సహాయం:IPA: కూర్పుల మధ్య తేడాలు

3,654 బైట్లను తీసేసారు ,  5 సంవత్సరాల క్రితం
Undid revision 753087718 by Erutuon (talk) sorry to revert all, but spaces within brackets were needed to clearly show symbols
imported>Erutuon
(replaced no-break spaces with appropriate formatting, added IPA template, removed spaces between brackets and IPA symbols, add Arabic diacritics and standardize transliteration)
imported>Woodstone
(Undid revision 753087718 by Erutuon (talk) sorry to revert all, but spaces within brackets were needed to clearly show symbols)
For each IPA symbol, an English example is given where possible; here "RP" stands for [[Received Pronunciation]]. The foreign languages that are used to illustrate additional sounds are primarily the ones most likely to be familiar to English speakers, [[French phonology|French]], [[German phonology|German]], and [[Spanish phonology|Spanish]]. For symbols not covered by those, recourse is taken to the populous languages [[Standard Mandarin#Phonology|Mandarin Chinese]], [[Hindi-Urdu phonology|Hindustani]], [[Arabic phonology|Arabic]], and [[Russian phonology|Russian]]. For sounds still not covered, other smaller but well-known languages are used, such as [[Swahili language#Sounds|Swahili]], [[Turkish phonology|Turkish]], and [[Zulu language#phonology|Zulu]].
 
The left-hand column displays the symbols like this: {{audio-pipe|open front unrounded vowel.ogg|open front unrounded vowel|<big>{{IPA|[ a ]}}</big>}}. Click on the speaker icon to hear the sound; click on the symbol itself for a dedicated article with a more complete description and examples from multiple languages. All the sounds are spoken more than once, and the consonant sounds are spoken once followed by a vowel and once between vowels.
 
{{Compact ToC |center=yes |custom1=other |custom1name=Other |custom2=Marks added to letters |custom2name=Diacritic marks |custom3=Brackets |custom4=Rendering issues }}
==Main symbols==
<!-- PLEASE READ BEFORE ADDING EXAMPLES OR LANGUAGES TO THE KEY
This key is intended for newbies to the IPA and should therefore be kept as short and sweet as possible. Descriptions should be brief, without technical terms like "back vowel" or "labial" or "fricative"; and examples should be from familiar languages that are ''well described phonetically''.
-->
 
The symbols are arranged by similarity to letters of the Latin alphabet. Symbols which do not resemble any Latin letter are placed at the end.
 
{| class="wikitable" style="margin: 1em"
! &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;Symbol&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; !! style="width: 2em;" | !! Examples !! Description
 
|- id="A"
! colspan="4" | <div style="font-weight: normal; float: right;">[[#top|^ top]]</div> A
|-
| class="nowrap" | {{audio-pipe|Open front unrounded vowel.ogg|Open front unrounded vowel|<big>{{IPA|[&nbsp;a&nbsp;]}}</big>}}
|&nbsp;&nbsp;a&nbsp;&nbsp;
| style="text-align: center;" | {{IPA|a}}
| Mandarin 他 ''t'''ā''''', German ''M'''a'''nn''
| For many English speakers, the first part of the ''ow'' sound in ''cow''. Found in some dialects of English in ''c'''a'''t'' or ''f'''a'''ther''.
|-
| class="nowrap" | {{audio-pipe|Open central unrounded vowel.ogg|Open central unrounded vowel|<big>{{IPA|[&nbsp;ä&nbsp;]}}</big>}}
|&nbsp;&nbsp;ä&nbsp;&nbsp;
| style="text-align: center;" | {{IPA|ä}}
| American English '''''ah''''', Spanish ''c'''a'''s'''a''''', French ''p'''a'''tte
|
|-
| class="nowrap" | {{audio-pipe|Open front unrounded vowel.ogg|Open front unrounded vowel|<big>{{IPA|[&nbsp;&nbsp;]}}</big>}}
|&nbsp;&nbsp;aː&nbsp;&nbsp;
| style="text-align: center;" | {{IPA|aː}}
| German [[Aachen|'''''Aa'''chen'']], French ''g'''a'''re''
| Long {{IPA|[a]}}.
|-
| class="nowrap" | {{audio-pipe|Near-open central unrounded vowel.ogg|Near-open central vowel|<big>{{IPA|[&nbsp;ɐ&nbsp;]}}</big>}}
|&nbsp;&nbsp;ɐ&nbsp;&nbsp;
| style="text-align: center;" | {{IPA|ɐ}}
| RP ''c'''u'''t'', German [[Kaiserslautern|''Kais'''er'''slaut'''er'''n'']]
| (In transcriptions of English, {{IPA|[ɐ]}} is usually written {{angle bracket|{{IPA|ʌ}}}}.)
|-
| class="nowrap" | {{audio-pipe|Open back unrounded vowel.ogg|Open back unrounded vowel|<big>{{IPA|[&nbsp;ɑ&nbsp;]}}</big>}}
|&nbsp;&nbsp;ɑ&nbsp;&nbsp;
| style="text-align: center;" | {{IPA|ɑ}}
| [[Finnish phonology|Finnish]] [[Väinö Linna|''Linn'''a''''']], Dutch ''b'''a'''d''
|
|-
| class="nowrap" | {{audio-pipe|Open back unrounded vowel.ogg|Open back unrounded vowel|<big>{{IPA|[&nbsp;ɑː&nbsp;]}}</big>}}
|&nbsp;&nbsp;ɑː&nbsp;&nbsp;
| style="text-align: center;" | {{IPA|ɑː}}
| RP ''f'''a'''ther,'' French ''p'''â'''te''
| Long {{IPA|[ɑ]}}.
|-
| class="nowrap" | {{audio-pipe|Fr-en.ogg|Nasal vowel|<big>{{IPA|[&nbsp;ɑ̃&nbsp;]}}</big>}}
|&nbsp;&nbsp;ɑ̃&nbsp;&nbsp;
| style="text-align: center;" | {{IPA|ɑ̃}}
| French [[Caen|''C'''aen''''']], ''s'''an'''s'', ''t'''em'''ps''
| Nasalized {{IPA|[ɑ]}}.
|-
| class="nowrap" | {{audio-pipe|Open back rounded vowel.ogg|Open back rounded vowel|<big>{{IPA|[&nbsp;ɒ&nbsp;]}}</big>}}
|&nbsp;&nbsp;ɒ&nbsp;&nbsp;
| style="text-align: center;" | {{IPA|ɒ}}
| RP ''c'''o'''t
| Like {{IPA|[ɑ]}}, but with the lips slightly rounded.
|-
| class="nowrap" | {{audio-pipe|Open-mid back unrounded vowel.ogg|Open-mid back unrounded vowel|<big>{{IPA|[&nbsp;ʌ&nbsp;]}}</big>}}
|&nbsp;&nbsp;ʌ&nbsp;&nbsp;
| style="text-align: center;" | {{IPA|ʌ}}
| American English ''c'''u'''t
| Like {{IPA|[ɔ]}}, but without the lips being rounded. (When {{angle bracket|{{IPA|ʌ}}}} is used for English, it may really be {{IPA|[ɐ]}} or {{IPA|[ɜ]}}.)
|-
| class="nowrap" | {{audio-pipe|Near-open front unrounded vowel.ogg|Near-open front unrounded vowel|<big>{{IPA|[&nbsp;æ&nbsp;]}}</big>}}
|&nbsp;&nbsp;æ&nbsp;&nbsp;
| style="text-align: center;" | {{IPA|æ}}
| RP ''c'''a'''t
|
 
|- id="B"
! colspan="4" | <div style="font-weight: normal; float: right;">[[#top|^ top]]</div> B
|-
| class="nowrap" | {{audio-pipe|Voiced bilabial plosive.ogg|Voiced bilabial plosive|<big>{{IPA|[&nbsp;b&nbsp;]}}</big>}}
|&nbsp;&nbsp;b&nbsp;&nbsp;
| style="text-align: center;" | {{IPA|b}}
| English '''''b'''a'''bb'''le''
|
|-
| class="nowrap" | {{audio-pipe|Voiced bilabial implosive.ogg|Voiced bilabial implosive|<big>{{IPA|[&nbsp;ɓ&nbsp;]}}</big>}}
|&nbsp;&nbsp;ɓ&nbsp;&nbsp;
| style="text-align: center;" | {{IPA|ɓ}}
| Swahili '''''b'''wana
| Like a {{IPA|[b]}} said with a gulp. See [[implosive consonants]].
|-
| class="nowrap" | {{audio-pipe|Voiced bilabial fricative.ogg|Voiced bilabial fricative|<big>{{IPA|[&nbsp;β&nbsp;]}}</big>}}
|&nbsp;&nbsp;β&nbsp;&nbsp;
| style="text-align: center;" | {{IPA|β}}
| Spanish ''la '''B'''amba'', Kinyarwanda ''a'''b'''ana'' "children"
| Like {{IPA|[b]}}, but with the lips not quite touching.
 
