"పోర్చుగల్" కూర్పుల మధ్య తేడాలు

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పోర్చుగల్ జాతీయ శక్తి ప్రసార సంస్థ, రెడ్స్ ఎనర్జీటిక్ నాసియోనియస్ (అర్.ఇ.ఎన్) వివిధ పునరుత్పాదక-శక్తి కర్మాగారాల నుండి శక్తిని లెక్కించడానికి వాతావరణం, ముఖ్యంగా గాలి నమూనాలు మరియు కంప్యూటర్ ప్రోగ్రామ్లను అంచనా వేసేందుకు అధునాతన మోడలింగ్ను ఉపయోగిస్తుంది. సౌర / గాలి విప్లవానికి ముందు పోర్చుగల్ దశాబ్దాలపాటు నదులలో జల విద్యుత్ కేంద్రాల నుండి విద్యుత్తును ఉత్పత్తి చేసింది. కొత్త కార్యక్రమాలు వాయు మరియు జలం: గాలిలో నడిచే టర్బైన్లు రాత్రికి పైకి నీటిని పంపుతాయి. అప్పుడు నీరు రోజుకు లోతుగా ప్రవహిస్తుంది. వినియోగదారి డిమాండ్ అత్యధికంగా ఉన్నప్పుడు విద్యుత్ను ఉత్పత్తి చేస్తుంది. పోర్చుగల్ పంపిణీ వ్యవస్థ ప్రస్తుతం రెండు-విధాలుగా ఉన్నాయి. కేవలం విద్యుత్తును పంపిణీ చేయడానికి బదులుగా పైకప్పు సౌర ఫలకాలను వంటి అతి చిన్న జనరేటర్ల నుండి విద్యుత్ను ఇది ఆకర్షిస్తుంది. పైకప్పుతో ఉత్పత్తి చేయబడిన సౌర విద్యుత్తును కొనుగోలు చేసేవారికి ప్రీమియం ధరను అమర్చడం ద్వారా ప్రభుత్వం ఇటువంటి ప్రోత్సాహకాలను ప్రోత్సహించింది.
== Demographics ==
{{Main|Demographics of Portugal|Genetic history of the Iberian Peninsula}}
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The Statistics Portugal ({{lang-pt|INE – [[Instituto Nacional de Estatística]]}}) estimates that, according to the 2011 census, the population was 10,562,178 (of which 52% was female, 48% was male). In 2017 and according to more up-to-date figures, the population decreased to 10,294,289.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.pordata.pt/Portugal|title=PORDATA - Base de Dados de Portugal|website=Pordata.pt|accessdate=2 August 2017}}</ref> This population has been relatively homogeneous for most of its history: a single religion (Roman Catholicism) and a single language have contributed to this ethnic and national unity, namely after the expulsion of the [[Moors]] and [[Jews]].<ref>{{cite web|url=https://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/vjw/Portugal.html |title=Portugal |publisher=Jewishvirtuallibrary.org |accessdate=6 May 2012}}</ref>
A number of those minorities nevertheless, stayed in Portugal, under the condition that they convert to Catholicism, after which they became known as ''[[Mozarabian|Mouriscos]]'' and ''Cristãos Novos'' (New Christians or former Muslims). A small number of the former Jews may have continued to observe rabbinic Judaism in secret over many generations, in the case of the secret [[History of the Jews in Belmonte|Jews of Belmonte]], a small town in the interior; where now people observe the Jewish faith openly. After 1772 the distinction between Old and New Christians was abolished by decree. Some famous Portuguese New Christians were the mathematician [[Pedro Nunes]] and the physician and naturalist [[Garcia de Orta]].
 
Native Portuguese are an [[Iberian Peninsula|Iberian]] ethnic group, whose ancestry is very similar to other [[Western Europe|Western]] and [[Southern Europe|Southern]] Europeans and [[Mediterranean people]]s, in particular [[Spaniards]], followed by some regional [[French people|French]] and [[Italians]] with whom they share a common ancestry, history and cultural proximity.
 
