accessdate=October 4, 2007 |publisher=HBD|year=2002|author=africaninspace.com| archiveurl= http://web.archive.org/web/20071013043906/http://africaninspace.com/home/mission/logs/1/20020610.shtml| archivedate= 13 October 2007 <!--DASHBot-->| deadurl= no}}</ref> In 2003, [[Ilan Ramon]] became the first Israeli to fly in space, although he died during a [[Space Shuttle Columbia disaster|re-entry accident]].
 
===Age milestones===
 
The youngest person to fly in space is [[Gherman Titov]], who was 25 years old when he flew [[Vostok 2]]. (Titov was also the first person to suffer [[space sickness]]).<ref name="age">{{cite news|url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/august/6/newsid_2944000/2944638.stm|title=1961: Russian cosmonaut spends day in space|accessdate=October 4, 2007 |publisher=BBC News|author=BBC News | date=August 6, 1961, 2007}}</ref><ref name="titov">{{cite web|url=http://www.space.com/peopleinterviews/titov_obit_000921.html|title=Russia Cosmonaut Gherman Titov Dies|accessdate=October 4, 2007 |publisher=Space.com|year=2000|author=Anatoly Zak|archiveurl=http://web.archive.org/web/20010126090100/http://www.space.com/peopleinterviews/titov_obit_000921.html|archivedate=January 26, 2001}} {{Dead link|date=April 2012|bot=H3llBot}}</ref>
The oldest person who has flown in space is [[John Glenn]], who was 77 when he flew on [[STS-95]].<ref name="glenn">{{cite web|url=http://www.nasa.gov/centers/glenn/about/bios/glennbio.html|title=John Herschel Glenn, Jr. (Colonel, USMC, Ret.) NASA Astronaut|accessdate=October 4, 2007 |publisher=NASA|year=2007|author=NASA| archiveurl= http://web.archive.org/web/20071014013832/http://www.nasa.gov/centers/glenn/about/bios/glennbio.html| archivedate= 14 October 2007 <!--DASHBot-->| deadurl= no}}</ref>
 
===Duration and distance milestones===
The longest stay in space thus far has been 438 days, by Russian [[Valeri Polyakov]].<ref name="stats"/>
As of 2006, the most spaceflights by an individual astronaut is seven, a record held by both [[Jerry L. Ross]] and [[Franklin Chang-Diaz]]. The farthest distance from Earth an astronaut has traveled was {{convert|401056|km|0|abbr=on}}, when [[Jim Lovell]], [[Jack Swigert]], and [[Fred Haise]] went around the Moon during the [[Apollo 13]] emergency.<ref name="stats"/>
 
===Civilian and non-government milestones===
Depending on the exact definition of 'civilian', the first civilian in space was either [[Valentina Tereshkova]]<ref name="Valentina Vladimirovna TERESHKOVA">{{cite web|url=http://www.adm.yar.ru/english/section.aspx?section_id=74|title=Valentina Vladimirovna TERESHKOVA}}</ref> aboard [[Vostok 6]] (she also became the first woman in space on that mission) or [[Joseph Albert Walker]]<ref name="Civilians in Space">{{cite web|url=http://www.fourmilab.ch/fourmilog/archives/2006-08/000736.html|title=Civilians in Space}}</ref><ref name="Space.com Joseph A Walker">{{cite web|url=http://www.space.com/adastra/adastra_joewalker_061127.html|title=Space.com Joseph A Walker}}</ref> on [[X-15 Flight 90]] a month later. Tereshkova was only honorarily inducted into the USSR's Air Force, which had no female pilots whatsoever at that time. Joe Walker had joined the US Army Air Force but was not a member during his flight. The first people in space who had never been a member of any country's armed forces were both [[Konstantin Feoktistov]] and [[Boris Yegorov]] aboard [[Voskhod 1]].
 