! colspan="4" | <div style="font-weight: normal; float: right;">[[#top|^ top]]</div> C
|-
| class="nowrap" | {{audio-pipe|Voiceless palatal plosive.ogg|Voiceless palatal plosive|<big>{{IPA|[&nbsp;c&nbsp;]}}</big>}}
|&nbsp;&nbsp;c&nbsp;&nbsp;
| style="text-align: center;" | {{IPA|c}}
| Turkish '''''k'''ebap'' "[[kebab]]", Czech s'''t'''ín "shadow", Greek '''''κ'''αι'' "and"
| Between English '''''t'''une'' (RP) and '''''c'''ute.'' Sometimes used instead for {{IPA|[tʃ]}} in languages like Hindi.
|-
| class="nowrap" | {{audio-pipe|Voiceless palatal fricative.ogg|Voiceless palatal fricative|<big>{{IPA|[&nbsp;ç&nbsp;]}}</big>}}
|&nbsp;&nbsp;ç&nbsp;&nbsp;
| style="text-align: center;" | {{IPA|ç}}
| German ''I'''ch'''''
| More of a y-coloration (more palatal) than {{IPA|[x]}}. Some English speakers have a similar sound in '''''h'''uge''. To produce this sound, try whispering loudly the word "ye" as in "Hear ye!".
|-
| class="nowrap" | {{audio-pipe|Voiceless alveolo-palatal fricative.ogg|Voiceless alveolo-palatal fricative|<big>{{IPA|[&nbsp;ɕ&nbsp;]}}</big>}}
|&nbsp;&nbsp;ɕ&nbsp;&nbsp;
| style="text-align: center;" | {{IPA|ɕ}}
| Mandarin [[Xi'an|'''''X'''i'an'']], Polish '''''ś'''ciana''
| More y-like than {{IPA|[ʃ]}}; something like English '''''sh'''e.''
|-
| class="nowrap" | {{audio-pipe|Open-mid back rounded vowel.ogg|Open-mid back rounded vowel|<big>{{IPA|[&nbsp;ɔ&nbsp;]}}</big>}}
|&nbsp;&nbsp;ɔ&nbsp;&nbsp;
| style="text-align: center;" | {{IPA|ɔ}}
| see under [[#O|O]]
|
 
|- id="D"
! colspan="4" | <div style="font-weight: normal; float: right;">[[#top|^ top]]</div> D
|-
| class="nowrap" | {{audio-pipe|Voiced alveolar plosive.ogg|Voiced alveolar plosive|<big>{{IPA|[&nbsp;d&nbsp;]}}</big>}}
|&nbsp;&nbsp;d&nbsp;&nbsp;
| style="text-align: center;" | {{IPA|d}}
| English '''''d'''a'''d'''''
|
|-
| class="nowrap" | {{audio-pipe|Voiced alveolar implosive.ogg|Voiced alveolar implosive|<big>{{IPA|[&nbsp;ɗ&nbsp;]}}</big>}}
|&nbsp;&nbsp;ɗ&nbsp;&nbsp;
| style="text-align: center;" | {{IPA|ɗ}}
| Swahili '''''D'''o'''d'''oma''
| Like {{IPA|[d]}} said with a gulp.
|-
| class="nowrap" | {{audio-pipe|Voiced retroflex plosive.ogg|Voiced retroflex plosive|<big>{{IPA|[&nbsp;ɖ&nbsp;]}}</big>}}
|&nbsp;&nbsp;ɖ&nbsp;&nbsp;
| style="text-align: center;" | {{IPA|ɖ}}
| American English ''har'''d'''er''
| Like {{IPA|[d]}} with the tongue curled or pulled back.
|-
| class="nowrap" | {{audio-pipe|Voiced dental fricative.ogg|Voiced dental fricative|<big>{{IPA|[&nbsp;ð&nbsp;]}}</big>}}
|&nbsp;&nbsp;ð&nbsp;&nbsp;
| style="text-align: center;" | {{IPA|ð}}
| English '''''th'''e, ba'''th'''e''
|
|-
| class="nowrap" | {{audio-pipe|Voiced alveolar affricate.ogg|Voiced alveolar affricate|<big>{{IPA|[&nbsp;dz&nbsp;]}}</big>}}{{ref|d|1|}}
|&nbsp;&nbsp;dz&nbsp;&nbsp;
| style="text-align: center;" | {{IPA|dz}}
| English ''a'''dds''''', Italian '''''z'''ero''
|
|-
| class="nowrap" | {{audio-pipe|Voiced postalveolar affricate.ogg|Voiced postalveolar affricate|<big>{{IPA|[&nbsp;&nbsp;]}}</big>}}{{ref|d|1|noid=noid}}
|&nbsp;&nbsp;dʒ&nbsp;&nbsp;
| style="text-align: center;" | {{IPA|dʒ}}
| English '''''j'''u'''dg'''e''
|
|-
| class="nowrap" | {{audio-pipe|Voiced alveolo-palatal affricate.ogg|Voiced alveolo-palatal affricate|<big>{{IPA|[&nbsp;&nbsp;]}}</big>}}{{ref|d|1|noid=noid}}
|&nbsp;&nbsp;dʑ&nbsp;&nbsp;
| style="text-align: center;" | {{IPA|dʑ}}
| [[Polish phonology|Polish]] ''nie'''dź'''wiedź'' "bear"
| Like {{IPA|[dʒ]}}, but with more of a y-sound.
|-
| class="nowrap" | {{audio-pipe|Voiced retroflex affricate.ogg|Voiced retroflex affricate|<big>{{IPA|[&nbsp;&nbsp;]}}</big>}}{{ref|d|1|noid=noid}}
|&nbsp;&nbsp;dʐ&nbsp;&nbsp;
| style="text-align: center;" | {{IPA|dʐ}}
| Polish '''''dż'''em'' "jam"
| Like {{IPA|[dʒ]}} with the tongue curled or pulled back.
 
|- id="E"
! colspan="4" | <div style="font-weight: normal; float: right;">[[#top|^ top]]</div> E
|-
| class="nowrap" | {{audio-pipe|Close-mid front unrounded vowel.ogg|Close-mid front unrounded vowel|<big>{{IPA|[&nbsp;e&nbsp;]}}</big>}}
|&nbsp;&nbsp;e&nbsp;&nbsp;
| style="text-align: center;" | {{IPA|e}}
| Spanish ''f'''e''';'' French ''cl'''é'''''
|
|-
| class="nowrap" | {{audio-pipe|Close-mid front unrounded vowel.ogg|Close-mid front unrounded vowel|<big>{{IPA|[&nbsp;&nbsp;]}}</big>}}
|&nbsp;&nbsp;eː&nbsp;&nbsp;
| style="text-align: center;" | {{IPA|eː}}
| German ''Kl'''ee'''''
| Long {{IPA|[e]}}. Similar to English ''h'''e'''y'', before the y sets in.
|-
| class="nowrap" | {{audio-pipe|Mid-central_vowel.ogg|Mid central vowel|<big>{{IPA|[&nbsp;ə&nbsp;]}}</big>}}
|&nbsp;&nbsp;ə&nbsp;&nbsp;
| style="text-align: center;" | {{IPA|ə}}
| English '''''a'''bove,'' Hindi ठग {{IPA|[ʈʰəɡ]}} ''(thug)'' "thief"
| (Only occurs in English when not stressed.)
|-
| class="nowrap" | {{audio-pipe|En-us-er.ogg|R-colored vowel#R-colored vowel|<big>{{IPA|[&nbsp;ɚ&nbsp;]}}</big>}}
|&nbsp;&nbsp;ɚ&nbsp;&nbsp;
| style="text-align: center;" | {{IPA|ɚ}}
| American English ''runn'''er'''''
|
|-
| class="nowrap" | {{audio-pipe|Open-mid front unrounded vowel.ogg|Open-mid front unrounded vowel|<big>{{IPA|[&nbsp;ɛ&nbsp;]}}</big>}}
|&nbsp;&nbsp;ɛ&nbsp;&nbsp;
| style="text-align: center;" | {{IPA|ɛ}}
| English ''b'''e'''t''
|
|-
| style="padding-left: 16px" |<big>{{IPAlink|[ &nbsp;ɛ̃ &nbsp;]|direct page=Nasal vowel}}</big>
|&nbsp;&nbsp;ɛ̃&nbsp;&nbsp;
| style="text-align: center;" | {{IPA|ɛ̃}}
| French [[Saint-Étienne|''S'''ain'''t-Étienne'']], ''v'''in''''', ''m'''ain'''''
| Nasalized {{IPA|[ɛ]}}.
|-
| class="nowrap" | {{audio-pipe|Open-mid central unrounded vowel.ogg|Open-mid central unrounded vowel|<big>{{IPA|[&nbsp;ɜ&nbsp;]}}</big>}}
|&nbsp;&nbsp;ɜ&nbsp;&nbsp;
| style="text-align: center;" | {{IPA|ɜ}}
| RP ''b'''ir'''d'' (long)
|
|-
| style="padding-left: 16px" | <big>{{IPAlink|[&nbsp;ɝ&nbsp;]|direct page=R-colored vowel#R-colored vowel}}</big>
|&nbsp;&nbsp;ɝ&nbsp;&nbsp;
| style="text-align: center;" | {{IPA|ɝ}}
| American English ''b'''ir'''d''
|
 
|- id="F"
! colspan="4" | <div style="font-weight: normal; float: right;">[[#top|^ top]]</div> F
|-
| class="nowrap" | {{audio-pipe|Voiceless labiodental fricative.ogg|Voiceless labiodental fricative|<big>{{IPA|[&nbsp;f&nbsp;]}}</big>}}
|&nbsp;&nbsp;f&nbsp;&nbsp;
| style="text-align: center;" | {{IPA|f}}
| English '''''f'''un''
|
|-
| class="nowrap" | {{audio-pipe|Voiced palatal plosive.ogg|Voiced palatal plosive|<big>{{IPA|[&nbsp;ɟ&nbsp;]}}</big>}}
|&nbsp;&nbsp;ɟ&nbsp;&nbsp;
| style="text-align: center;" | {{IPA|ɟ}}
| see under [[#J|J]]
|
|-
| class="nowrap" | {{audio-pipe|Voiced palatal implosive.ogg|Voiced palatal implosive|<big>{{IPA|[&nbsp;ʄ&nbsp;]}}</big>}}
|&nbsp;&nbsp;ʄ&nbsp;&nbsp;
| style="text-align: center;" | {{IPA|ʄ}}
| see under [[#J|J]]
|
 
