"ఐర్లాండ్" కూర్పుల మధ్య తేడాలు

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గణతంత్రం పునరుత్పాదక శక్తికి బలమైన నిబద్ధత కలిగి ఉంది. 2014 గ్లోబల్ గ్రీన్ ఎకానమీ ఇండెక్స్ లో క్లీన్టెక్ పెట్టుబడులకు టాప్ 10 మార్కెట్లలో ఒకటిగా ఉంది.<ref name=ggei>{{cite web |title=2014 Global Green Economy Index |url= http://dualcitizeninc.com/GGEI-Report2014.pdf |publisher=Dual Citizen LLC |access-date=20 October 2014}}</ref> 2004 నుండి వాయు శక్తి వంటి పునరుత్పాదక శక్తిలో పరిశోధన మరియు అభివృద్ధి అధికమైంది. కార్క్, డోనెగల్, మాయో మరియు ఆంట్రిమ్ లలో పెద్ద పవన క్షేత్రాలు నిర్మించబడ్డాయి. పవన క్షేత్రాల నిర్మాణానికి కొన్ని సందర్భాల్లో స్థానిక కమ్యూనిటీల నుంచి వ్యతిరేకత ఏర్పడింది. వీరిలో కొందరు విండ్ టర్బైన్లు వికారంగా ఉందని భావించారు. పవన క్షేత్రాల నుంచి లభించే అధికార లభ్యతను నిర్వహణా లోపం ఉన్న పాతబడిన నెట్వర్క్ రిపబ్లిక్ అడ్డుకుంటుంది. ఇ.ఎస్.బి. టర్రోఫ్ హిల్ సౌకర్యం రాష్ట్రంలో ఒకే విధమైన విద్యుత్-నిల్వ సౌకర్యంగా ఉంది. <ref>{{cite web |title=Options For Future Renewable Energy Policy, Targets And Programmes issued by Department of Communications, Energy and Natural Resources |publisher=Hibernian Wind Power Ltd |date=27 February 2004 |url= http://www.hibernianwindpower.ie/hiberwindresponse_dcmnr.pdf |access-date=11 November 2008 |archive-url= https://web.archive.org/web/20120317020157/http://www.hibernianwindpower.ie/hiberwindresponse_dcmnr.pdf |archive-date=17 March 2012}}</ref>
 
 
==Demographics==
{{Main article|Irish people|Demographics of the Republic of Ireland|Demography of Northern Ireland}}
[[File:Population density of Ireland map2002.svg|thumb|upright=1.6|A [[Population density]] map of Ireland 2002 showing the heavily weighted eastern seaboard and Ulster]]
[[File:Catholicism in Ireland.png|thumb|upright=1.6|Proportion of respondents to the Ireland census 2011 or the Northern Ireland census 2011 who stated they were Catholic. Areas in which Catholics are in the majority are blue. Areas in which Catholics are in a minority are red.]]
<!--
 
{{bar box
|title=Estimate Religion of All-Ireland
|titlebar=#ddd
|left1=Religion
|right1=Percent
|float=right
|bars=
{{bar percent|[[Roman Catholicism]]|purple|71.2}}
{{bar percent|[[Protestantism]]|blue|20.9}}
{{bar percent|[[Irreligion|No Religion]]|yellow|7.5}}
{{bar percent|Other|black|0.4}}
}}
 
-->
 
People have lived in Ireland for over 9,000 years. The different eras are termed [[mesolithic]], [[neolithic]], [[Bronze Age]], and [[Iron Age]].
 
Early historical and genealogical records note the existence of major groups such as the [[Cruthin]], [[Corcu Loígde]], [[Dál Riata]], [[Dáirine]], [[Deirgtine]], [[Delbhna]], [[Érainn]], [[Laigin]], [[Ulaid]]. Slightly later major groups included the [[Connachta]], [[Ciannachta]], [[Eóganachta]].
 
Smaller groups included the aithechthúatha (see [[Attacotti]]), [[Cálraighe]], [[Cíarraige]], [[Conmaicne]], [[Dartraighe]], [[Déisi]], [[Éile]], [[Fir Bolg]], [[Fortuatha]], [[Gailenga]], [[Gamanraige]], [[Mairtine]], [[Múscraige]], [[Partraige]], [[Soghain]], [[Uaithni]], [[Uí Maine]], [[Uí Liatháin]]. Many survived into late medieval times, others vanished as they became politically unimportant.
 