The first non-governmental space traveler was [[Byron K. Lichtenberg]], a researcher from the [[Massachusetts Institute of Technology]] who flew on [[STS-9]] in 1983.<ref name="lichten">{{cite web|url=http://www.jsc.nasa.gov/Bios/htmlbios/lichtenberg-bk.html|title=Byron K. Lichtenberg Biography|accessdate=October 4, 2007 |publisher=NASA|year=2002|author=NASA| archiveurl= http://web.archive.org/web/20070919000449/http://www.jsc.nasa.gov/Bios/htmlbios/lichtenberg-bk.html| archivedate= 19 September 2007 <!--DASHBot-->| deadurl= no}}</ref> In December 1990, [[Toyohiro Akiyama]] became the first paying space traveler as a reporter for [[Tokyo Broadcasting System]], a visit to [[Mir]] as part of an estimated $12 million ([[USD]]) deal with a Japanese TV station, although at the time, the term used to refer to Akiyama was "Research Cosmonaut".<ref name="smith">{{cite web|url=http://www.nasm.si.edu/exhibitions/GAL114/SpaceRace/sec500/sec535.htm|title=Paying for a Ride|accessdate=October 4, 2007 |publisher=Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum|year=2007|author=Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum| archiveurl= http://web.archive.org/web/20071026073942/http://www.nasm.si.edu/exhibitions/gal114/SpaceRace/sec500/sec535.htm| archivedate= 26 October 2007 <!--DASHBot-->| deadurl= no}}</ref><ref name="bbc1">{{cite news|url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/static/in_depth/sci_tech/2001/mir/1990.stm|title=Mir Space Station 1986–2001|accessdate=October 4, 2007 |publisher=BBC News|year=1990|author=BBC News}}</ref><ref name="de">{{cite web|url=http://www.spacefacts.de/bios/international/english/akiyama_toyohiro.htm|title=Akiyama|accessdate=October 4, 2007 |publisher=Spacefacts|year=1990|author=Spacefacts| archiveurl= http://web.archive.org/web/20070930033534/http://www.spacefacts.de/bios/international/english/akiyama_toyohiro.htm| archivedate= 30 September 2007 <!--DASHBot-->| deadurl= no}}</ref> Akiyama suffered severe [[space adaptation syndrome|space sickness]] during his mission, which affected his productivity.<ref name="bbc1"/>
 
The first self-funded [[space tourist]] was [[Dennis Tito]] on board the Russian spacecraft Soyuz TM-3 on 28 April 2001.
 
===Self-funded travelers===
{{Main|Space tourism}}
The first person to fly on an entirely privately funded mission was [[Mike Melvill]], piloting [[SpaceShipOne flight 15P]] on a suborbital journey, although he was a [[test pilot]] employed by [[Scaled Composites]] and not an actual paying space tourist.<ref name="eve">{{cite web|url=http://www.space.com/missionlaunches/SS1_pilot_040620.html|title=Pilot Announced on Eve of Private Space Mission |accessdate=October 4, 2007 |publisher=Space.com|year=2004|author=Leonard David|archiveurl=http://web.archive.org/web/20040624060318/http://www.space.com/missionlaunches/SS1_pilot_040620.html|archivedate=June 24, 2004}} {{Dead link|date=April 2012|bot=H3llBot}}</ref><ref name="rci">{{cite web|url=http://www.roycecarlton.com/speakers/melvill.html|archiveurl=http://web.archive.org/web/20071011134507/http://www.roycecarlton.com/speakers/melvill.html|archivedate=2007-10-11|title=Michael Melvill, First Civilian Astronaut, SpaceShipOne|accessdate=October 4, 2007 |publisher=Royce Carlton Inc.|year=2007|author=Royce Carlton Inc}}</ref> Seven others have paid to fly into space:
 
#[[Dennis Tito]] (American): April 28 – May 6, 2001 ([[International Space Station|ISS]])
#[[Mark Shuttleworth]] (South African): April 25 – May 5, 2002 (ISS)
#[[Gregory Olsen]] (American): October 1–11, 2005 (ISS)
#[[Anousheh Ansari]] (Iranian / American): September 18–29, 2006 (ISS)
#[[Charles Simonyi]] (Hungarian / American): April 7–21, 2007 (ISS), March 26 – April 8, 2009 (ISS)
#[[Richard Garriott]] (American): October 12–24, 2008 (ISS)
#[[Guy Laliberté]] (Canadian): September 30, 2009 – October 11, 2009 (ISS)
 