|- id="G"
! colspan="4" | <div style="font-weight: normal; float: right;">[[#top|^ top]]</div> G
|-
| class="nowrap" | {{audio-pipe|Voiced velar plosive.ogg|Voiced velar plosive|<big>{{IPA|[&nbsp;ɡ&nbsp;]}}</big>}}
|&nbsp;&nbsp;ɡ&nbsp;&nbsp;
| style="text-align: center;" | {{IPA|ɡ}}
| English '''''g'''a'''g'''''
| (Should look like [[file:opentail_g.svg|6px]]. No different from a Latin "g")
|-
| class="nowrap" | {{audio-pipe|Voiced velar implosive.ogg|Voiced velar implosive|<big>{{IPA|[&nbsp;ɠ&nbsp;]}}</big>}}
|&nbsp;&nbsp;ɠ&nbsp;&nbsp;
| style="text-align: center;" | {{IPA|ɠ}}
| Swahili ''U'''g'''anda''
| Like {{IPA|[ɡ]}} said with a gulp.
|-
| class="nowrap" | {{audio-pipe|Voiced uvular plosive.ogg|Voiced uvular plosive|<big>{{IPA|[&nbsp;ɢ&nbsp;]}}</big>}}
|&nbsp;&nbsp;ɢ&nbsp;&nbsp;
| style="text-align: center;" | {{IPA|ɢ}}
|
| Like {{IPA|[ɡ]}}, but further back, in the throat. Found in [[Persian phonology|Persian]] and some Arabic dialects for {{IPA|/q/}}, as in ''[[Muammar al-Gaddafi|Gaddafi]].''<!-- Needs verification -->
|-
| class="nowrap" | {{audio-pipe|Voiced postalveolar fricative.ogg|Voiced postalveolar fricative|<big>{{IPA|[&nbsp;ʒ&nbsp;]}}</big>}}
|&nbsp;&nbsp;ʒ&nbsp;&nbsp;
| style="text-align: center;" | {{IPA|ʒ}}
| see under [[#Z|Z]]
| English ''bei'''g'''e.''
! colspan="4" | <div style="font-weight: normal; float: right;">[[#top|^ top]]</div> H
|-
| class="nowrap" | {{audio-pipe|Voiceless glottal fricative.ogg|Voiceless glottal fricative|<big>{{IPA|[&nbsp;h&nbsp;]}}</big>}}
|&nbsp;&nbsp;h&nbsp;&nbsp;
| style="text-align: center;" | {{IPA|h}}
| American English '''''h'''ouse''
|
|-
| class="nowrap" | {{audio-pipe|Voiced glottal fricative.ogg|Voiced glottal fricative|<big>{{IPA|[&nbsp;ɦ&nbsp;]}}</big>}}
|&nbsp;&nbsp;ɦ&nbsp;&nbsp;
| style="text-align: center;" | {{IPA|ɦ}}
| English ''a'''h'''ead,'' when said quickly.
|
|-
| style="padding-left: 16px" |<big>{{IPAlink|[&nbsp;ʰ&nbsp;]|direct page=Aspiration (phonetics)}}</big>
|
| The extra puff of air in English ''top'' {{IPA|[tʰɒp]}} compared to ''stop'' [stɒp], or to French or Spanish {{IPA|[t]}}.
|-
| class="nowrap" | {{audio-pipe|Voiceless pharyngeal fricative.ogg|Voiceless pharyngeal fricative|<big>{{IPA|[&nbsp;ħ&nbsp;]}}</big>}}
|&nbsp;&nbsp;ħ&nbsp;&nbsp;
| style="text-align: center;" | {{IPA|ħ}}
| Arabic {{wikt-lang|ar|مُحَمَّد}}محمد ''Mu'''h'''ammad''
| Far down in the throat, like {{IPA|[h]}}, but stronger.
|-
| class="nowrap" | {{audio-pipe|Labial-palatal approximant.ogg|Labial-palatal approximant|<big>{{IPA|[&nbsp;ɥ&nbsp;]}}</big>}}
|&nbsp;&nbsp;ɥ&nbsp;&nbsp;
| style="text-align: center;" | {{IPA|ɥ}}
| see under [[#Y|Y]]
|
|-
| style="padding-left: 16px" | <big>{{IPA|[&nbsp;ɮ&nbsp;]}}</big>
|&nbsp;&nbsp;ɮ&nbsp;&nbsp;
| style="text-align: center;" | {{IPA|ɮ}}
| see under [[#L|L]]
|
 
|- id="I"
! colspan="4" | <div style="font-weight: normal; float: right;">[[#top|^ top]]</div> I
|-
| class="nowrap" | {{audio-pipe|Close front unrounded vowel.ogg|Close front unrounded vowel|<big>{{IPA|[&nbsp;i&nbsp;]}}</big>}}
|&nbsp;&nbsp;i&nbsp;&nbsp;
| style="text-align: center;" | {{IPA|i}}
| French ''v'''i'''lle'', Spanish [[Valladolid|''Valladol'''i'''d'']]
|
|-
| class="nowrap" | {{audio-pipe|Close front unrounded vowel.ogg|Close front unrounded vowel|<big>{{IPA|[&nbsp;&nbsp;]}}</big>}}
|&nbsp;&nbsp;iː&nbsp;&nbsp;
| style="text-align: center;" | {{IPA|iː}}
| English ''s'''ea'''''
| Long {{IPA|[i]}}.
|-
| class="nowrap" | {{audio-pipe|Near-close near-front unrounded vowel.ogg|Near-close near-front unrounded vowel|<big>{{IPA|[&nbsp;ɪ&nbsp;]}}</big>}}
|&nbsp;&nbsp;ɪ&nbsp;&nbsp;
| style="text-align: center;" | {{IPA|ɪ}}
| English ''s'''i'''t''
|
|-
| class="nowrap" | {{audio-pipe|Close central unrounded vowel.ogg|Close central unrounded vowel|<big>{{IPA|[&nbsp;ɨ&nbsp;]}}</big>}}
|&nbsp;&nbsp;ɨ&nbsp;&nbsp;
| style="text-align: center;" | {{IPA|ɨ}}
| Russian ты "you"
| Often used for unstressed English ''ros'''e'''s.''
 
! colspan="4" | <div style="font-weight: normal; float: right;">[[#top|^ top]]</div> J
|-
| class="nowrap" | {{audio-pipe|Palatal approximant.ogg|Palatal approximant|<big>{{IPA|[&nbsp;j&nbsp;]}}</big>}}
|&nbsp;&nbsp;j&nbsp;&nbsp;
| style="text-align: center;" | {{IPA|j}}
| English '''''y'''es, hallelu'''j'''ah,'' German '''''J'''unge''
|
|-
| style="padding-left: 16px" |[[Palatalization (phonetics)|<big>{{IPA|[&nbsp;ʲ&nbsp;]}}</big>]]
|&nbsp;&nbsp;ʲ&nbsp;&nbsp;
| style="text-align: center;" | {{IPA|ʲ}}
| Russian Ленин {{IPA|[ˈlʲenʲɪn]}}</big>
| Indicates a sound is more y-like.
|-
| class="nowrap" | {{audio-pipe|Voiced palatal fricative.ogg|Voiced palatal fricative|<big>{{IPA|[&nbsp;ʝ&nbsp;]}}</big>}}
|&nbsp;&nbsp;ʝ&nbsp;&nbsp;
| style="text-align: center;" | {{IPA|ʝ}}
| Spanish ''ca'''y'''o'' (some dialects)
| Like {{IPA|[j]}}, but stronger.
|-
| class="nowrap" | {{audio-pipe|Voiced palatal plosive.ogg|Voiced palatal plosive|<big>{{IPA|[&nbsp;ɟ&nbsp;]}}</big>}}
|&nbsp;&nbsp;ɟ&nbsp;&nbsp;
| style="text-align: center;" | {{IPA|ɟ}}
| Turkish '''''g'''ör'' "see", Czech '''d'''íra "hole"
| Between English '''''d'''ew'' (RP) and ''ar'''g'''ue.'' Sometimes used instead for {{IPA|[dʒ]}} in languages like Hindi.
|-
| class="nowrap" | {{audio-pipe|Voiced palatal implosive.ogg|Voiced palatal implosive|<big>{{IPA|[&nbsp;ʄ&nbsp;]}}</big>}}
|&nbsp;&nbsp;ʄ&nbsp;&nbsp;
| style="text-align: center;" | {{IPA|ʄ}}
| Swahili '''''j'''ambo''
| Like {{IPA|[ɟ]}} said with a gulp.
 
! colspan="4" | <div style="font-weight: normal; float: right;">[[#top|^ top]]</div> K
|-
| class="nowrap" | {{audio-pipe|Voiceless velar plosive.ogg|Voiceless velar plosive|<big>{{IPA|[&nbsp;k&nbsp;]}}</big>}}
|&nbsp;&nbsp;k&nbsp;&nbsp;
| style="text-align: center;" | {{IPA|k}}
| English ''ki'''ck''', s'''k'''ip''
|
 