The most important demographic influence in the modern Portuguese seems to be the oldest one; current interpretation of [[Y-chromosome]] and [[mtDNA]] data suggests that the Portuguese have their origin in [[Paleolithic]] peoples that began arriving to the European continent around 45,000 years ago. All subsequent migrations did leave an impact, genetically and culturally, but the main population source of the Portuguese is still Paleolithic. Genetic studies show Portuguese populations not to be significantly different from other European populations.<ref>{{Cite journal | pmc=1852743 | year=2007 | last1=Bauchet | first1=M | last2=McEvoy | first2=B | last3=Pearson | first3=LN | last4=Quillen | first4=EE | last5=Sarkisian | first5=T | last6=Hovhannesyan | first6=K | last7=Deka | first7=R | last8=Bradley | first8=DG | last9=Shriver | first9=MD | title=Measuring European Population Stratification with Microarray Genotype Data | volume=80 | issue=5 | pages=948–956 | journal=American Journal of Human Genetics | doi=10.1086/513477 | pmid=17436249 }}</ref>
 
The total fertility rate (TFR) {{As of|2015|lc=y}} was estimated at 1.52 children born/woman, which is below the replacement rate of 2.1.<ref>{{cite web|url=https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/rankorder/2127rank.html|title=The World Factbook — Central Intelligence Agency|website=Cia.gov|accessdate=2 August 2017}}</ref> In 2016, 52.8% of births were to unmarried women.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.pordata.pt/en/Portugal/Live+births+outside+of+marriage++with+parents+co+habiting+or+not+(percentage)-620|title=PORDATA - Live births outside of marriage, with parents co-habiting or not (%) - Portugal|website=Pordata.pt|accessdate=2 August 2017}}</ref>
Like most Western countries, Portugal has to deal with low fertility levels: the country has experienced a [[sub-replacement fertility rate]] since the 1980s.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.cefage.uevora.pt/en/producao_cientifica/projectos/projectos_financiados_por_instituicoes_nacionais_de_apoio_a_investigacao/fertility_in_portugal_a_macro_micro_economic_perspective |title=Fertility in Portugal: a Macro/Micro Economic Perspective / Projects funded by national science agencies / Projects / Research output / Welcome – CEFAGE |publisher=Cefage.uevora.pt |accessdate=31 January 2014}}</ref>
 
The structure of Portuguese society is characterized by an increasing inequality which at present (2015) places the country in the lowest third of the Social Justice Index for the European Union.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.bertelsmann-stiftung.de/de/publikationen/publikation/did/social-justice-in-the-eu-index-report-2015/|title=Social Justice in the EU – Index Report 2015|website=Bertelsmann-stiftung.de|accessdate=2 August 2017}}</ref>
 
=== Urbanization ===
{{Largest cities of Portugal}}
 
=== Metropolitan areas and [[Larger urban zone|Functional Urban Area (FUA)]] ===
<ref>{{cite web|url=http://appsso.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/nui/show.do?dataset=urb_lpop1&lang=en|title=Population on 1 January by age groups and sex - functional urban areas|website=Appsso.eurostat.ec.europa.eu|accessdate=2 August 2017|date=13 June 2017}}</ref>
{{main|Metropolitan areas of Portugal}}
[[File:Densidade populacional por concelho - INE 2001.png|thumb|200px|A map of Portugal showing the population density (number of inhabitants / km²) by municipality]]
There are two Greater Metropolitan Areas ([[Grande Área Metropolitana|GAMs]]): [[Área Metropolitana de Lisboa|Lisbon]] and [[Área Metropolitana do Porto|Porto]].<ref>[http://www.ine.pt/scripts/flex_v10/Main.html Censos 2011], (''[[Instituto Nacional de Estatística]]''-19 July 2011)</ref>
{{electiontable}}
|- style="background: #efefef;"
!align=right| Rank
!align=left| City name
!align=left| Metro<br/>Area
!align=left| Population<ref>Source of the city populations: [[Instituto Nacional de Estatística|INE]] census, 2011.</ref>
!align=left| Subregion
!align=left| Population
!align=center|FUA Population<br/><small>2013</small>
|- style="text-align:right;"
|1 ||align=left| [[Lisbon]] || align=left| '''[[Lisbon Metropolitan Area|Lisbon]]'''|| '''2,821,699''' || align=left| '''[[Grande Lisboa Subregion|Grande Lisboa]]''' || '''2,042,326''' ||align=center|2,818,000
|- style="text-align:right;"
|2||align=left| [[Porto]] || align=left| '''[[Greater Metropolitan Area of Porto|Porto]]'''|| '''1,758,531''' || align=left| '''[[Grande Porto Subregion|Grande Porto]]''' || '''1,401,805'''||align=center|1,295,000
|- style="text-align:right;"
|3 ||align=left| [[Braga]]''' || align=left| [[Greater Metropolitan Area of Minho|Minho]]||814,083 || align=left| [[Cávado Subregion|Cávado]] || 410,149||align=center|249,000
|- style="text-align:right;"
|4 ||align=left| [[Aveiro, Portugal|Aveiro]] || align=left| [[Greater Metropolitan Area of Aveiro|Aveiro]] || 461,819 || align=left| [[Baixo Vouga Subregion|Baixo Vouga]] || 390,840||align=center|141,084
|- style="text-align:right;"
|5 ||align=left| [[Faro District|Faro]] || align=left| [[Greater Metropolitan Area of the Algarve|Algarve]] ||451,005 || align=left| [[Algarve]] || 451,005||align=center|118,000
|- style="text-align:right;"
|6 ||align=left| [[Coimbra]] || align=left| [[Greater Metropolitan Area of Coimbra|Coimbra]]||422,708 || align=left| [[Baixo Mondego Subregion|Baixo Mondego]] || 332,306||align=center|274,000
|- style="text-align:right;"
|7 ||align=left| [[Viseu]] || align=left| [[Greater Metropolitan Area of Viseu|Viseu]] || 338,229 || align=left| [[Dão-Lafões Subregion|Dão-Lafões]] || 277,216 ||align=center|98,778
|}
 