Over the past 1200 years, [[Vikings]], [[Normans]], [[Welsh people|Welsh]], [[Flemings]], [[Scottish people|Scots]], [[English people|English]], [[Africans]], [[Eastern Europeans]] and [[South Americans]] have all added to the population and have had significant influences on Irish culture.
 
Ireland's largest religious group is [[Christianity]]. The largest denomination is [[Roman Catholicism]] representing over 73% for the island (and about 87% of the Republic of Ireland). Most of the rest of the population adhere to one of the various [[Protestant]] denominations (about 48% of Northern Ireland).<ref name="niprotestants">{{Cite news |last=McKittrick |first=David |title=Census Reveals Northern Ireland's Protestant Population is at Record Low |work=[[The Independent]] |date=19 December 2002 |url= https://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/home-news/census-reveals-northern-irelands-protestant-population-is-at-record-low-611500.html |access-date=30 December 2009 |location=London |archive-url= https://web.archive.org/web/20110624101635/http://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/home-news/census-reveals-northern-irelands-protestant-population-is-at-record-low-611500.html |archive-date=24 June 2011}}</ref> The largest is the [[Anglicanism|Anglican]] [[Church of Ireland]]. The [[Islam in Ireland|Muslim community]] is growing in Ireland, mostly through increased immigration, with a 50% increase in the republic between the 2006 and 2011 census.<ref>{{cite web |last=Counihan |first=Patrick |title=Divorce rates soar in Ireland as population continues to expand |publisher=Irish Central |date=30 March 2012 |url= http://www.irishcentral.com/news/divorce-rates-soar-in-ireland-as-population-continues-to-expand-145121415-237438531 |access-date=7 June 2014}}</ref> The island has a small [[History of the Jews in Ireland|Jewish community]]. About 4% of the Republic's population and about 14% of the Northern Ireland population<ref name="niprotestants" /> describe themselves as of no religion. In a 2010 survey conducted on behalf of the [[Irish Times]],<!-- Republic of Ireland only? --> 32% of respondents said they went to a religious service more than once a week.
 
The population of Ireland rose rapidly from the 16th century until the mid-19th century, interrupted briefly by the [[Irish Famine (1740–41)|Famine of 1740-41]], which killed roughly two fifths of the island's population. The population rebounded and multiplied over the next century, but another devastating [[Great Famine (Ireland)|famine]] in the 1840s caused one million deaths and forced over one million more to emigrate in its immediate wake. Over the following century the population was reduced by over half, at a time when the general trend in European countries was for populations to rise by an average of three-fold.
 
===Divisions and settlements===
{{Further information|Provinces of Ireland|Counties of Ireland|City status in Ireland}}
 
Traditionally, Ireland is subdivided into [[Provinces of Ireland|four provinces]]: [[Connacht]] (west), [[Leinster]] (east), [[Munster]] (south), and [[Ulster]] (north). In a system that developed between the 13th and 17th centuries,<ref>{{Cite book |last=Crawford |first=John |title=Anglicizing the Government of Ireland: The Irish Privy Council and the Expansion of Tudor Rule 1556–1578 |publisher=Irish Academic Press |date=1993 |isbn=0-7165-2498-8}}</ref> Ireland has [[Counties of Ireland|32 traditional counties]]. Twenty-six of these counties are in the Republic of Ireland and [[Counties of Northern Ireland|six are in Northern Ireland]]. The six counties that constitute Northern Ireland are all in the province of Ulster (which has nine counties in total). As such, ''Ulster'' is often used as a synonym for Northern Ireland, although the two are not coterminous.
 