==Training==
{{Main|Astronaut Training}}
{{See also|Astronaut ranks and positions}}
The first NASA astronauts were selected for training in 1959.<ref name="comet">{{cite web|url=http://aerospacescholars.jsc.nasa.gov/HAS/cirr/ss/3/3.cfm|archiveurl=http://web.archive.org/web/20070819111027/http://aerospacescholars.jsc.nasa.gov/HAS/cirr/ss/3/3.cfm|archivedate=2007-08-19|title=Astronaut Candidate Training|accessdate=October 4, 2007 |publisher=NASA|year=2006|author=NASA}}</ref> Early in the space program, military jet test piloting and engineering training were often cited as prerequisites for selection as an astronaut at NASA, although neither John Glenn nor Scott Carpenter (of the [[Mercury Seven]]) had any university degree, in engineering or any other discipline at the time of their selection. Selection was initially limited to military pilots.<ref name="training">{{cite web|url=http://liftoff.msfc.nasa.gov/academy/astronauts/training.html|archiveurl=http://web.archive.org/web/20070910124735/http://liftoff.msfc.nasa.gov/academy/astronauts/training.html|archivedate=2007-09-10|title=Selection and Training of Astronauts|accessdate=October 4, 2007 |publisher=NASA|year=1995|author=NASA}}</ref><ref name="nolen">{{cite book |author=Nolen, Stephanie |title=Promised The Moon: The Untold Story of the First Women in the Space Race |publisher=Penguin Canada |location=Toronto |year=2002 |page=235 |isbn=0-14-301347-5}}</ref> The earliest astronauts for both America and the USSR tended to be [[fighter aircraft|jet fighter]] pilots, and were often test pilots.
 
Once selected, NASA astronauts go through twenty months of training in a variety of areas, including training for [[extra-vehicular activity]] in a facility such as NASA's [[Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory]].<ref name="fact"/><ref name="training"/> Astronauts-in-training may also experience short periods of [[weightlessness]] in aircraft called the "[[vomit comet]]", the nickname given to a pair of modified [[KC-135]]s (retired in 2000 and 2004 respectively, and replaced in 2005 with a [[McDonnell Douglas C-9|C-9]]) which perform [[Parabola|parabolic]] flights.<ref name="comet"/> Astronauts are also required to accumulate a number of flight hours in high-performance jet aircraft. This is mostly done in [[T-38 Talon|T-38 jet aircraft]] out of [[Ellington Field]], due to its proximity to the [[Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center|Johnson Space Center]]. Ellington Field is also where the [[Shuttle Training Aircraft]] is maintained and developed, although most flights of the aircraft are done out of [[Edwards Air Force Base]].
 
===NASA candidacy requirements===
* Be citizens of the United States.<ref name="comet"/><ref name="program">{{cite web|url=http://nasajobs.nasa.gov/astronauts/content/broch00.htm|title=Astronaut Candidate Program|accessdate=October 4, 2007 |publisher=NASA|year=2007|author=NASA| archiveurl= http://web.archive.org/web/20071011074934/http://nasajobs.nasa.gov/astronauts/content/broch00.htm| archivedate= 11 October 2007 <!--DASHBot-->| deadurl= no}}</ref>
* Pass a strict physical examination, and have a near and distant visual acuity correctable to 20/20 (6/6). Blood pressure, while sitting, must be no greater than 140 over 90.
 
====Commander and Pilot====
* A [[bachelor's degree]] in [[engineering]], [[biology|biological science]], [[physical science]] or [[mathematics]] is required.
* At least 1,000 hours' flying time as pilot-in-command in jet aircraft. Experience as a test pilot is desirable.
* Height must be 5&nbsp;ft 2 in to 6&nbsp;ft 2 in (1.58 to 1.88 m).
* Distant visual acuity must be correctable to 20/20 in each eye.
*The refractive surgical procedures of the eye, PRK ([[Photorefractive keratectomy]]) and [[LASIK]], are now allowed, providing at least 1 year has passed since the date of the procedure with no permanent adverse aftereffects. For those applicants under final consideration, an operative report on the surgical procedure will be requested.
 