=== Immigration ===
{{main|Immigration to Portugal}}
[[File:COB data Portugal.PNG|thumb|right|200px|Top origins for foreign-born naturalized citizens of Portugal]]
 
In 2007, Portugal had 10,617,575 inhabitants of whom about 332,137 were legal [[Immigration to Portugal|immigrants]].<ref>{{cite web|author=ITDS, Rui Campos, Pedro Senos |url=http://www.ine.pt/xportal/xmain?xpid=INE&xpgid=ine_main |title=Statistics Portugal |publisher=Ine.pt |accessdate=2 July 2011}}</ref> As of 2015, Portugal had 10,341,330 inhabitants of whom about 383,759 were legal migrants, making up 3.7% of the population.<ref name="ine.pt">{{cite web|url=https://www.ine.pt/xportal/xmain?xpid=INE&xpgid=ine_base_dados&menuBOUI=13707095&contexto=bd&selTab=tab2 |title=Statistics Portugal |publisher=ine.pt |accessdate=15 June 2017}}</ref>
 
Portugal's [[Portuguese Empire|colonial history]] has long since been a cornerstone of its national identity, as has its geographic position at the south-western corner of Europe, looking out into the Atlantic Ocean. It was one of the last western colonial European powers to give up its overseas territories (among them [[Portuguese West Africa|Angola]] and [[Portuguese East Africa|Mozambique]] in 1975), turning over the administration of [[Macau]] to the People's Republic of China at the end of 1999. Consequently, it has both influenced and been influenced by cultures from former colonies or dependencies, resulting in immigration from these former territories for both economic and personal reasons. Portugal, long a country of emigration (the vast majority of [[Portuguese Brazilian|Brazilians]] have Portuguese ancestry),<ref name="diaspora">[http://countrystudies.us/portugal/48.htm Portugal&nbsp;– Emigration], Eric Solsten, ed. Portugal: A Country Study. Washington: GPO for the Library of Congress, 1993.</ref> has now become a country of net immigration,<ref>"[http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/4436276.stm Portugal sees integration progress]", BBC News, 14 November 2005</ref> and not just from the last [[Portuguese India|Indian]] (Portuguese until 1961), [[Portuguese-speaking African countries|African]] (Portuguese until 1975), and [[Macau|Far East Asian]] (Portuguese until 1999) overseas territories. An estimated 800,000 Portuguese returned to Portugal as the country's African possessions gained independence in 1975.<ref name="diaspora"/>
 
Since the 1990s, along with a boom in [[construction]], several new waves of [[Ukrainians|Ukrainian]], [[Brazilians|Brazilian]], [[Portuguese-speaking African countries|Lusophone Africans]] and other [[Africans]] have settled in the country. [[Romanians|Romanian]], [[Moldovans]], [[Kosovar diaspora|Kosovar]] and [[Chinese people|Chinese]] have also migrated to the country. Portugal's [[Romani people|Romani]] population is estimated to be at about 40,000.<ref>[http://criasnoticias.wordpress.com/2008/04/06/etnia-cigana-a-mais-discriminada-8-de-abril-dia-internacional-dos-ciganos/Etniacigana. A mais discriminada], (''[[Expresso (newspaper)|Expresso]]''-5 April 2008)</ref>. Numbers of [[Venezuelan people|Venezuelan]] and [[Pakistani people|Pakistani]] migrants are also significant.
 