|- id="L"
! colspan="4" | <div style="font-weight: normal; float: right;">[[#top|^ top]]</div> L
|-
| class="nowrap" | {{audio-pipe|Alveolar lateral approximant.ogg|Alveolar lateral approximant|<big>{{IPA|[&nbsp;l&nbsp;]}}</big>}}
|&nbsp;&nbsp;l&nbsp;&nbsp;
| style="text-align: center;" | {{IPA|l}}
| English '''''l'''eaf''
|
|-
| class="nowrap" | {{audio-pipe|Velarized alveolar lateral approximant.ogg|Velarized alveolar lateral approximant|<big>{{IPA|[&nbsp;ɫ&nbsp;]}}</big>}}
|&nbsp;&nbsp;ɫ&nbsp;&nbsp;
| style="text-align: center;" | {{IPA|ɫ}}
| English ''woo'''l'''''<br>Russian ма'''л'''ый {{IPA|[ˈmɑɫɨj]}} "small"
| "Dark" el.
|-
| class="nowrap" | {{audio-pipe|Voiceless alveolar lateral fricative.ogg|Voiceless alveolar lateral fricative|<big>{{IPA|[&nbsp;ɬ&nbsp;]}}</big>}}
|&nbsp;&nbsp;ɬ&nbsp;&nbsp;
| style="text-align: center;" | {{IPA|ɬ}}
| Welsh '''''ll'''wyd'' {{IPA|[ɬʊɪd]}} "grey"<br>Zulu '''''hl'''ala'' {{IPA|[ɬaːla]}} "sit"
| By touching roof of mouth with tongue and giving a quick breath out. Found in [[Welsh language|Welsh]] placenames like '''''Ll'''ango'''ll'''en'' and '''''Ll'''ane'''ll'''i'' and [[Nelson Mandela]]'s Xhosa name ''Roli'''hl'''a'''hl'''a.''
|-
| class="nowrap" | {{audio-pipe|Retroflex lateral approximant.ogg|Retroflex lateral approximant|<big>{{IPA|[&nbsp;ɭ&nbsp;]}}</big>}}
|&nbsp;&nbsp;ɭ&nbsp;&nbsp;
| style="text-align: center;" | {{IPA|ɭ}}
|
| Like {{IPA|[l]}} with the tongue curled or pulled back.
|-
| class="nowrap" | {{audio-pipe|Alveolar lateral flap.ogg|Alveolar lateral flap|<big>{{IPA|[&nbsp;ɺ&nbsp;]}}</big>}}
|&nbsp;&nbsp;ɺ&nbsp;&nbsp;
| style="text-align: center;" | {{IPA|ɺ}}
|
| A flapped {{IPA|[l]}}, like {{IPA|[l]}} and {{IPA|[ɾ]}} said together.<!--This sound is not found in Japanese, so please don't use that language as an example.-->
|-
| class="nowrap" | {{audio-pipe|Voiced alveolar lateral fricative.ogg|Voiced alveolar lateral fricative|<big>{{IPA|[&nbsp;ɮ&nbsp;]}}</big>}}
|&nbsp;&nbsp;ɮ&nbsp;&nbsp;
| style="text-align: center;" | {{IPA|ɮ}}
| Zulu '''''dl'''a'' "eat"
| Rather like {{IPA|[l]}} and {{IPA|[ʒ]}}, or {{IPA|[l]}} and {{IPA|[ð]}}, said together.
 
! colspan="4" | <div style="font-weight: normal; float: right;">[[#top|^ top]]</div> M
|-
| class="nowrap" | {{audio-pipe|Bilabial nasal.ogg|Bilabial nasal|<big>{{IPA|[&nbsp;m&nbsp;]}}</big>}}
|&nbsp;&nbsp;m&nbsp;&nbsp;
| style="text-align: center;" | {{IPA|m}}
| English '''''m'''i'''m'''e''
|
|-
| class="nowrap" | {{audio-pipe|Labiodental nasal.ogg|Labiodental nasal|<big>{{IPA|[&nbsp;ɱ&nbsp;]}}</big>}}
|&nbsp;&nbsp;ɱ&nbsp;&nbsp;
| style="text-align: center;" | {{IPA|ɱ}}
| English ''sy'''m'''phony''
| Like {{IPA|[m]}}, but lips touch teeth as they do in {{IPA|[f]}}.
|-
| style="padding-left: 16px" |<big>{{IPA|[&nbsp;ɯ&nbsp;]}}</big>
|&nbsp;&nbsp;ɯ&nbsp;&nbsp;
| style="text-align: center;" | {{IPA|ɯ}}
| see under [[#W|W]]
|
|-
| class="nowrap" | {{audio-pipe|Voiceless labio-velar fricative.ogg|Voiceless labio-velar approximant|<big>{{IPA|[&nbsp;ʍ&nbsp;]}}</big>}}
|&nbsp;&nbsp;ʍ&nbsp;&nbsp;
| style="text-align: center;" | {{IPA|ʍ}}
| see under [[#W|W]]
|
! colspan="4" | <div style="font-weight: normal; float: right;">[[#top|^ top]]</div> N
|-
| class="nowrap" | {{audio-pipe|Alveolar nasal.ogg|Alveolar nasal|<big>{{IPA|[&nbsp;n&nbsp;]}}</big>}}
|&nbsp;&nbsp;n&nbsp;&nbsp;
| style="text-align: center;" | {{IPA|n}}
| English '''''n'''u'''n'''''
|
|-
| class="nowrap" | {{audio-pipe|Velar nasal.ogg|Velar nasal|<big>{{IPA|[&nbsp;ŋ&nbsp;]}}</big>}}
|&nbsp;&nbsp;ŋ&nbsp;&nbsp;
| style="text-align: center;" | {{IPA|ŋ}}
| English ''si'''ng'''''
|
|-
| class="nowrap" | {{audio-pipe|Palatal nasal.ogg|Palatal nasal|<big>{{IPA|[&nbsp;ɲ&nbsp;]}}</big>}}
|&nbsp;&nbsp;ɲ&nbsp;&nbsp;
| style="text-align: center;" | {{IPA|ɲ}}
| Spanish ''Pe'''ñ'''a,'' French ''champa'''gn'''e''
| Rather like English ''ca'''ny'''on'' ({{IPA|/nj/}} said quickly).
|-
| class="nowrap" | {{audio-pipe|Retroflex nasal.ogg|Retroflex nasal|<big>{{IPA|[&nbsp;ɳ&nbsp;]}}</big>}}
|&nbsp;&nbsp;ɳ&nbsp;&nbsp;
| style="text-align: center;" | {{IPA|ɳ}}
| Hindi वरुण {{IPA|[ʋəruɳ]}} [[Varuna|''Varu'''n'''a'']]
| Like {{IPA|[n]}} with the tongue curled or pulled back.
|-
| class="nowrap" | {{audio-pipe|Uvular nasal.ogg|Uvular nasal|<big>{{IPA|[&nbsp;ɴ&nbsp;]}}</big>}}
|&nbsp;&nbsp;ɴ&nbsp;&nbsp;
| style="text-align: center;" | {{IPA|ɴ}}
| Castilian Spanish ''Do'''n''' Juan'' {{IPA|[doɴˈχwan]}}
| Like {{IPA|[ŋ]}}, but further back, in the throat.
! colspan="4" | <div style="font-weight: normal; float: right;">[[#top|^ top]]</div> O
|-
| class="nowrap" | {{audio-pipe|Close-mid back rounded vowel.ogg|Close-mid back rounded vowel|<big>{{IPA|[&nbsp;o&nbsp;]}}</big>}}
|&nbsp;&nbsp;o&nbsp;&nbsp;
| style="text-align: center;" | {{IPA|o}}
| Spanish ''n'''o''','' French '''''eau'''''
|
|-
| class="nowrap" | {{audio-pipe|Close-mid back rounded vowel.ogg|Close-mid back rounded vowel|<big>{{IPA|[&nbsp;&nbsp;]}}</big>}}
|&nbsp;&nbsp;oː&nbsp;&nbsp;
| style="text-align: center;" | {{IPA|oː}}
| German ''B'''o'''den'', French [[Vosges|''V'''o'''sges'']]
| Long {{IPA|[o]}}. Somewhat reminiscent of English ''n'''o'''.''
|-
| class="nowrap" | {{audio-pipe|Open-mid back rounded vowel.ogg|Open-mid back rounded vowel|<big>{{IPA|[&nbsp;ɔ&nbsp;]}}</big>}}
|&nbsp;&nbsp;ɔ&nbsp;&nbsp;
| style="text-align: center;" | {{IPA|ɔ}}
| German [[Oldenburg (disambiguation)|'''''O'''ldenburg'']], French [[Garonne|''Gar'''o'''nne'']]
|
|-
| class="nowrap" | {{audio-pipe|Open-mid back rounded vowel.ogg|Open-mid back rounded vowel|<big>{{IPA|[&nbsp;ɔː&nbsp;]}}</big>}}
|&nbsp;&nbsp;ɔː&nbsp;&nbsp;
| style="text-align: center;" | {{IPA|ɔː}}
| RP ''l'''aw''''', French [[Limoges|''Lim'''o'''ges'']]
| Long {{IPA|[ɔ]}}.
|-
| class="nowrap" | {{audio-pipe|Fr-on.ogg|Nasal vowel|<big>{{IPA|[&nbsp;ɔ̃&nbsp;]}}</big>}}
|&nbsp;&nbsp;ɔ̃&nbsp;&nbsp;
| style="text-align: center;" | {{IPA|ɔ̃}}
| French [[Lyon|''Ly'''on''''']], ''s'''on'''''
| Nasalized {{IPA|[ɔ]}}.
|-
| class="nowrap" | {{audio-pipe|Close-mid front rounded vowel.ogg|Close-mid front rounded vowel|<big>{{IPA|[&nbsp;ø&nbsp;]}}</big>}}
|&nbsp;&nbsp;ø&nbsp;&nbsp;
| style="text-align: center;" | {{IPA|ø}}
| French ''f'''eu''''', ''b'''œu'''fs''
| Like {{IPA|[e]}}, but with the lips rounded like {{IPA|[o]}}.
|-
| class="nowrap" | {{audio-pipe|Close-mid front rounded vowel.ogg|Close-mid front rounded vowel|<big>{{IPA|[&nbsp;øː&nbsp;]}}</big>}}
|&nbsp;&nbsp;øː&nbsp;&nbsp;
| style="text-align: center;" | {{IPA|øː}}
| German [[Johann Wolfgang von Goethe|''G'''oe'''the'']], French [[Deûle|''D'''eû'''le'']], ''n'''eu'''tre''
| Long {{IPA|[ø]}}.
|-
| class="nowrap" | {{audio-pipe|Close-mid central rounded vowel.ogg|Close-mid central rounded vowel|<big>{{IPA|[&nbsp;ɵ&nbsp;]}}</big>}}
|&nbsp;&nbsp;ɵ&nbsp;&nbsp;
| style="text-align: center;" | {{IPA|ɵ}}
| Swedish ''d'''u'''m''
| Halfway between {{IPA|[o]}} and {{IPA|[ø]}}. Similar to {{IPA|[ʊ]}} but with the tongue slightly more down and front.
|-
| class="nowrap" | {{audio-pipe|Open-mid front rounded vowel.ogg|Open-mid front rounded vowel|<big>{{IPA|[&nbsp;œ&nbsp;]}}</big>}}
|&nbsp;&nbsp;œ&nbsp;&nbsp;
| style="text-align: center;" | {{IPA|œ}}
| French ''b'''œu'''f'', ''s'''eu'''l'', German [[Göttingen|''G'''ö'''ttingen'']]
| Like {{IPA|[ɛ]}}, but with the lips rounded like {{IPA|[ɔ]}}.
|-
| class="nowrap" | {{audio-pipe|Open-mid front rounded vowel.ogg|Open-mid front rounded vowel|<big>{{IPA|[&nbsp;œː&nbsp;]}}</big>}}
|&nbsp;&nbsp;œː&nbsp;&nbsp;
| style="text-align: center;" | {{IPA|œː}}
| French '''''œu'''vre'', ''h'''eu'''re''
| Long {{IPA|[œ]}}.
|-
| class="nowrap" | {{audio-pipe|Fr-Un-fr FR-Paris.ogg|Nasal vowel|<big>{{IPA|[&nbsp;œ̃&nbsp;]}}</big>}}
|&nbsp;&nbsp;œ̃&nbsp;&nbsp;
| style="text-align: center;" | {{IPA|œ̃}}
| French ''br'''un''''', ''parf'''um'''''
| Nasalized {{IPA|[œ]}}.
|-
| class="nowrap" | {{audio-pipe|Voiceless dental fricative.ogg|Voiceless dental fricative|<big>{{IPA|[&nbsp;θ&nbsp;]}}</big>}}
|&nbsp;&nbsp;θ&nbsp;&nbsp;
| style="text-align: center;" | {{IPA|θ}}
| see under [[#other|other]]
|
|-
| class="nowrap" | {{audio-pipe|Voiceless bilabial fricative.ogg|Voiceless bilabial fricative|<big>{{IPA|[&nbsp;ɸ&nbsp;]}}</big>}}
|&nbsp;&nbsp;ɸ&nbsp;&nbsp;
| style="text-align: center;" | {{IPA|ɸ}}
| see under [[#other|other]]
 