====Mission Specialist====
* A bachelor's degree in [[engineering]], [[biological science]], [[physical science]] or [[mathematics]], as well as at least three years of related professional experience (graduate work or studies) and an advanced degree, such as a master's degree (one to three years) or a doctoral degree (three years or more).
*Applicant's height must be between 58.5 and 76 inches
 
====Mission Specialist Educator====
[[File:Educator Astronauts.jpg|right|thumb|Mission Specialist Educators Lindenberger, Arnold, and Acaba during a parabolic flight.]]
{{Main|Educator Astronaut Project}}
* Applicants must have a bachelor's degree with teaching experience, including work at the kindergarten through twelfth grade level. An advanced degree, such as a master's degree or a doctoral degree, is not required, but is strongly desired.<ref name="announce">{{cite web|url=http://www.nasa.gov/home/hqnews/2007/sep/HQ_07196_astronaut_recruitment.html|title=NASA Opens Applications for New Astronaut Class|accessdate=October 4, 2007 |publisher=NASA|year=2007|author=NASA| archiveurl= http://web.archive.org/web/20070927081538/http://www.nasa.gov/home/hqnews/2007/sep/HQ_07196_astronaut_recruitment.html| archivedate= 27 September 2007 <!--DASHBot-->| deadurl= no}}</ref>
[[Educator Astronaut Project|Mission Specialist Educators]], or "Educator Astronauts", were first selected in 2004, and as of 2007, there are three NASA Educator astronauts: [[Joseph M. Acaba]], [[Richard R. Arnold]], and [[Dorothy Metcalf-Lindenburger]].<ref name="nexgen">{{cite web|url=http://www.nasa.gov/vision/space/preparingtravel/ascan2004.html|title='Next Generation of Explorers' Named|accessdate=October 4, 2007 |publisher=NASA|year=2004|author=NASA}}</ref><ref name="ed">{{cite web|url=http://www.nasa.gov/home/hqnews/2004/oct/HQ_n04160_new_ascans.html|title=NASA's New Astronauts Meet The Press|accessdate=October 4, 2007 | publisher=NASA| year=2004| author=NASA}}</ref>
[[Barbara Morgan]], selected as back-up teacher to [[Christa McAuliffe]] in 1985, is considered to be the first Educator astronaut by the media, but she trained as a mission specialist.<ref name="morgan1">{{cite web|url=http://www.jsc.nasa.gov/Bios/htmlbios/morgan.html|title=Barbara Radding Morgan – NASA Astronaut biography|accessdate=October 4, 2007 |publisher=NASA|year=2007|author=NASA| archiveurl= http://web.archive.org/web/20071002195136/http://www.jsc.nasa.gov/Bios/htmlbios/morgan.html| archivedate= 2 October 2007 <!--DASHBot-->| deadurl= no}}</ref>
The Educator Astronaut program is a successor to the [[Teacher in Space]] program from the 1980s.<ref name="fly">{{cite web|url=http://www.space.com/missionlaunches/space_educator_030203.html|title=NASA Assures That Teachers Will Fly in Space |accessdate=October 4, 2007 |publisher=Space.com|year=2007|author=Tariq Malik|archiveurl=http://web.archive.org/web/20030218094146/http://www.space.com/missionlaunches/space_educator_030203.html|archivedate=February 18, 2003}} {{Dead link|date=April 2012|bot=H3llBot}}</ref><ref name=autogenerated1>{{cite web|url=http://wwwedu.ssc.nasa.gov/neap.asp|title=Educator Astronaut Program|accessdate=October 4, 2007 |publisher=NASA|year=2005|author=NASA}}</ref>
 
==Health risks of space travel==
{{See also|Effect of spaceflight on the human body|Space medicine}}
 