In addition, a number of [[EU citizen]]s, mostly from the United Kingdom, other northern European or [[Scandinavia|Nordic]] countries, have become permanent residents in the country (with the British community being mostly composed of retired pensioners who live in the Algarve and Madeira).<ref>[http://embaixada-portugal-brasil.blogspot.com/2007/06/brasileiros-so-maior-colnia-estrangeira.html Brasileiros são a maior colónia estrangeira em Portugal] Embaixada de Portugal No Brasil {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20131106043956/http://embaixada-portugal-brasil.blogspot.com/2007/06/brasileiros-so-maior-colnia-estrangeira.html |date=6 November 2013 }}</ref>
 
=== Religion ===
<!-- If you want to expand this section, please add new info into the main article: "Religion in Portugal", your work there will be very appreciated. -->
{{Main|Religion in Portugal}}
{{bar box
|title=Religions in Portugal (Census 2011)<ref name=CIS>{{cite web|url=http://www.ine.pt/ngt_server/attachfileu.jsp?look_parentBoui=148642956&att_display=n&att_download=y|title=Census – Final results: Portugal – 2011|page = 530|accessdate=10 December 2012|publisher=Statistics Portugal|year=2012}}</ref>
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{{bar percent|[[Roman Catholic]]ism|blue|81.0}}
{{bar percent|Other [[Christianity]]|purple|3.3}}
{{bar percent|Others|grey|0.6}}
{{bar percent|No Religion|red|6.8}}
{{bar percent|Undeclared|yellow|8.3}}
}}
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| footer = The [[Christ the King (Almada)|Christ the King Sanctuary]] and the [[Sanctuary of Fátima|Shrine of Our Lady of Fátima]] in Portugal are two of the world's most visited Catholic pilgrimage sites.
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According to the 2011 Census, 81.0% of the Portuguese population is [[Catholic Church|Roman Catholic]].<ref>[http://ec.europa.eu/public_opinion/archives/ebs/ebs_393_en.pdf Censo] {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20121202023700/http://ec.europa.eu/public_opinion/archives/ebs/ebs_393_en.pdf |date=2 December 2012 }}</ref> The country has small Protestant, [[The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints|Latter-day Saint]], [[Islam in Portugal|Muslim]], [[Hinduism in Portugal|Hindu]], [[Sikh]], [[Eastern Orthodox Church]], [[Jehovah's Witnesses]], [[Baha'i]], [[Buddhism|Buddhist]], [[Judaism|Jewish]] and [[Spiritism|Spiritist]] communities. Influences from [[African Traditional Religion]] and Chinese Traditional Religion are also felt among many people, particularly in fields related with Traditional Chinese Medicine and African Witch Doctors. Some 6.8% of the population declared themselves to be non-religious, and 8.3% did not give any answer about their religion.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://censos.ine.pt/xportal/xmain?xpid=CENSOS&xpgid=ine_censos_indicador&contexto=ind&indOcorrCod=0006396&selTab=tab10 |title=Instituto Nacional de Estatistica, Censos 2011 |publisher=Censos.ine.pt |accessdate=31 January 2014}}</ref>
 
In 2012, a study conducted by the Catholic University revealed 79.5% of the Portuguese considered themselves Catholics, and that 18% [[Church attendance|attended Mass]] regularly. These figures represent a drop from 86.9% of Catholics in 2001, while during the same period the number of people stating that they had no religion rose from 8.2% to 14.2%.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.tvi24.iol.pt/sociedade/catolicos-conferencia-episcopal-cep-estudo-tvi24/1341085-4071.html |title=Número de católicos portugueses tem vindo a diminuir > |publisher=TVI24 |date=16 April 2012 |accessdate=31 January 2014}}</ref>
 
Many Portuguese holidays, festivals and traditions have a Christian origin or connotation. Although relations between the Portuguese state and the Roman Catholic Church were generally amiable and stable since the earliest years of the Portuguese nation, their relative power fluctuated. In the [[History of Portugal (1279-1415)|13th and 14th centuries]], the church enjoyed both riches and power stemming from its role in the [[Reconquista|reconquest]], its close identification with early Portuguese nationalism and the foundation of the Portuguese educational system, including its [[University of Coimbra|first university]].
 