In the Republic of Ireland, counties form the basis of the system of local government. Counties [[County Dublin|Dublin]], [[County Cork|Cork]], [[County Limerick|Limerick]], [[County Galway|Galway]], [[County Waterford|Waterford]] and [[County Tipperary|Tipperary]] have been broken up into smaller administrative areas. However, they are still treated as counties for cultural and some official purposes, for example postal addresses and by the [[Ordnance Survey Ireland]]. Counties in Northern Ireland are [[Local government in Northern Ireland|no longer used]] for local governmental purposes,<ref>{{cite web |url= http://www.gazetteer.co.uk/section1.htm |title=The Gazetteer of British Place Names: Main features of the Gazetteer |work=Gazetteer of British Place Names |publisher=Association of British Counties |access-date=23 January 2010}}</ref> but, as in the Republic, their traditional boundaries are still used for informal purposes such as sports leagues and in cultural or tourism contexts.<ref>{{cite web |url= http://www.discovernorthernireland.com/destinationNI/ |title=NI by County |work=Discover Northern Ireland |publisher=Northern Ireland Tourist Board |access-date=15 October 2010}}</ref>
 
City status in Ireland is decided by [[legislation|legislative]] or [[royal charter]]. [[Dublin]], with over 1 million residents in the [[Greater Dublin Area]], is the largest city on the island. Belfast, with 579,726 residents, is the largest city in Northern Ireland. City status does not directly equate with population size. For example, [[Armagh]], with 14,590 is the seat of the [[Church of Ireland]] and the [[Roman Catholic]] [[Primate of All Ireland]] and was re-granted [[City status in the United Kingdom#Northern Ireland|city status]] by [[Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom|Queen Elizabeth II]] in 1994 (having lost that status in [[Municipal Corporations (Ireland) Act 1840|local government reforms of 1840]]). In the Republic of Ireland, [[Kilkenny]], seat of the [[Butler dynasty]], while no longer a city for administrative purposes (since the 2001 [[Local Government Act 2001|Local Government Act]]), is entitled by law to continue to use the description.
 
{| class="infobox" style="text-align:center; width:97%; margin-right:10px; font-size:90%"
! colspan="7" style="background:#e9e9e9; padding:0.3em; line-height:1.2em;"|Cities and towns by populations
|-
!rowspan=21|
[[File:OConnellBridgeDublin.jpg|150px]]<br /><small>[[Dublin]]</small><br />[[File:Halla na Cathrach i gCorcaigh.jpg|border|150px]]<br /><small>[[Cork (city)|Cork]]</small>
! style="text-align:center; background:#f5f5f5;"| <small>#</small>
! style="text-align:left; background:#f5f5f5;"| Settlement
! style="text-align:center; background:#f5f5f5;"| Urban Area Population
! style="text-align:center; background:#f5f5f5;"| Metro population
!rowspan=21|
[[File:Belfast City Hall 2.jpg|170px]]<br /><small>[[Belfast]]</small><br />[[File:Cannon on Derry City Walls SMC 2007.jpg|170px]]<br /><small>[[Derry]]</small>
|-
| style="background:#f0f0f0"| 1 ||align=left | '''[[Dublin]]''' || 1,173,179<ref>http://www.cso.ie/en/media/csoie/releasespublications/documents/population/2017/Chapter_2_Geographical_distribution.pdf</ref> || 1,801,040<br />([[Greater Dublin Area|Greater Dublin]])<br />
|-
| style="background:#f0f0f0"| 2 ||align=left | '''[[Belfast]]''' || 333,000<ref name=NorthernIrelandUAs>{{cite web |url= http://www.nisra.gov.uk/archive/demography/publications/urban_rural/ur_gaz.pdf |title=Statistical Classification and Delineation of Settlements |publisher=Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency (NISRA) |date=February 2005 |dead-url=yes |archive-url= https://web.archive.org/web/20140401113858/http://www.nisra.gov.uk/archive/demography/publications/urban_rural/ur_gaz.pdf |archive-date=1 April 2014 |df= }}</ref> ||579,276<ref name="nisra.gov.uk">{{citation |title=Statistical Classification and Delineation of Settlements |url= http://www.nisra.gov.uk/archive/demography/publications/urban_rural/ur_gaz.pdf |date=February 2005 |publisher=NISRA |access-date=13 May 2012 |dead-url=yes |archive-url= https://web.archive.org/web/20140401113858/http://www.nisra.gov.uk/archive/demography/publications/urban_rural/ur_gaz.pdf |archive-date=1 April 2014 |df= }}</ref><br />([[Belfast Metropolitan Area]])<br /> ||
|-
| style="background:#f0f0f0"| 3 ||align=left | '''[[Cork (city)|Cork]]''' || 208,669<ref name="cso.ie1">{{cite web |url= http://www.cso.ie/en/csolatestnews/presspages/2017/census2016summaryresults-part1/ |title=Census 2016 Summary Results - Part 1 - CSO - Central Statistics Office |work=CSO.ie |publisher=Central Statistics Office}}</ref> || 300,0000<br />([[Metropolitan Cork|Cork Metro]])<br />
|-
| style="background:#f0f0f0"| 4 ||align=left | '''[[Limerick]]''' || 94,192<ref name="cso.ie1"/> ||
|-
| style="background:#f0f0f0"| 5 ||align=left | '''[[Derry]]''' || 93,512 ||
|-
| style="background:#f0f0f0"| 6 ||align=left | '''[[Galway]]''' || 79,934<ref name="cso.ie1"/> ||
|-
| style="background:#f0f0f0"| 7 ||aligh=left | '''[[Lisburn]]'''|| 71,465<ref> https://web.archive.org/web/20101126204727/http://lisburncity.gov.uk/filestore/documents/economic_development/The%20City%20of%20Lisburn%202009%20-%202010%20-%20%20%20%20Final%20Draft%20-%2002.03.09.09.pdf</ref> ||
|-
| style="background:#f0f0f0"| 8 ||align=left | '''[[Waterford]]''' || 53,504<ref name="cso.ie1"/> ||
|-
| style="background:#f0f0f0"| 9||align=left | '''[[Craigavon]]''' || 57,651<ref name=NorthernIrelandUAs/> ||
|-
| style="background:#f0f0f0"| 10 ||align=left | '''[[Drogheda]]''' || 38,578 ||
|-
| style="background:#f0f0f0"| 11 ||align=left | '''[[Dundalk]]''' || 37,816 ||
|}
{{Clear}}
 