! colspan="4" | <div style="font-weight: normal; float: right;">[[#top|^ top]]</div> P
|-
| class="nowrap" | {{audio-pipe|Voiceless bilabial plosive.ogg|Voiceless bilabial plosive|<big>{{IPA|[&nbsp;p&nbsp;]}}</big>}}
|&nbsp;&nbsp;p&nbsp;&nbsp;
| style="text-align: center;" | {{IPA|p}}
| English ''pi'''p'''
|
 
|- id="Q"
! colspan="4" | <div style="font-weight: normal; float: right;">[[#top|^ top]]</div> Q
|-
| class="nowrap" | {{audio-pipe|Voiceless uvular plosive.ogg|Voiceless uvular plosive|<big>{{IPA|[&nbsp;q&nbsp;]}}</big>}}
|&nbsp;&nbsp;q&nbsp;&nbsp;
| style="text-align: center;" | {{IPA|q}}
| Arabic {{wikt-lang|ar|قُرْآن}} ''[[Qur'an|'''Q'''ur’ān]]''
| Like {{IPA|[k]}}, but further back, in the throat.
 
! colspan="4" | <div style="font-weight: normal; float: right;">[[#top|^ top]]</div> R
|-
| class="nowrap" | {{audio-pipe|Alveolar trill.ogg|Alveolar trill|<big>{{IPA|[&nbsp;r&nbsp;]}}</big>}}
|&nbsp;&nbsp;r&nbsp;&nbsp;
| style="text-align: center;" | {{IPA|r}}
| Spanish ''pe'''rr'''o,'' Scots ''bo'''rr'''ow''
| "Rolled R". (Generally used for English {{IPA|[ɹ]}} when there's no need to be precise.)
|-
| class="nowrap" | {{audio-pipe|Alveolar tap.ogg|Alveolar tap|<big>{{IPA|[&nbsp;ɾ&nbsp;]}}</big>}}
|&nbsp;&nbsp;ɾ&nbsp;&nbsp;
| style="text-align: center;" | {{IPA|ɾ}}
| Spanish ''pe'''r'''o,'' Tagalog ''dali'''r'''i'', Malay ''kaba'''r''''', American English ''ki'''tt'''y/ki'''dd'''ie''
| "Flapped R".
|-
| class="nowrap" | {{audio-pipe|Uvular trill.ogg|Uvular trill|<big>{{IPA|[&nbsp;ʀ&nbsp;]}}</big>}}
|&nbsp;&nbsp;ʀ&nbsp;&nbsp;
| style="text-align: center;" | {{IPA|ʀ}}
| Dutch '''''r'''ood'' and German '''''r'''ot'' (some speakers)
| A trill in the back of the throat. Found for /r/ in some conservative registers of French.
|-
| class="nowrap" | {{audio-pipe|Retroflex flap.ogg|Retroflex flap|<big>{{IPA|[&nbsp;ɽ&nbsp;]}}</big>}}
|&nbsp;&nbsp;ɽ&nbsp;&nbsp;
| style="text-align: center;" | {{IPA|ɽ}}
| Hindi साड़ी {{IPA|[sɑːɽiː]}} "sari"
| Like flapped {{IPA|[ɾ]}}, but with the tongue curled back.
|-
| class="nowrap" | {{audio-pipe|Alveolar approximant.ogg|Alveolar approximant|<big>{{IPA|[&nbsp;ɹ&nbsp;]}}</big>}}
|&nbsp;&nbsp;ɹ&nbsp;&nbsp;
| style="text-align: center;" | {{IPA|ɹ}}
| RP ''bo'''rr'''ow''
| <!--This is not the sound or ''run,'' which is [ɹʷ].-->
|-
| class="nowrap" | {{audio-pipe|Retroflex approximant.ogg|Retroflex approximant|<big>{{IPA|[&nbsp;ɻ&nbsp;]}}</big>}}
|&nbsp;&nbsp;ɻ&nbsp;&nbsp;
| style="text-align: center;" | {{IPA|ɻ}}
| American English ''bo'''rr'''ow, butt'''er'''''
| Like {{IPA|[ɹ]}}, but with the tongue curled or pulled back, as pronounced by many English speakers.
|-
| class="nowrap" | {{audio-pipe|Voiced uvular fricative.ogg|Voiced uvular fricative|<big>{{IPA|[&nbsp;ʁ&nbsp;]}}</big>}}
|&nbsp;&nbsp;ʁ&nbsp;&nbsp;
| style="text-align: center;" | {{IPA|ʁ}}
| French ''[[Paris|Pa'''r'''is]]'', German [[Bernhard Riemann|'''''R'''iemann'']]
| Said back in the throat, but not trilled.
 
! colspan="4" | <div style="font-weight: normal; float: right;">[[#top|^ top]]</div> S
|-
| class="nowrap" | {{audio-pipe|Voiceless alveolar fricative.ogg|Voiceless alveolar fricative|<big>{{IPA|[&nbsp;s&nbsp;]}}</big>}}
|&nbsp;&nbsp;s&nbsp;&nbsp;
| style="text-align: center;" | {{IPA|s}}
| English '''''s'''a'''ss'''''
|
|-
| class="nowrap" | {{audio-pipe|Voiceless postalveolar fricative.ogg|Voiceless postalveolar fricative|<big>{{IPA|[&nbsp;ʃ&nbsp;]}}</big>}}
|&nbsp;&nbsp;ʃ&nbsp;&nbsp;
| style="text-align: center;" | {{IPA|ʃ}}
| English '''''sh'''oe''<!--italicized 2008-10-03-->
|
|-
| class="nowrap" | {{audio-pipe|Voiceless retroflex fricative.ogg|Voiceless retroflex fricative|<big>{{IPA|[&nbsp;ʂ&nbsp;]}}</big>}}
|&nbsp;&nbsp;ʂ&nbsp;&nbsp;
| style="text-align: center;" | {{IPA|ʂ}}
| Mandarin 少林 ''([[Shaolin Monastery|'''Sh'''àolín]])'', Russian [[Alexander Pushkin|Пу'''ш'''кин ''(Pu'''sh'''kin)'']]
| Acoustically similar to {{IPA|[ʃ]}}, but with the tongue curled or pulled back.<br>
 
