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20 వ శతాబ్దం వరకు, వివిధ సమయాల్లో వివిధ రాష్ట్రాలు ఆధునిక కాలపు బెలారస్ భూభాగాలను నియంత్రించాయి, వాటిలో పోలోట్స్క్ ప్రిన్సిపాలిటీ (11 నుంచి 14 శతాబ్దాలు), గ్రాండ్ డచీ ఆఫ్ లిథువేనియా, పోలిష్-లిథువేనియన్ కామన్వెల్త్ మరియు రష్యన్ సామ్రాజ్యం ఉన్నాయి.
 
 
Until the 20th century, different states at various times controlled the lands of modern-day Belarus, including the [[Principality of Polotsk]] (11th to 14th centuries), the [[Grand Duchy of Lithuania]], the [[Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth]], and the [[Russian Empire]].
 
Until the 20th century, different states at various times controlled the lands of modern-day Belarus, including the [[Principality of Polotsk]] (11th to 14th centuries), the [[Grand Duchy of Lithuania]], the [[Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth]], and the [[Russian Empire]].
In the aftermath of the 1917 [[Russian Revolution]], Belarus declared independence as the [[Belarusian People's Republic]], which was conquered by Soviet Russia. The [[Socialist Soviet Republic of Byelorussia]] became a founding [[Republics of the Soviet Union|constituent republic of the Soviet Union]] in 1922 and was renamed as the [[Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic]] (Byelorussian SSR). Belarus lost almost half of its territory to Poland after the [[Polish–Soviet War]] of 1919–1921. Much of the borders of Belarus took their modern shape in 1939, when some lands of the [[Second Polish Republic]] were reintegrated into it after the [[Soviet invasion of Poland]], and were finalized after World War&nbsp;II.<ref name="uni1">{{cite book| url=https://books.google.com/books?id=o85YDMTeMrUC&dq=reunification+of+western+belarus| title=National purpose in the world economy: post-Soviet states in comparative perspective| last=Abdelal| first=Rawi| year=2001| publisher=[[Cornell University Press]]| isbn=978-0-8014-3879-0}}</ref><ref name="uni2">{{cite book| url=https://books.google.com/books?id=wGA4o-UhAfgC&pg=PA713&dq=reunification+of+western+belarus#v=onepage&q=&f=false| title=Europa World Year, Book 1| last=Taylor & Francis Group| year=2004| publisher=[[Routledge|Europa publications]] |isbn= 978-1-85743-254-1}}</ref><ref name="uni3"/> During WWII, military operations devastated Belarus, which lost about a third of its population and more than half of its economic resources.<ref name="axell">{{cite book| last=Axell| first=Albert| title=Russia's Heroes, 1941–45| publisher=Carroll & Graf Publishers| year=2002| page=247| isbn=0-7867-1011-X}}</ref> The republic was redeveloped in the post-war years. In 1945 the Byelorussian SSR became a founding member of the [[United Nations]], along with the Soviet Union and the [[Ukrainian SSR]].<ref>{{cite web|url=https://www.un.org/en/members/growth.shtml |title=United Nations member States – Growth in United Nations membership, 1945–present |publisher= |deadurl=yes |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20140712192515/http://www.un.org/en/members/growth.shtml |archivedate=12 July 2014 |df= }}</ref>
 
1917 రష్యన్ విప్లవం తరువాత, బెలారస్ సోవియట్ రష్యా స్వాధీనం చేసుకున్న బెలారస్ పీపుల్స్ రిపబ్లిక్గా స్వాతంత్రాన్ని ప్రకటించింది. సోవియట్ సోవియట్ రిపబ్లిక్ ఆఫ్ బైలొరుసియా 1922 లో సోవియట్ యూనియన్ యొక్క స్థాపక రాజ్యాంగ రిపబ్లిక్ అయ్యింది మరియు బైలోరష్యన్ సోవియట్ సోషలిస్ట్ రిపబ్లిక్ (బైలోరియన్స్ SSR) గా పేరు మార్చబడింది. పోలిష్-సోవియట్ యుద్ధం 1919-1921 తరువాత బెలారస్ తన భూభాగంలో పోలాండ్లో దాదాపు సగం కోల్పోయింది. పోలీస్ యొక్క సోవియట్ ఆక్రమణ తరువాత రెండో పోలిష్ రిపబ్లిక్ యొక్క కొన్ని భూములు తిరిగి ప్రవేశపెట్టిన తరువాత, 1939 లో బెలారస్ సరిహద్దుల యొక్క అధిక భాగం వారి ఆధునిక ఆకృతిని తీసుకుంది, మరియు రెండో ప్రపంచ యుద్ధం తరువాత ఖరారు చేయబడింది.
 
In the aftermath of the 1917 [[Russian Revolution]], Belarus declared independence as the [[Belarusian People's Republic]], which was conquered by Soviet Russia. The [[Socialist Soviet Republic of Byelorussia]] became a founding [[Republics of the Soviet Union|constituent republic of the Soviet Union]] in 1922 and was renamed as the [[Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic]] (Byelorussian SSR). Belarus lost almost half of its territory to Poland after the [[Polish–Soviet War]] of 1919–1921. Much of the borders of Belarus took their modern shape in 1939, when some lands of the [[Second Polish Republic]] were reintegrated into it after the [[Soviet invasion of Poland]], and were finalized after World War&nbsp;II.
 