===Migration===
[[File:Population of Ireland since 1500.png|thumb|upright=1.5|The population of Ireland since 1603 showing the consequence of the [[Great Famine (Ireland)|Great Famine (1845–52)]] (Note: figures before 1841 are contemporary estimates)]]
 
The population of Ireland collapsed dramatically during the second half of the 19th century. A population of over 8 million in 1841 was reduced to slightly more than 4 million by 1921. In part, the fall in population was due to death from the [[Great Famine (Ireland)|Great Famine]] of 1845 to 1852, which took about 1 million lives. However, by far the greater cause of population decline was the dire economic state of the country which led to an entrenched culture of emigration lasting until the 21st century.
 
Emigration from Ireland in the 19th century contributed to the populations of England, the United States, Canada and Australia, where a large [[Irish diaspora]] lives. {{As of|2006}}, 4.3 million Canadians, or 14% of the population, are of Irish descent.<ref>"[http://www12.statcan.ca/census-recensement/2006/dp-pd/hlt/97-562/pages/page.cfm?Lang=E&Geo=PR&Code=01&Table=2&Data=Count&StartRec=1&Sort=3&Display=All&CSDFilter=5000 Ethnic origins, 2006 counts, for Canada, provinces and territories—20% sample data]". Statistics Canada.</ref> {{As of|2013}}, a total of 34.5 million Americans claim Irish ancestry.<ref>{{cite news |url= https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/wonk/wp/2013/03/17/the-irish-american-population-is-seven-times-larger-than-ireland/ |title=The Irish-American population is seven times larger than Ireland |last=Kliff |first=Sarah |date=17 March 2013 |work=[[The Washington Post]] |access-date=6 August 2014}}</ref>
 
With growing prosperity since the last decade of the 20th century, Ireland became a destination for immigrants. Since the [[European Union]] expanded to include [[Poland]] in 2004, [[Polish people]] have made up the largest number of immigrants (over 150,000)<ref>{{Cite news |last=Sullivan |first=Kevin| author-link=Kevin Sullivan (journalist) |title=Hustling to Find Classrooms For All in a Diverse Ireland |work=[[Washington Post]] |date=24 October 2007 |url= https://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/10/23/AR2007102302162_pf.html |access-date=9 November 2008}}</ref> from [[Central Europe]]. There has also been significant immigration from [[Lithuania]], the [[Czech Republic]] and [[Latvia]].<ref>{{cite book |last=Tovey |first=Hilary |last2=Share |first2=Perry |title=A Sociology of Ireland |publisher=Gill & Macmillan |date=2003 |location=Dublin |page=156 |url= https://books.google.com/books?id=EU4NqA7RIHUC&pg=PA156 |isbn=0-7171-3501-2 |access-date=9 September 2011}}</ref>
 