! colspan="4" | <div style="font-weight: normal; float: right;">[[#top|^ top]]</div> T
|-
| class="nowrap" | {{audio-pipe|Voiceless alveolar plosive.ogg|Voiceless alveolar plosive|<big>{{IPA|[&nbsp;t&nbsp;]}}</big>}}
|&nbsp;&nbsp;t&nbsp;&nbsp;
| style="text-align: center;" | {{IPA|t}}
| English ''to'''t''', s'''t'''op''
|
|-
| class="nowrap" | {{audio-pipe|Voiceless retroflex plosive.ogg|Voiceless retroflex plosive|<big>{{IPA|[&nbsp;ʈ&nbsp;]}}</big>}}
|&nbsp;&nbsp;ʈ&nbsp;&nbsp;
| style="text-align: center;" | {{IPA|ʈ}}
| Hindi ठग {{IPA|[ʈʰəɡ]}} ''(thug)'' "thief"
| Like {{IPA|[t]}}, but with the tongue curled or pulled back.
|-
| class="nowrap" | {{audio-pipe|Voiceless alveolar affricate.ogg|Voiceless alveolar affricate|<big>{{IPA|[&nbsp;ts&nbsp;]}}</big>}}{{ref|t|2}}
|&nbsp;&nbsp;ts&nbsp;&nbsp;
| style="text-align: center;" | {{IPA|ts}}
| English ''ca'''ts''','' Russian '''ц'''арь '''''ts'''ar''
|
|-
| class="nowrap" | {{audio-pipe|Voiceless palato-alveolar affricate.ogg|Voiceless postalveolar affricate|<big>{{IPA|[&nbsp;&nbsp;]}}</big>}} {{ref|t|2|noid=noid}}
|&nbsp;&nbsp;tʃ&nbsp;&nbsp;
| style="text-align: center;" | {{IPA|tʃ}}
| English '''''ch'''ur'''ch'''''
|
|-
| class="nowrap" | {{audio-pipe|Voiceless alveolo-palatal affricate.ogg|Voiceless alveolo-palatal affricate|<big>{{IPA|[&nbsp;&nbsp;]}}</big>}}{{ref|t|2|noid=noid}}
|&nbsp;&nbsp;tɕ&nbsp;&nbsp;
| style="text-align: center;" | {{IPA|tɕ}}
| Mandarin 北京 {{audio-pipe|Zh-Beijing.ogg|Beijing|''Běi'''j'''īng''}}, Polish '''''ci'''ebie'' "you"
| Like {{IPA|[tʃ]}}, but with more of a y-sound.
|-
| class="nowrap" | {{audio-pipe|Voiceless retroflex affricate.ogg|Voiceless retroflex affricate|<big>{{IPA|[&nbsp;&nbsp;]}}</big>}}{{ref|t|2|noid=noid}}
|&nbsp;&nbsp;tʂ&nbsp;&nbsp;
| style="text-align: center;" | {{IPA|tʂ}}
| Mandarin '''''zh''''', Polish '''''cz'''as''
| Like {{IPA|[tʃ]}} with the tongue curled or pulled back.
 
|- id="U"
! colspan="4" | <div style="font-weight: normal; float: right;">[[#top|^ top]]</div> U
|-
| class="nowrap" | {{audio-pipe|Close back rounded vowel.ogg|Close back rounded vowel|<big>{{IPA|[&nbsp;u&nbsp;]}}</big>}}
|&nbsp;&nbsp;u&nbsp;&nbsp;
| style="text-align: center;" | {{IPA|u}}
| French ''v'''ou'''s'' "you"
|
|-
| class="nowrap" | {{audio-pipe|Close back rounded vowel.ogg|Close back rounded vowel|<big>{{IPA|[&nbsp;&nbsp;]}}</big>}}
|&nbsp;&nbsp;uː&nbsp;&nbsp;
| style="text-align: center;" | {{IPA|uː}}
| French [[Rocquencourt|''Rocquenc'''ou'''rt'']], German [[Michael Schumacher|''Sch'''u'''macher'']], close to RP ''f'''oo'''d''
| Long {{IPA|[u]}}.
|-
| class="nowrap" | {{audio-pipe|Near-close near-back rounded vowel.ogg|Near-close near-back vowel|<big>{{IPA|[&nbsp;ʊ&nbsp;]}}</big>}}
|&nbsp;&nbsp;ʊ&nbsp;&nbsp;
| style="text-align: center;" | {{IPA|ʊ}}
| English ''f'''oo'''t'', German ''B'''u'''ndesrepublik''
|
|-
| class="nowrap" | {{audio-pipe|Close central rounded vowel.ogg|Close central rounded vowel|<big>{{IPA|[&nbsp;ʉ&nbsp;]}}</big>}}
|&nbsp;&nbsp;ʉ&nbsp;&nbsp;
| style="text-align: center;" | {{IPA|ʉ}}
| Australian English ''f'''oo'''d'' (long)
| Like {{IPA|[ɨ]}}, but with the lips rounded as for {{IPA|[u]}}.
|-
| class="nowrap" | {{audio-pipe|Labial-palatal approximant.ogg|Labial-palatal approximant|<big>{{IPA|[&nbsp;ɥ&nbsp;]}}</big>}}
|&nbsp;&nbsp;ɥ&nbsp;&nbsp;
| style="text-align: center;" | {{IPA|ɥ}}
| see under [[#Y|Y]]
|
|-
| class="nowrap" | {{audio-pipe|Close back unrounded vowel.ogg|Close back unrounded vowel|<big>{{IPA|[&nbsp;ɯ&nbsp;]}}</big>}}
|&nbsp;&nbsp;ɯ&nbsp;&nbsp;
| style="text-align: center;" | {{IPA|ɯ}}
| see under [[#W|W]]
|
 
|- id="V"
! colspan="4" | <div style="font-weight: normal; float: right;">[[#top|^ top]]</div> V
|-
| class="nowrap" | {{audio-pipe|Voiced labiodental fricative.ogg|Voiced labiodental fricative|<big>{{IPA|[&nbsp;v&nbsp;]}}</big>}}
|&nbsp;&nbsp;v&nbsp;&nbsp;
| style="text-align: center;" | {{IPA|v}}
| English '''''v'''er'''ve'''''
|
|-
| class="nowrap" | {{audio-pipe|Labiodental approximant.ogg|Labiodental approximant|<big>{{IPA|[&nbsp;ʋ&nbsp;]}}</big>}}
|&nbsp;&nbsp;ʋ&nbsp;&nbsp;
| style="text-align: center;" | {{IPA|ʋ}}
| Hindi वरुण {{IPA|[ʋəruɳə]}} [[Varuna|"Varuna"]]
| Between {{IPA|[v]}} and {{IPA|[w]}}. Used by some Germans and Russians for ''v/w'', and by some speakers of British English for ''r''.
|-
| class="nowrap" | {{audio-pipe|Close-mid back unrounded vowel.ogg|Close-mid back unrounded vowel|<big>{{IPA|[&nbsp;ɤ&nbsp;]}}</big>}}
|&nbsp;&nbsp;ɤ&nbsp;&nbsp;
| style="text-align: center;" | {{IPA|ɤ}}
| see under [[#Y|Y]]
|
|-
| style="padding-left: 16px" |<big>{{IPA|[&nbsp;ɣ&nbsp;]}}</big>
|&nbsp;&nbsp;ɣ&nbsp;&nbsp;
| style="text-align: center;" | {{IPA|ɣ}}
| see under [[#Y|Y]]
|
|-
| style="padding-left: 16px" |<big>{{IPA|[&nbsp;ʌ&nbsp;]}}</big>
|&nbsp;&nbsp;ʌ&nbsp;&nbsp;
| style="text-align: center;" | {{IPA|ʌ}}
| see under [[#A|A]]
|
! colspan="4" | <div style="font-weight: normal; float: right;">[[#top|^ top]]</div> W
|-
| class="nowrap" | {{audio-pipe|Voiced labio-velar approximant.ogg|Voiced labial-velar approximant|<big>{{IPA|[&nbsp;w&nbsp;]}}</big>}}
|&nbsp;&nbsp;w&nbsp;&nbsp;
| style="text-align: center;" | {{IPA|w}}
| English '''''w'''ow''
|
|-
| style="padding-left: 16px" |<big>{{IPAlink|[&nbsp;ʷ&nbsp;]|direct page=Labialisation}}</big>
|&nbsp;&nbsp;ʷ&nbsp;&nbsp;
| style="text-align: center;" | {{IPA|ʷ}}
| English '''''r'''ain'' {{IPA|[ɹʷeɪn]}}</big>
| Indicates a sound has lip rounding, ''q'''u'''ick.''
|-
| class="nowrap" | {{audio-pipe|Voiceless labio-velar fricative.ogg|Voiceless labio-velar approximant|<big>{{IPA|[&nbsp;ʍ&nbsp;]}}</big>}}
|&nbsp;&nbsp;ʍ&nbsp;&nbsp;
| style="text-align: center;" | {{IPA|ʍ}}
| '''''wh'''at'' (some dialects)
| like {{IPA|[h]}} and {{IPA|[w]}} said together
|-
| class="nowrap" | {{audio-pipe|Close back unrounded vowel.ogg|Close back unrounded vowel|<big>{{IPA|[&nbsp;ɯ&nbsp;]}}</big>}}
|&nbsp;&nbsp;ɯ&nbsp;&nbsp;
| style="text-align: center;" | {{IPA|ɯ}}
| Turkish ''kay'''ı'''k'' "caïque"
| Like {{IPA|[u]}}, but with the lips flat; something like {{IPA|[ʊ]}}.<!--This sound is not found in Japanese, so please don't use that language as an example-->
|-
| class="nowrap" | {{audio-pipe|Voiced velar approximant.ogg|Velar approximant|<big>{{IPA|[&nbsp;ɰ&nbsp;]}}</big>}}
|&nbsp;&nbsp;ɰ&nbsp;&nbsp;
| style="text-align: center;" | {{IPA|ɰ}}
| Spanish ''a'''gu'''a''
|
 
! colspan="4" | <div style="font-weight: normal; float: right;">[[#top|^ top]]</div> X
|-
| class="nowrap" | {{audio-pipe|Voiceless velar fricative.ogg|Voiceless velar fricative|<big>{{IPA|[&nbsp;x&nbsp;]}}</big>}}
|&nbsp;&nbsp;x&nbsp;&nbsp;
| style="text-align: center;" | {{IPA|x}}
| Scottish English ''lo'''ch''''', German ''[[Johann Sebastian Bach|Ba'''ch''']],'' Russian '''х'''ороший {{IPA|[xɐˈroʂɨj]}} "good", Spanish '''''j'''oven''
| between {{IPA|[k]}} and {{IPA|[h]}}
|-
| class="nowrap" | {{audio-pipe|Voiceless uvular fricative.ogg|Voiceless uvular fricative|<big>{{IPA|[&nbsp;χ&nbsp;]}}</big>}}
|&nbsp;&nbsp;χ&nbsp;&nbsp;
| style="text-align: center;" | {{IPA|χ}}
| [[Dutch phonology|northern Standard Dutch]] [[Scheveningen|''S'''ch'''eveningen'']], Castilian Spanish ''Don '''J'''uan'' {{IPA|[doɴˈχwan]}}
| Like {{IPA|[x]}}, but further back , in the throat. Some German and Arabic speakers have {{IPA|[χ]}} for {{IPA|[x]}}.
 