Astronauts are susceptible to a variety of health risks including [[decompression sickness]], barotrauma, immunodeficiencies, loss of bone and muscle, loss of eyesight, orthostatic intolerance due to volume loss, sleep disturbances, and radiation injury.<ref name="Wired-20120723">{{cite web |last=Mann |first=Adam |title=Blindness, Bone Loss, and Space Farts: Astronaut Medical Oddities|url=http://www.wired.com/wiredscience/2012/07/medicine-psychology-space/ |date=July 23, 2012|publisher=[[Wired (magazine)|Wired]] |accessdate=July 23, 2012 }}</ref><ref name="Mader-2011">{{cite journal |author=Mader, T. H. et al. |title=Optic Disc Edema, Globe Flattening, Choroidal Folds, and Hyperopic Shifts Observed in Astronauts after Long-duration Space Flight|url=http://www.ophsource.org/periodicals/ophtha/article/S0161-6420(11)00564-1/abstract Oph|year=2011 |journal=[[Ophthalmology (journal)]] |volume=118 |issue=10 |pages=2058–2069|doi=10.1016/j.ophtha.2011.06.021 |pmid=21849212}}</ref><ref name="Puiu-20111109">{{cite web |last=Puiu|first=Tibi |title=Astronauts’ vision severely affected during long space missions|url=http://www.zmescience.com/medicine/astronaut-eyesight-damage-weightlessness-3214143/|date=November 9, 2011 |publisher=zmescience.com |accessdate=February 9, 2012 }}</ref><ref name="CNN-20120109">{{cite web|url=http://www.cnn.com/video/#/video/us/2012/02/09/pkg-zarrella-astronaut-vision.cnn |title=Male Astronauts Return With Eye Problems (video) |date=9 Feb 2012 |publisher=CNN News|accessdate=2012-04-25 }}</ref><ref name="Space-20120313">{{cite web |author=Space Staff|title=Spaceflight Bad for Astronauts' Vision, Study Suggests|url=http://www.space.com/14876-astronaut-spaceflight-vision-problems.html |date=13 March 2012|publisher=[[Space.com]] |accessdate=14 March 2012 }}</ref><ref name="Radiology-20120313">{{cite journal |author=Kramer, Larry A. et al. |title=Orbital and Intracranial Effects of Microgravity: Findings at 3-T MR Imaging|url=http://radiology.rsna.org/content/early/2012/03/07/radiol.12111986.abstract?sid=8682af1e-b07f-4ad9-8453-ee319bad639e |journal=[[Radiology (journal)]]|doi=10.1148/radiol.12111986 |date=13 March 2012 |accessdate=14 March 2012 }}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://english.pravda.ru/science/earth/17-12-2008/106841-soviet_cosmonaut-0/ |title=Soviet cosmonauts burnt their eyes in space for USSR’s glory |date=17 Dec 2008 |publisher=Pravda.Ru|accessdate=2012-04-25 }}</ref> A variety of large scale medical studies are being conducted in space via the National Space and Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI) to address these issues. Prominent among these is the [[Advanced Diagnostic Ultrasound in Microgravity]] Study in which astronauts (including former ISS commanders [[Leroy Chiao]] and [[Gennady Padalka]]) perform ultrasound scans under the guidance of remote experts to diagnose and potentially treat hundreds of medical conditions in space. This study's techniques are now being applied to cover professional and Olympic sports injuries as well as ultrasound performed by non-expert operators in medical and high school students. It is anticipated that remote guided ultrasound will have application on Earth in emergency and rural care situations, where access to a trained physician is often rare.<ref>[http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/science/experiments/ADUM.html NASA - Advanced Diagnostic Ultrasound in Microgravity<!-- Bot generated title -->]</ref><ref>A Pilot Study of Comprehensive Ultrasound Education at the Wayne State University School of Medicine: http://www.jultrasoundmed.org/cgi/content/abstract/27/5/745</ref><ref>Evaluation of Shoulder Integrity in Space: First Report of Musculoskeletal US on the International Space Station: http://radiology.rsna.org/content/234/2/319.abstract</ref>
 