The [[Republic of Ireland]] in particular has seen large-scale immigration, with 420,000 foreign nationals as of 2006, about 10% of the population.<ref name=autogenerated1>{{cite news |last=Seaver |first=Michael |title=Ireland Steps Up as Immigration Leader |work=[[The Christian Science Monitor]] |date=5 September 2007 |url= http://www.csmonitor.com/2007/0905/p06s02-woeu.html |access-date=30 December 2009}}</ref> A quarter of births (24 percent) in 2009 were to mothers born outside Ireland.<ref>{{Cite news |title=24% of boom births to 'new Irish' |work=[[Irish Examiner]] |date=28 June 2011 |url= http://www.irishexaminer.com/breakingnews/ireland/24-of-boom-births-to-new-irish-510651.html}}</ref> [[Overseas Chinese|Chinese]] and [[Nigerian]]s, along with people from other African countries, have accounted for a large proportion of the non–[[European Union]] migrants to Ireland. Up to 50,000 eastern and central European migrant workers left Ireland in response to the Irish financial crisis.<ref name="affluenceends">{{Cite news |last=Henry |first=McDonald |title=Ireland's Age of Affluence Comes to an End |work=The Guardian |date=5 April 2009 |url= https://www.theguardian.com/world/2009/apr/05/ireland-economy-vat-unemployment |access-date=30 December 2009 |location=London}}</ref>
 
===Languages===
{{main article|Languages of Ireland}}
[[File:Irish speakers in 2011.png|thumb|upright=1.15|Proportion of respondents who said they could speak Irish in the Ireland census in 2011 or the Northern Ireland census in 2011]]
The two official languages of the Republic of Ireland are [[Irish language|Irish]] and [[Hiberno-English|English]]. Each language has produced a noteworthy literature. Irish, though now only the language of a minority, was the vernacular of the Irish people for over two thousand years and was possibly introduced during the [[Iron Age]]. It began to be written down after Christianisation in the 5th century and spread to Scotland and the Isle of Man where it evolved into the [[Scottish Gaelic]] and [[Manx Language|Manx]] languages respectively.
 
The Irish language has a vast treasury of written texts from many centuries, and is divided by linguists into [[Old Irish]] from the 6th to 10th century, [[Middle Irish]] from the 10th to 13th century, Early Modern Irish until the 17th century, and the Modern Irish spoken today. It remained the dominant language of Ireland for most of those periods, having influences from [[Latin Language|Latin]], [[Old Norse]], [[Anglo-Norman language|French]] and English. It declined under British rule but remained the majority tongue until the early 19th century, and since then has been a minority language.
 
The [[Gaelic Revival]] of the early twentieth century has had a long-term influence. There is now an extensive network of urban Irish speakers (Gaeilgeoirí) in both the Republic and [[Northern Ireland]], especially in Dublin and [[Belfast]]. They represent an expanding demographic, with their own schools (called [[Gaelscoil|''Gaelscoileanna'']]) and their own social media. It has been argued that they tend to be more highly educated than monolingual English speakers, with better employment prospects and higher social status.<ref>{{cite web |title=Language and Occupational Status: Linguistic Elitism in the Irish Labour Market |journal=The Economic and Social Review |volume=40 |date=2009 |pages=435–460 |url= https://ideas.repec.org/a/eso/journl/v40y2009i4p435-460.html |via=Ideas.epec.org |publisher=Research Papers in Economics (RePEc) |access-date=31 March 2015}}</ref><ref name="cso.ie">{{cite web |url=http://www.cso.ie/en/media/csoie/census/documents/census2011profile9/Profile,9,What,we,know,Press,Statement.pdf |title=Press Statement: Census 2011 Results |work=CSO.ie |publisher=Central Statistics Office |date=22 November 2012 |location=Dublin |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20160328211550/http://www.cso.ie/en/media/csoie/census/documents/census2011profile9/Profile,9,What,we,know,Press,Statement.pdf |archive-date=28 March 2016 |dead-url=yes |access-date=6 October 2017 |df=dmy-all }}</ref> Recent research suggests that urban Irish is developing in a direction of its own, both in pronunciation and grammar.<ref name="irishtimes.com">{{cite news |first==Brian |last=Ó Broin |title=Schism fears for Gaeilgeoirí |url= http://www.irishtimes.com/newspaper/weekend/2010/0116/1224262447899.html |work=[[Irish Times]] |access-date=31 March 2015}}</ref> Irish is also taught in mainstream English-speaking schools as a compulsory subject, but has been criticised for its ineffectiveness.<ref>{{cite news |url= http://universitytimes.ie/?p=1707 |title=Head-to-Head: The Irish Language Debate |work=UniversityTimes.ie |date=21 February 2011 |access-date=31 March 2015}}</ref>
 