<ref name="uni1">{{cite book| url=https://books.google.com/books?id=o85YDMTeMrUC&dq=reunification+of+western+belarus| title=National purpose in the world economy: post-Soviet states in comparative perspective| last=Abdelal| first=Rawi| year=2001| publisher=[[Cornell University Press]]| isbn=978-0-8014-3879-0}}</ref><ref name="uni2">{{cite book| url=https://books.google.com/books?id=wGA4o-UhAfgC&pg=PA713&dq=reunification+of+western+belarus#v=onepage&q=&f=false| title=Europa World Year, Book 1| last=Taylor & Francis Group| year=2004| publisher=[[Routledge|Europa publications]] |isbn= 978-1-85743-254-1}}</ref><ref name="uni3"/>
రెండవ ప్రపంచ యుద్ధం సందర్భంగా సైనిక కార్యకలాపాలు బెలారస్‌ను నాశనం చేశాయి.దేశం మూడవ భాగం ప్రజలను మరియు ఆర్ధిక వనరులలో సగం కంటే అధికంగా కోల్పోయింది. <ref name="axell">{{cite book| last=Axell| first=Albert| title=Russia's Heroes, 1941–45| publisher=Carroll & Graf Publishers| year=2002| page=247| isbn=0-7867-1011-X}}</ref>
యుద్ధం తరువాత సంవత్సరాలలో రిపబ్లిక్ పునరాభివృద్ధి చేయబడింది. 1945 లో బైలేరియన్స్ ఎస్.ఎస్.ఆర్ సోవియట్ యూనియన్ మరియు ఉక్రేనియన్ SSR తో పాటు ఐక్యరాజ్యసమితి యొక్క స్థాపక సభ్యురాలిగా మారింది.
 
The republic was redeveloped in the post-war years. In 1945 the Byelorussian SSR became a founding member of the [[United Nations]], along with the Soviet Union and the [[Ukrainian SSR]].
 
 
<ref>{{cite web|url=https://www.un.org/en/members/growth.shtml |title=United Nations member States – Growth in United Nations membership, 1945–present |publisher= |deadurl=yes |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20140712192515/http://www.un.org/en/members/growth.shtml |archivedate=12 July 2014 |df= }}</ref>
 
The parliament of the republic proclaimed the [[sovereignty]] of Belarus on {{Nowrap|27 July}} 1990, and during the [[dissolution of the Soviet Union]], Belarus declared independence on {{Nowrap|25 August}} 1991.<ref>{{cite web| url=https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/bo.html| title=The World Factbook| publisher=cia.gov| accessdate=4 March 2016}}</ref> [[Alexander Lukashenko]] has served as the country's president since 1994. Belarus has been labeled "Europe's last dictatorship" by some Western journalists,<ref>{{cite news|url=https://www.theguardian.com/world/2012/oct/07/belarus-inside-europes-last-dictatorship|accessdate=7 August 2014 |title=Belarus: inside Europe's last dictatorship |location=London |work=The Guardian|first=Sigrid|last=Rausing|date=7 October 2012}}</ref><ref name="reuters1">{{cite news| url=https://www.reuters.com/article/2012/03/04/us-belarus-dicator-idUSTRE8230T320120304 | agency=[[Reuters]] | title=Belarus's Lukashenko: "Better a dictator than gay" |quote=...German Foreign Minister's branding him 'Europe's last dictator'|location=Berlin |date=4 March 2012}}</ref> on account of Lukashenko's self-described [[authoritarian]] style of government.<ref>{{cite news|title=Profile: Alexander Lukashenko|url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe/3882843.stm|accessdate=7 August 2014|work=BBC News|publisher=BBC|date=9 January 2007|quote='..an authoritarian ruling style is characteristic of me [Lukashenko]'}}</ref><ref name="HRW">{{cite web|url=http://hrw.org/english/docs/2005/01/13/belaru9878.htm |title=Essential Background&nbsp;– Belarus |accessdate=26 March 2006 |year=2005 |publisher=Human Rights Watch}}</ref><ref name="amnesty"/> Lukashenko continued a number of Soviet-era policies, such as [[state ownership]] of large sections of the economy. Elections under Lukashenko's rule have been widely criticized as unfair; and according to many countries and organizations, political opposition has been violently suppressed. Belarus is also the last country in Europe using the [[Capital punishment in Belarus|death penalty]].<ref>{{cite web| url= http://www.osce.org/odihr/elections/belarus| accessdate= 28 December 2010| title=Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights&nbsp;– Elections&nbsp;– Belarus}}</ref><ref>{{cite news| url=https://www.economist.com/blogs/easternapproaches/2010/12/belaruss_election_0?fsrc=scn/fb/wl/bl/whatshouldtheeudo| accessdate=28 December 2010| title=Belarus's election: What should the EU do about Belarus?| date=27 December 2010}}</ref><ref>{{cite web| url=http://www.fco.gov.uk/en/news/latest-news/?view=News&id=504974682| accessdate=28 December 2010| title=Foreign Secretary expresses UK concern following Belarus elections| deadurl=yes| archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20110513211744/http://www.fco.gov.uk/en/news/latest-news/?view=News&id=504974682| archivedate=13 May 2011| df=dmy-all}}</ref> Belarus's [[Democracy Index]] rating was the lowest in Europe until 2014 (when it was passed by Russia), the country is labelled as "not free" by [[Freedom House]], as "repressed" in the [[Index of Economic Freedom]], and is rated as by far the worst country for [[press freedom]] in Europe in the [[Press Freedom Index|2013–14 Press Freedom Index]] published by [[Reporters Without Borders]], which ranks Belarus 157th out of 180 nations.<ref>{{citation| publisher=[[Reporters Without Borders]]| title=Press Freedom Index 2013/2014| date=January 2014| url=https://rsf.org/en/ranking/2014| accessdate=6 March 2014| deadurl=yes| archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20140214000000/http://rsf.org/index2014/en-index2014.php| archivedate=14 February 2014| df=dmy-all}}</ref>
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