The growth of the [[Portuguese Empire|Portuguese overseas empire]] made its [[Mission (Christian)|missionaries]] important agents of [[colonization]], with important roles in the [[Teaching|education]] and [[evangelization]] of people from all the inhabited continents. The growth of [[Liberal Revolution of 1820|liberal]] and nascent [[Republicanism|republican]] movements during the eras leading to the formation of the [[First Portuguese Republic]] (1910–26) changed the role and importance of organized religion.
 
Portugal is a [[secular state]]: [[Separation of church and state|church and state were formally separated]] during the Portuguese First Republic, and later reiterated in the 1976 [[Portuguese Constitution]]. Other than the Constitution, the two most important documents relating to [[religious freedom]] in Portugal are the 1940 Concordata (later amended in 1971) between Portugal and the [[Holy See]] and the 2001 Religious Freedom Act.
 
=== Languages ===
{{Main|Languages of Portugal|Portuguese language}}
[[File:Genísio04.jpg|thumb|right|200px|A sign in [[Mirandese language|Mirandese]] in [[Miranda do Douro]], [[Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro Province|Trás-os-Montes]]]]
[[File:Map_of_the_portuguese_language_in_the_world.svg|thumb|200px|[[Portuguese language|Portuguese]] is the world's 6th most spoken language, with approx. 260 million speakers.]]
Portuguese is the official language of Portugal. Portuguese is a [[Romance language]] that originated in what is now [[Galicia (Spain)|Galicia]] and [[Northern Portugal]], originating from [[Galician-Portuguese]], which was the common language of the Galician and Portuguese people until the formation of Portugal. Particularly in the North of Portugal, there are still many similarities between the Galician culture and the Portuguese culture. Galicia is a consultative observer of the [[Community of Portuguese Language Countries]].
 
The Portuguese language is derived from the [[Latin language|Latin]] spoken by the [[Romanization (cultural)|romanized]] [[Pre-Roman peoples of the Iberian Peninsula]] around 2000 years ago—particularly the [[Celts]], [[Tartessians]], [[Lusitanians]] and [[Iberians]]. In the 15th and 16th centuries, the language spread worldwide as Portugal established a colonial and commercial empire between 1415 and 1999.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.portugueselanguage.net/portuguese/history.asp|title=History of the Portuguese|work=portugueselanguage.net|accessdate=14 September 2015}}</ref>
Portuguese is spoken as a native language in five different continents, with Brazil accounting for the largest number of native Portuguese speakers of any country (209,5 million speakers in 2016).,<ref>{{cite web|title=Report: Portuguese is the third most used language on Facebook – Socialbakers|url=http://portuguese-american-journal.com/report-portuguese-is-the-third-most-used-language-on-facebook-socialbakers/|work=Portuguese American Journal|publisher=Portuguese American Journal|accessdate=11 November 2013|date=18 November 2012}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://worldpopulationreview.com/countries/brazil-population/|title=Brazil Population (2017) - World Population Review|website=worldpopulationreview.com|accessdate=2 August 2017}}</ref>
 
In 2013 the Portuguese language is the official language spoken in Brazil, Angola, Mozambique, Cape Verde, São Tomé and Príncipe, Guinea-Bissau, Equatorial Guinea, and [[East Timor]]. These countries, plus [[Macau]] Special Administrative Region (People's Republic of China) where Portuguese is co-official with Cantonese, make up the [[Lusosphere]], a term derived from the ancient [[Roman province]] of "[[Lusitania]]", which currently matches the Portuguese territory south of the [[Douro]] river.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Perseus:text:1999.04.0064:id=lusitania-geo|title=Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854), LABANAE AQUAE, LUSITA´NIA|work=tufts.edu|accessdate=14 September 2015}}</ref>
 
[[Mirandese language|Mirandese]] is also recognized as a co-official regional language in some municipalities of North-Eastern Portugal. An estimate of between 6,000 and 7,000 Mirandese speakers has been documented for Portugal.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://languagesindanger.eu/book-of-knowledge/list-of-languages/|title=List of Languages|work=languagesindanger.eu|accessdate=14 September 2015}}</ref>
 