! colspan="4" | <div style="font-weight: normal; float: right;">[[#top|^ top]]</div> Y
|-
| class="nowrap" | {{audio-pipe|Close front rounded vowel.ogg|Close front rounded vowel|<big>{{IPA|[&nbsp;y&nbsp;]}}</big>}}
|&nbsp;&nbsp;y&nbsp;&nbsp;
| style="text-align: center;" | {{IPA|y}}
| French ''r'''u'''e''
| Like {{IPA|[i]}}, but with the lips rounded as for {{IPA|[u]}}.
|-
| class="nowrap" | {{audio-pipe|Close front rounded vowel.ogg|Close front rounded vowel|<big>{{IPA|[&nbsp;&nbsp;]}}</big>}}
|&nbsp;&nbsp;yː&nbsp;&nbsp;
| style="text-align: center;" | {{IPA|yː}}
| German [[Bernhard von Bülow|''B'''ü'''low'']], French ''s'''û'''r''
| Long {{IPA|[y]}}.
|-
| class="nowrap" | {{audio-pipe|Near-close near-front rounded vowel.ogg|Near-close near-front rounded vowel|<big>{{IPA|[&nbsp;ʏ&nbsp;]}}</big>}}
|&nbsp;&nbsp;ʏ&nbsp;&nbsp;
| style="text-align: center;" | {{IPA|ʏ}}
| German [[Düsseldorf|''D'''ü'''sseldorf'']]
| Like {{IPA|[ɪ]}}, but with the lips rounded as for {{IPA|[ʊ]}}.
|-
| class="nowrap" | {{audio-pipe|Voiced velar fricative.ogg|Voiced velar fricative|<big>{{IPA|[&nbsp;ɣ&nbsp;]}}</big>}}
|&nbsp;&nbsp;ɣ&nbsp;&nbsp;
| style="text-align: center;" | {{IPA|ɣ}}
| Arabic {{wikt-lang|ar|غَالِي}} ''{{transl|ar|ALA|ghālī}}'' and/ Swahili '''''gh'''ali'' "expensive", Spanish ''sue'''g'''ro''
| Sounds rather like French {{IPA|[ʁ]}} or between {{IPA|[ɡ]}} and {{IPA|[h]}}.
|-
| class="nowrap" | {{audio-pipe|Close-mid back unrounded vowel.ogg|Close-mid back unrounded vowel|<big>{{IPA|[&nbsp;ɤ&nbsp;]}}</big>}}
|&nbsp;&nbsp;ɤ&nbsp;&nbsp;
| style="text-align: center;" | {{IPA|ɤ}}
| Mandarin ''[[Henan|H'''é'''nán]]''
| Like {{IPA|[o]}} but without the lips rounded, something like a cross of {{IPA|[ʊ]}} and {{IPA|[ʌ]}}.
|-
| class="nowrap" | {{audio-pipe|Palatal lateral approximant.ogg|Palatal lateral approximant|<big>{{IPA|[&nbsp;ʎ&nbsp;]}}</big>}}
|&nbsp;&nbsp;ʎ&nbsp;&nbsp;
| style="text-align: center;" | {{IPA|ʎ}}
| Italian ''ta'''gli'''atelle''
| Like {{IPA|[l]}}, but more y-like. Rather like English ''vo'''l'''ume.''
|-
| class="nowrap" | {{audio-pipe|Labial-palatal approximant.ogg|Labial-palatal approximant|<big>{{IPA|[&nbsp;ɥ&nbsp;]}}</big>}}
|&nbsp;&nbsp;ɥ&nbsp;&nbsp;
| style="text-align: center;" | {{IPA|ɥ}}
| French ''l'''u'''i''
| Like {{IPA|[j]}} and {{IPA|[w]}} said together.
|-
! colspan="4" | <div style="font-weight: normal; float: right;">[[#top|^ top]]</div> Z
|-
| class="nowrap" | {{audio-pipe|Voiced alveolar fricative.ogg|Voiced alveolar fricative|<big>{{IPA|[&nbsp;z&nbsp;]}}</big>}}
|&nbsp;&nbsp;z&nbsp;&nbsp;
| style="text-align: center;" | {{IPA|z}}
| English '''''z'''oo'''s'''''
|
|-
| class="nowrap" | {{audio-pipe|Voiced postalveolar fricative.ogg|Voiced postalveolar fricative|<big>{{IPA|[&nbsp;ʒ&nbsp;]}}</big>}}
|&nbsp;&nbsp;ʒ&nbsp;&nbsp;
| style="text-align: center;" | {{IPA|ʒ}}
| English ''vi'''si'''on,'' French '''''j'''ournal''
|
|-
| class="nowrap" | {{audio-pipe|Voiced alveolo-palatal fricative.ogg|Voiced alveolo-palatal fricative|<big>{{IPA|[&nbsp;ʑ&nbsp;]}}</big>}}
|&nbsp;&nbsp;ʑ&nbsp;&nbsp;
| style="text-align: center;" | {{IPA|ʑ}}
| formal Russian '''жж'''ёшь {{IPA|[ʑːoʂ]}} "you burn", Polish '''''ź'''le''
| More y-like than {{IPA|[ʒ]}}, something like ''bei'''ge'''y.''
|-
| class="nowrap" | {{audio-pipe|Voiced retroflex fricative.ogg|Voiced retroflex fricative|<big>{{IPA|[&nbsp;ʐ&nbsp;]}}</big>}}
|&nbsp;&nbsp;ʐ&nbsp;&nbsp;
| style="text-align: center;" | {{IPA|ʐ}}
| Mandarin 人民日报 '''''R'''énmín '''R'''ìbào'' "People's Daily", Russian '''ж'''ир "fat"
| Like {{IPA|[ʒ]}} with the tongue curled or pulled back.
|-
| style="padding-left: 16px" |<big>{{IPA|[&nbsp;ɮ&nbsp;]}}</big>
|&nbsp;&nbsp;ɮ&nbsp;&nbsp;
| style="text-align: center;" | {{IPA|ɮ}}
| see under [[#L|L]]
|
 
|- id="other"
! colspan="4" | <div style="font-weight: normal; float: right;">[[#top|^ top]]</div> Other
|-
| class="nowrap" | {{audio-pipe|Voiceless dental fricative.ogg|Voiceless dental fricative|<big>{{IPA|[&nbsp;θ&nbsp;]}}</big>}}
|&nbsp;&nbsp;θ&nbsp;&nbsp;
| style="text-align: center;" | {{IPA|θ}}
| English '''''th'''igh, ba'''th'''''
|
|-
| class="nowrap" | {{audio-pipe|Voiceless bilabial fricative.ogg|Voiceless bilabial fricative|<big>{{IPA|[&nbsp;ɸ&nbsp;]}}</big>}}
|&nbsp;&nbsp;ɸ&nbsp;&nbsp;
| style="text-align: center;" | {{IPA|ɸ}}
| Japanese 富士 {{IPA|[ɸɯdʑi]}} ''[[Mount Fuji|'''F'''uji]]'', Māori {{IPA|[ˌɸaːɾeːˈnuiː]}} ''[[wharenui|'''wh'''arenui]]''
| Like {{IPA|[p]}}, but with the lips not quite touching
|-
| class="nowrap" | {{audio-pipe|Glottal stop.ogg|Glottal stop|<big>{{IPA|[&nbsp;ʔ&nbsp;]}}</big>}}
|&nbsp;&nbsp;ʔ&nbsp;&nbsp;
| style="text-align: center;" | {{IPA|ʔ}}
| English ''uh-oh, Hawai'''‘'''i,'' German ''die Angst
| The 'glottal stop', a catch in the breath. For some people, found in ''bu'''tt'''on'' {{IPA|[ˈbʌʔn̩]}}, or between vowels across words: ''Deus ex machina'' {{IPA|[ˌdeɪəsˌʔɛksˈmɑːkɨnə]}}; in some nonstandard dialects, in ''a apple'' {{IPA|[ʌˈʔæpl̩]}}.
|-
| class="nowrap" | {{audio-pipe|Voiced pharyngeal fricative1.ogg|Voiced pharyngeal fricative|<big>{{IPA|[&nbsp;ʕ&nbsp;]}}</big>}}
|&nbsp;&nbsp;ʕ&nbsp;&nbsp;
| style="text-align: center;" | {{IPA|ʕ}}
| Arabic {{wikt-lang|ar|عَرَبِيّ}}عربي ''{{transl|ar|ALA|<sup>'''ʻc'''</sup>arabī}}'' "Arabic"
| A light sound deep in the throat.
|-
| class="nowrap" | {{audio-pipe|Dental click.ogg|Dental click|<big>{{IPA|[&nbsp;ǀ&nbsp;]}}</big>}}
|&nbsp;&nbsp;ǀ&nbsp;&nbsp;
| style="text-align: center;" | {{IPA|ǀ}}
| English ''tsk-tsk!'' or ''tut-tut!,'' Zulu ''i'''c'''i'''c'''i'' "earring"
| (The English click used for disapproval.) Several distinct sounds, written as digraphs, including {{IPA|[ ], [ ɡǀ ], [ ŋǀ ]}}. The Zimbabwean MP [[Welshman Ncube|N'''c'''ube]] has this click in his name, as did [[Cetshwayo kaMpande|'''C'''etshwayo]].
|-
| class="nowrap" | {{audio-pipe|Alveolar lateral click.ogg|Alveolar lateral click|<big>{{IPA|[&nbsp;ǁ&nbsp;]}}</big>}}
|&nbsp;&nbsp;ǁ&nbsp;&nbsp;
| style="text-align: center;" | {{IPA|ǁ}}
| English ''tchick! tchick!,'' Zulu ''i'''x'''o'''x'''o'' "frog"
| (The English click used to urge on a horse.) Several distinct sounds, written as digraphs, including {{IPA|[ ], [ ɡǁ ], [ ŋǁ ]}}. Found in the name of the [[Xhosa people|'''X'''hosa]].
|-
| class="nowrap" | {{audio-pipe|Postalveolar click.ogg|Postalveolar click|<big>{{IPA|[&nbsp;ǃ&nbsp;]}}</big>}}
|&nbsp;&nbsp;ǃ&nbsp;&nbsp;
| style="text-align: center;" | {{IPA|ǃ}}
| Zulu ''i'''q'''a'''q'''a'' "polecat"
| (The English click used to imitate the trotting of a horse.) A hollow popping sound, like a cork pulled from a bottle. Several distinct sounds, written as digraphs, including {{IPA|[ ], [ ɡǃ ], [ ŋǃ ]}}.
|}
 