Traditional rural Irish-speaking areas, known collectively as the [[Gaeltacht]], are in linguistic decline. The main Gaeltacht areas are in the west, south-west and north-west. They are to be found in Donegal, Mayo, Galway and Kerry with smaller Gaeltacht areas near [[Dungarvan]] in Waterford, [[Navan]], in Meath.<ref>{{cite web |title=Where are Ireland's Gaeltacht areas? |work=FAQ |publisher=[[Údarás na Gaeltachta]] |date=2015 |url= http://www.udaras.ie/en/faoin-laithrean-seo/ceisteanna-coitianta |access-date=9 September 2015}}</ref>
 
[[Hiberno-English|English in Ireland]] was first introduced during the [[Norman invasion of Ireland|Norman invasion]]. It was spoken by a few peasants and merchants brought over from England, and was largely replaced by Irish before the [[Tudor conquest of Ireland]]. It was introduced as the official language with the Tudor and Cromwellian conquests. The Ulster plantations gave it a permanent foothold in Ulster, and it remained the official and upper-class language elsewhere, the Irish-speaking chieftains and nobility having been deposed. Language shift during the 19th century replaced Irish with English as the first language for a vast majority of the population.<ref>{{Cite book |last=Spolsky |first=Bernard |title=Language policy |publisher=Cambridge University Press |date=2004 |page=191 |isbn=9780521011754}}</ref>
 
Less than 10% of the population of the Republic of Ireland today speak Irish regularly outside of the education system<ref>{{cite web |title=Table 15: Irish speakers aged 3 years and over in each Province, County and City, classified by frequency of speaking Irish, 2006 |work=Census 2006 |volume=Volume 9—Irish Language |publisher=Central Statistics Office |url=http://beyond2020.cso.ie/Census/TableViewer/tableView.aspx?ReportId=75639 |access-date=9 November 2008 |deadurl=yes |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20090227165829/http://beyond2020.cso.ie/Census/TableViewer/tableView.aspx?ReportId=75639 |archivedate=27 February 2009 |df=dmy-all }}</ref> and 38% of those over 15 years are classified as "Irish speakers". In Northern Ireland, English is the de facto official language, but official recognition is afforded to Irish, including specific protective measures under Part III of the [[European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages]]. A lesser status (including recognition under Part II of the Charter) is given to [[Ulster Scots dialects]], which are spoken by roughly 2% of Northern Ireland residents, and also spoken by some in the Republic of Ireland.<ref>{{cite web |url= http://www.ark.ac.uk/nilt/1999/Community_Relations/USPKULST.html |title=Northern Ireland Life and Times Survey, 1999 |publisher=Access Research Knowledge Northern Ireland (Queen's University Belfast / Ulster University) |date=9 May 2003 |access-date=20 October 2013}}</ref> Since the 1960s with the increase in immigration, many more languages have been introduced, particularly deriving from Asia and Eastern Europe.
 
[[Shelta language|Shelta]], the language of the nomadic [[Irish Travellers]] is native to Ireland.<ref name=McArthur>{{cite book |editor-last=McArthur |editor-first=Tom |title=The Oxford Companion to the English Language |publisher=[[Oxford University Press]] |date=1992 |pages= |isbn=978-0-19-214183-5}}</ref>
 
==ఐర్లాండ్ ద్వీపం==
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