"నాస్‌డాక్" కూర్పుల మధ్య తేడాలు

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== చరిత్ర ==
===1971–1999===
నాస్‌డాక్(NASDAQ) అనేది నేషనల్ అసోసియేషన్ ఆఫ్ సెక్యూరిటీస్ డీలర్స్ ఆటొమేటెడ్ కొటేషన్స్('''N'''ational '''A'''ssociation of '''S'''ecurities '''D'''ealers '''A'''utomated '''Q'''uotations") కు సంక్షిప్త రూపం.<ref>[http://www.nasdaq.com/help/helpfaq.stm Frequently Asked Questions. NASDAQ.com. NASDAQ, n.d. Web. December 23, 2001.] {{webarchive |url=https://www.webcitation.org/5wT1Kgayi?url=http://www.nasdaq.com/help/helpfaq.stm |date=February 13, 2011 }}</ref> ఇది 1971లో నేషనల్ అసోసియేషన్ ఆఫ్ సెక్యూరిటీస్ డీలర్స్ సంస్థచే ప్రారంభించబడింది.<ref name="loc">{{cite web|last=Terrell|first=Ellen|title=History of the American and Nasdaq Stock Exchanges|url=https://www.loc.gov/rr/business/amex/amex.html|website=LOC.gov|publisher=Library of Congress Business Reference Services|accessdate=April 27, 2013|deadurl=no|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20130414213410/http://www.loc.gov/rr/business/amex/amex.html|archivedate=April 14, 2013|df=mdy-all}}</ref>ఈ సంస్థ నాస్‌డాక్ నుండి తన పెట్టుబడులను 2000-2001లో ఉపసంహరించుకుంది. Theనాస్‌డాక్ Nasdaq Stock Market is owned and operatedస్టాక్ byమార్కెట్‌ను [[Nasdaq, Inc.]],అనే theసంస్థ stockస్వంతదారుగా ofనిర్వహిస్తున్నది. which wasసంస్థ listedషేర్లను on its own securities exchange on Julyజూలై 2, 2002, underనుండి theస్వంత [[tickerస్టాక్ symbol]]ఎక్స్చేంజిలో {{NASDAQలిస్ట్ link|NDAQ}}చేస్తున్నది.
[[File:NASDAQ.svg|thumb|Former logo]]
 
When1971, theఫిబ్రవరి Nasdaq8లో Stock Marketస్టాక్ beganమార్కెట్ tradingప్రారంభమైనప్పుడు onఇది Februaryప్రపంచంలో 8,మొట్టమొదటి 1971,ఎలెక్ట్రానిక్ itస్టాక్ was the world's first electronic stock marketమార్కెట్.<ref name="loc"/> Atమొదట్లో first,ఇది itవాణిజ్యానికి wasకాక merelyకేవలం a"కొటేషన్ ''quotationసిస్టమ్‌"కు system''మాత్రమే andఎలెక్ట్రానిక్ didపద్దతిని not provide a way to perform electronicఉపయోగించేది. trades.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.nasdaq.com/help/help-faq.aspx|title=Nasdaq.com Frequently Asked Questions|author=|date=|publisher=|access-date=October 23, 2016}}</ref>{{not in citation given|date=February 2018}} The Nasdaq Stock Market helped lower the spread (the difference between the bid price and the ask price of the stock) but was unpopular among brokerages which made much of their money on the spread.
 
కాలం గడిచే కొద్దీ నాస్‌డాక్ ఆటోమేటెడ్ ట్రేడింగ్ సిస్టమ్‌ను అవలంబించింది. ఇది అమెరికాలో ఆన్-లైన్ ట్రేడింగ్ ప్రారంభించిన స్టాక్‌మార్కెట్‌గా పేరుగడించింది. ఈ స్టాక్ ఎక్స్చేంజ్ మైక్రోసాఫ్ట్, ఆపిల్, సిస్కో, ఒరాకిల్, డెల్ వంటి కొత్తగా అభివృద్ధి చెందుతున్న కంపెనీలను ఆకర్షించి వాటి ఆధునీకరణ కొరకు [[ప్రాధమిక ప్రజా సమర్పణ (IPO)|ఐ.పి.ఓ]] కు సహకరించింది.
The Nasdaq Stock Market eventually assumed the majority of major trades that had been executed by the [[Over-the-counter (finance)|over-the-counter]] (OTC) system of trading, although there are still many securities traded in this fashion. As late as 1987, the Nasdaq exchange was still commonly referred to as "OTC" in media<ref>{{Cite news|url=https://www.nytimes.com/1987/07/03/business/company-news-an-erratic-quarter-for-stock-markets.html|title=COMPANY NEWS; AN ERRATIC QUARTER FOR STOCK MARKETS|last=Gilpin|first=Kenneth N.|date=July 3, 1987|newspaper=The New York Times|issn=0362-4331|access-date=February 1, 2017|deadurl=no|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20170801050610/http://www.nytimes.com/1987/07/03/business/company-news-an-erratic-quarter-for-stock-markets.html|archivedate=August 1, 2017|df=mdy-all}}</ref> and also in the monthly Stock Guides (stock guides and procedures) issued by [[Standard & Poor's]] Corporation.{{Citation needed|date=October 2016}}
 