! colspan="4" | <div style="font-weight: normal; float: right;"></div> Signs above a letter
|-
| align="center" | <big>{{IPAlink|[ ã ]|direct page=nasal vowel}}</big>
| French ''vi'''n''' bla'''n'''c'' {{IPA|[vãblɑ̃]}} "white wine"
| colspan="2" | A [[nasalization|nasal]] vowel, as with a Texas twang.
|-
| align="center" | <big>{{IPAlink|[ ä ]|direct page=central vowel}}</big>
| Portuguese ''v'''á''''' {{IPA|[vä]}} "go"
| colspan="2" | A [[central vowel]] pronounced with the tongue position in the middle of the mouth; neither forward nor back.
|-
! colspan="4" | <div style="font-weight: normal; float: right;"></div> Signs below a letter
|-
| align="center" | <big>{{IPAlink|[ a̯ ]|direct page=diphthong}}</big>
| English ''co'''w''''' {{IPA|[kʰaʊ̯]}}, ''ko'''i''''' {{IPA|[kʰɔɪ̯]}}
| colspan="2" | This vowel does not form a syllable of its own, but runs into the vowel next to it. (In English, the diacritic is generally left off: {{IPA|[kaʊ]}}.)
|-
| align="center" | <big>{{IPAlink|[ n̥ ]|direct page=Voiceless#Voiceless vowels and other sonorants}}</big>
|
| colspan="2" | Sounds like a loud whisper; {{IPA|[n̥]}} is like a whispered breath through the nose. {{IPA|[l̥]}} is found in Tibetan '''''Lh'''asa.''
|-
| align="center" | <big>{{IPAlink|[ n̩ ]|direct page=Syllabic consonant}}</big>
| English ''butt'''on'''''
| colspan="2" | A consonant without a vowel. (English {{IPA|[n̩]}} is often transcribed {{IPA|/ən/}}.)
|-
| align="center" | <big>{{IPAlink|[ d̪ ]|direct page=Dental consonant}}</big>
| Spanish '''''d'''os,'' French '''''d'''eux''
| colspan="2" | The tongue touches the teeth more than it does in English.
|-
! colspan="4" | <div style="font-weight: normal; float: right;"></div> Signs next to a letter
|-
| align="center" | <big>{{IPAlink|[ ]|direct page=Aspirated consonant}}</big>
| English '''''c'''ome''
| colspan="2" | Aspirated consonant, pronounced with a puff of air. Similarly {{IPA|[tʰ pʰ tsʰ tʃʰ tɕʰ]}}.
|-
| align="center" | <big>{{IPAlink|[ k’ ]|direct page=Ejective consonant}}</big>
| Zulu ''u'''k'''uza'' "come"
| colspan="2" | Like a popped {{IPA|[k]}}, pushed from the throat. Similarly {{IPA|[tʼ pʼ qʼ tʃʼ tsʼ tɬʼ]}}.
|-
| align="center" | <big>{{IPAlink|[ ]|direct page=Length (phonetics)}}</big>
| English ''shh!'' {{IPA|[ʃː]}}
| colspan="2" | Long. Often used with English vowels or diphthongs: ''Mayo'' {{IPA|/ˈmeːoː/}} for {{IPA|[ˈmeɪ̯ɜʊ̯]}}, ''etc.''
|-
| align="center" | <big>{{IPAlink|[ ]|direct page=Length (phonetics)}}</big>
| RP ''caught'' {{IPA|[ˈkʰɔˑt]}}
| colspan="2" | Semi-long. (Although the vowel is different, this is also longer than ''cot'' {{IPA|[ˈkʰɒt]}}.)
|-
| align="center" | <big>{{IPAlink|[ ˈa ]|direct page=Stress (linguistics)}}</big>
| rowspan="2" | ''pronunciation''<br>{{IPA|[pɹ̥əʊ̯ˌnɐnsiˈeɪʃn̩]}}
| colspan="2" | Main stress. The mark denotes the stress of the ''following'' syllable.
|-
| align="center" | <big>{{IPAlink|[ ˌa ]|direct page=Secondary stress}}</big>
| colspan="2" | Weaker stress. The mark denotes the stress of the ''following'' syllable.
|-
| align="center" | <big>{{IPAlink|[ . ]|direct page=Syllable}}</big>
| English ''courtship'' {{IPA|[ˈkɔrt.ʃɪp]}}
| colspan="2" | [[Syllable]] break. (this is often redundant and therefore left off)
|}
 
Two types of brackets are commonly used to enclose transcriptions in the IPA:
*/Slashes/ indicate those meaningful sounds that are distinguished as the basic sounds of a language by native speakers; these are called [[phoneme]]s. Changing the symbols between slashes would either change the identity of the word or produce nonsense. For example, since there is no meaningful difference to a native speaker between the two sounds written with the letter el in the word ''lulls,'' they are considered the same phoneme and so, using slashes, they are given the same symbol in IPA: {{IPA|/ˈlʌlz/}}. Similarly, Spanish ''la bomba'' is transcribed phonemically with two instances of the same ''b'' sound, {{IPA|/laˈbomba/}}, despite the fact that they sound different to a speaker of English. Thus a reader who is not familiar with the language in question might not know how to interpret these transcriptions more narrowly.
*[Square brackets] indicate the narrower or more detailed [[phonetics|phonetic]] qualities of a pronunciation, not taking into account the norms of the language to which it belongs; therefore, such transcriptions do not regard whether subtly different sounds in the pronunciation are actually noticeable or distinguishable to a native speaker of the language. Within square brackets is what a foreigner who does not know the structure of a language might hear as discrete units of sound. For instance, the English word ''lulls'' may be pronounced in a particular dialect more specifically as {{IPA|[ˈlɐɫz]}}, with different letter el sounds at the beginning and end. This may be obvious to speakers of other languages that differentiate between the sounds {{IPA|[l]}} and {{IPA|[ɫ]}}. Likewise, Spanish ''la bomba'' (pronounced without a pause) has two different b-sounds to the ears of foreigners or linguists—{{IPA|[laˈβomba]}}—though a native Spanish speaker might not be able to hear it. Omitting or adding such detail does not make a difference to the identity of the word, but helps to give a more precise pronunciation.
 
A third kind of bracket is occasionally seen:
*Either //double slashes// or |pipes| (or occasionally other conventions) show that the enclosed sounds are theoretical constructs that are not actually heard. (This is part of [[morphophonology]].) For instance, most phonologists argue that the ''-s'' at the ends of verbs, which surfaces as either {{IPA|/s/}} in ''talks'' {{IPA|/tɔːks/}} or as {{IPA|/z/}} in ''lulls'' {{IPA|/lʌlz/}}, has a single underlying form. If they decide this form is an ''s,'' they would write it //s// (or |s|) to claim that phonemic {{IPA|/tɔːks/}} and {{IPA|/lʌlz/}} are essentially {{IPA|//tɔːks//}} and {{IPA|//lʌls//}} underneath. If they were to decide it was essentially the latter, //z//, they would transcribe these words {{IPA|//tɔːkz//}} and {{IPA|//lʌlz//}}.
 
Lastly,
*{{angle bracket|Angle brackets}} are used to set off [[orthography]], as well as [[transliteration]] from non-Latin scripts. Thus {{angle bracket|lulls}}, {{angle bracket|la bomba}}, the letter {{angle bracket|a}}. Angle brackets are not supported by all fonts, so a template {{tl|angle bracket}} (shortcut {{tl|angbr}}) is used to ensure maximal compatibility. (Comment there if you're having problems.)
 
===Voiced velar plosive===
 
These two characters should look similar:
:{|class=wikitable
|-textalign=top
|<big><big>{{IPA|ɡ}}</big></big>
If in the box to the left you see the symbol [[File:ɡMSReferenceSansSerif.png|12px]] rather than a lower-case open-tail g, you may be experiencing a well-known bug in the font ''MS Reference Sans Serif''; switching to another font may fix it.
 
On your current font: {{IPA|[ɡ]}},
 
and in several other fonts:
===Affricates and double articulation===
 
The ''tie bar'' is intended to cover both letters of an affricate or doubly articulated consonant. However, if your browser uses Arial Unicode MS to display IPA characters, the following incorrectly formed sequences may look better than the correct order (letter, tie bar, letter) because of a bug in that font:
:ts͡, tʃ͡, tɕ͡, dz͡, dʒ͡, dʑ͡, tɬ͡, kp͡, ɡb͡, ŋm͡.
Here is how the proper configuration displays in your default IPA font:
:{{IPA|t͡s, d͡z, t͡ʃ, d͡ʒ, t͡ɕ, d͡ʑ, t͡ɬ, k͡p, ɡ͡b, ŋ͡m}},
and in several other fonts:
===Angle brackets===
 
True angle brackets, &#x27E8; &nbsp;&#x27E9;, are unsupported by several common fonts. Here is how they display in your default settings:
 
:⟨...⟩ (unformatted)
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