On December 31, 2012, a [[NASA]]-supported study reported that [[manned spaceflight]] may harm the brain and accelerate the onset of [[Alzheimer's disease]].<ref name="PLOS-20121231">{{cite journal |last=Cherry |first=Jonathan D. |last2=Frost |first2=Jeffrey L. |last3=Lemere |first3=Cynthia A. |last4=Williams |first4=Jacqueline P. |last5=Olschowka |first5=John A. |last6=O'Banion |first6=M. Kerry |title=Galactic Cosmic Radiation Leads to Cognitive Impairment and Increased Aβ Plaque Accumulation in a Mouse Model of Alzheimer’s Disease |url=http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0053275 |doi=10.1371/journal.pone.0053275 |volume=7 |number=12 |page=e53275 |journal=[[PLOS ONE]] |accessdate=January 7, 2013 }}</ref><ref name="SpaceRef-20130101">{{cite web |authors=Staff |title=Study Shows that Space Travel is Harmful to the Brain and Could Accelerate Onset of Alzheimer's |url=http://spaceref.com/news/viewpr.html?pid=39650 |date=January 1, 2013 |publisher=SpaceRef |accessdate=January 7, 2013 }}</ref><ref name="NasaWatch-20130103">{{cite web |last=Cowing |first=Keith |authorlink=Keith Cowing |title=Important Research Results NASA Is Not Talking About (Update) |url=http://nasawatch.com/archives/2013/01/important-resea.html |date=January 3, 2013 |publisher=NASA Watch |accessdate=January 7, 2013 }}</ref>
 
==Insignia==
In Russia, cosmonauts are awarded [[Pilot-Cosmonaut of the Russian Federation]] upon completion of their missions, often accompanied with the award of [[Hero of the Russian Federation]]. This follows the practice established in the Soviet Union.
 
At NASA, those who complete astronaut candidate training receive a silver [[Astronaut Badge#NASA Astronaut Pins|lapel pin]]. Once they have flown in space, they receive a gold pin. U.S. astronauts who also have active-duty military status receive a special qualification badge, known as the [[Astronaut Badge]], after participation on a spaceflight. The [[United States Air Force]] also presents an Astronaut Badge to its pilots who exceed {{convert|50|mi|km}} in altitude.
 
[[File:amf space mirror.jpg|right|250px|thumb|Space Mirror Memorial]]
 
==Deaths==
{{Main|List of spaceflight-related accidents and incidents#Astronaut fatalities}}
 
Eighteen astronauts (fourteen men and four women) have lost their lives during four space flights. By nationality, thirteen were American (including one of Indian origin), four were Russian ([[Soviet Union]]), and one was Israeli.
 
Eleven people (all men) have lost their lives training for spaceflight: eight Americans and three Russians. Six of these were in crashes of training jet aircraft, one drowned during water recovery training, and four were due to fires in pure oxygen environments.
 
The [[Space Mirror Memorial]], which stands on the grounds of the [[John F. Kennedy Space Center]] Visitor Complex, commemorates the lives of the men and women who have died during spaceflight and during training in the space programs of the United States. In addition to twenty NASA career astronauts, the memorial includes the names of a [[U.S. Air Force]] [[X-15]] test pilot, a U.S. Air Force officer who died while training for a then-classified military space program, and a civilian [[spaceflight participant]].
 
==See also==
{{Portal|Spaceflight|Space|Solar System|Astronomy}}
 
{{Div col}}
* [[United States Astronaut Hall of Fame]]
* [[Commercial Astronaut]]
* [[List of astronauts by name]]
* [[List of astronauts by selection]]
* [[Timeline of astronauts by nationality]]
* [[List of cosmonauts]]
* [[List of human spaceflights]]
* [[List of space travelers by name]]
* [[List of space travelers by nationality]]
* [[List of spacewalks and moonwalks]]
* [[List of married couples among space travelers]]
* [[North American X-15]] program
* [[Space food]]
* [[Spaceflight records]]
* [[Space Suit]]s
* [[Shirley Thomas (USC professor)|Shirley Thomas]], author of ''Men of Space'' series (1960–1968)
* [[Russian cosmonauts]]
* [[Cosmonautics Day]]
* [[Yuri's Night]]
* [[Outer space#Boundary|Boundary of Space]]
* [[Fallen Astronaut]]
* [[List of fictional astronauts]]
* [[Mercury 13]], a group of 13 women who were tested, but never flew in space
* [[J-Wear]]
* [[U.S. space exploration history on U.S. stamps]]
* [[Participation in Space travel]]
{{Div col end}}
-->
==మూలాలు==
{{Reflist|2}}
"https://te.wikipedia.org/wiki/ప్రత్యేక:MobileDiff/2091133" నుండి వెలికితీశారు