In1992లో 1992, theస్టాక్ Nasdaqఎక్స్చేంజ్ Stockలండన్ Marketస్టాక్ joinedఎక్స్చేంజ్‌తో withచేతులు theకలిపి [[Londonకాపిటల్ Stockమార్కెట్ Exchange]]కొరకు toమొదటి formఅంతర్జాతీయ the first intercontinental linkage of [[Capital market|securitiesబంధనాన్ని markets]]ఏర్పరచింది.<ref>{{Cite book|url=https://books.google.tn/books?id=8O9nBwAAQBAJ&pg=PT1267&lpg=PT1267&dq=Nasdaq+Stock+Market+the+london+Stock+exchange+1992&source=bl&ots=d38bpq3ilz&sig=InzyQeRcE9YPbN6zos3Oxzbq2B0&hl=fr&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjes-G-2rrVAhUm2oMKHVJUCzkQ6AEIQDAE#v=onepage&q=Nasdaq%20Stock%20Market%20the%20london%20Stock%20exchange%201992&f=false|title=Booms and Busts: An Encyclopedia of Economic History from the First Stock Market Crash of 1792 to the Current Global Economic Crisis: An Encyclopedia of Economic History from the First Stock Market Crash of 1792 to the Current Global Economic Crisis|last=Odekon|first=Mehmet|date=March 17, 2015|publisher=Routledge|isbn=9781317475750|language=en|deadurl=no|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20170803133123/https://books.google.tn/books?id=8O9nBwAAQBAJ&pg=PT1267&lpg=PT1267&dq=Nasdaq+Stock+Market+the+london+Stock+exchange+1992&source=bl&ots=d38bpq3ilz&sig=InzyQeRcE9YPbN6zos3Oxzbq2B0&hl=fr&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjes-G-2rrVAhUm2oMKHVJUCzkQ6AEIQDAE#v=onepage&q=Nasdaq%20Stock%20Market%20the%20london%20Stock%20exchange%201992&f=false|archivedate=August 3, 2017|df=mdy-all}}</ref> The National Association of Securities Dealers spun off the Nasdaq Stock Market in 2000 to form a [[public company|publicly traded company]].
Over the years, the NASDAQ Stock Market became more of a stock market by adding trade and volume reporting and automated trading systems. It was also the first stock market in the United States to start trading online, highlighting NASDAQ -traded companies and closing with the declaration that the NASDAQ Stock Market is "the stock market for the next hundred years". The NASDAQ Stock Market attracted new growth companies such as Microsoft, Apple, Cisco, Oracle and Dell and helped modernize the [[Initial public offering|IPO]].
 
Its main index is the [[NASDAQ Composite]], which has been published since its inception. However, its exchange-traded fund tracks the large-cap [[NASDAQ-100]] index, which was introduced in 1985 alongside the NASDAQ 100 Financial Index which tracks the largest 100 companies in terms of market capitalization.
 
In 1992, the Nasdaq Stock Market joined with the [[London Stock Exchange]] to form the first intercontinental linkage of [[Capital market|securities markets]].<ref>{{Cite book|url=https://books.google.tn/books?id=8O9nBwAAQBAJ&pg=PT1267&lpg=PT1267&dq=Nasdaq+Stock+Market+the+london+Stock+exchange+1992&source=bl&ots=d38bpq3ilz&sig=InzyQeRcE9YPbN6zos3Oxzbq2B0&hl=fr&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjes-G-2rrVAhUm2oMKHVJUCzkQ6AEIQDAE#v=onepage&q=Nasdaq%20Stock%20Market%20the%20london%20Stock%20exchange%201992&f=false|title=Booms and Busts: An Encyclopedia of Economic History from the First Stock Market Crash of 1792 to the Current Global Economic Crisis: An Encyclopedia of Economic History from the First Stock Market Crash of 1792 to the Current Global Economic Crisis|last=Odekon|first=Mehmet|date=March 17, 2015|publisher=Routledge|isbn=9781317475750|language=en|deadurl=no|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20170803133123/https://books.google.tn/books?id=8O9nBwAAQBAJ&pg=PT1267&lpg=PT1267&dq=Nasdaq+Stock+Market+the+london+Stock+exchange+1992&source=bl&ots=d38bpq3ilz&sig=InzyQeRcE9YPbN6zos3Oxzbq2B0&hl=fr&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjes-G-2rrVAhUm2oMKHVJUCzkQ6AEIQDAE#v=onepage&q=Nasdaq%20Stock%20Market%20the%20london%20Stock%20exchange%201992&f=false|archivedate=August 3, 2017|df=mdy-all}}</ref> The National Association of Securities Dealers spun off the Nasdaq Stock Market in 2000 to form a [[public company|publicly traded company]].
 
[[Image:Nasdaq Composite dot-com bubble.svg|thumb|600px|The [[NASDAQ Composite]] index spiked in the late 1990s and then fell sharply as a result of the dot-com bubble.]]
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