According to [[EF English Proficiency Index|International English Proficiency Index]], Portugal has a high proficiency level in [[English language|English]], higher than in countries like [[Italy]], [[France]] or [[Spain]].<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.ef.co.uk/epi/|title=EF English Proficiency Index - A comprehensive ranking of countries by English skills|website=Ef.co.uk|accessdate=2 August 2017}}</ref>
 
=== Education ===
<!-- If you want to expand this section, please add new info into the main articles: "Education in Portugal" and "Higher education in Portugal", your work there will be very appreciated. -->
{{Main|Education in Portugal}}
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| caption1 = Founded in 1290, the [[University of Coimbra]] is Portugal's oldest.
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| caption2 = The [[University of Porto]] is Portugal's second largest and its leading research university.
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The educational system is divided into preschool (for those under age 6), basic education (9 years, in three stages, compulsory), secondary education (3 years, compulsory since 2010), and higher education (subdivided in university and [[polytechnic (Portugal)|polytechnic]] education). Universities are usually organized into [[faculty (division)|faculties]]. Institutes and schools are also common designations for autonomous subdivisions of [[list of colleges and universities in Portugal|Portuguese higher education institutions]].
 
The total adult literacy rate is 99 percent. Portuguese primary school enrollments are 100 percent.
 
According to the [[Programme for International Student Assessment]] (PISA) 2015, the average Portuguese 15-year-old student, when rated in terms of reading literacy, mathematics and science knowledge, is placed significantly above the [[OECD]]'s average, at a similar level as those students from Norway, Poland, Denmark and Belgium, with 501 points (493 is the average). The PISA results of the Portuguese students have been continuously improving, overcoming a number of other highly developed western countries like the USA, Austria, France and Sweden.<ref>{{cite web|url = http://visao.sapo.pt/actualidade/sociedade/2016-12-06-Testes-PISA-Portugal-supera-media-da-OCDE|title = Testes PISA: Portugal supera média da OCDE|publisher=[[Visão]]|language = Portuguese}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url = http://expresso.sapo.pt/sociedade/2016-12-06-E-agora-no-PISA-alunos-portugueses-melhoram-a-ciencias-leitura-e-matematica
|title = E agora no PISA: alunos portugueses melhoram a ciências, leitura e matemática|work=[[Expresso (newspaper)|Expresso]]|language = Portuguese}}</ref>
 
About 40% of college-age citizens (20 years old) attend one of Portugal's higher education institutions<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.portugal.gov.pt/pt/GC18/Governo/Ministerios/MCTES/Intervencoes/Pages/20100111_MCTES_Int_Contrato_Confianca_EnsSup.aspx |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20110724173015/http://www.portugal.gov.pt/pt/GC18/Governo/Ministerios/MCTES/Intervencoes/Pages/20100111_MCTES_Int_Contrato_Confianca_EnsSup.aspx |archivedate=24 July 2011 |title=Um Contrato de confiança no Ensino Superior para o futuro de Portugal |publisher=[[Government of Portugal]], Portugal.gov.pt |language=Portuguese |date=11 January 2010 |deadurl=yes |df= }}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.cnedu.pt/content/noticias/CNE/ensino_superior.pdf|format=PDF|title=Ensino Superior|website=Cnedu.pt|accessdate=2 August 2017}}</ref> (compared with 50% in the United States and 35% in the OECD countries). In addition to being a destination for [[international student]]s, Portugal is also among the top places of origin for international students. All higher education students, both domestic and international, totaled 380,937 in 2005.
 
Portuguese universities have existed since 1290. The [[University of Coimbra|oldest Portuguese university]] was first established in Lisbon before moving to [[Coimbra]]. Historically, within the scope of the Portuguese Empire, the Portuguese founded the oldest engineering school of the [[Americas]] (the ''[[Real Academia de Artilharia, Fortificação e Desenho]]'' of [[Rio de Janeiro]]) in 1792, as well as the oldest medical college in Asia (the ''[[Escola Médico-Cirúrgica de Goa|Escola Médico-Cirúrgica]]'' of [[Goa]]) in 1842. Presently, the largest university in Portugal is the [[University of Lisbon]].
 
The [[Bologna process]] has been adopted, since 2006, by Portuguese universities and poly-technical institutes. Higher education in state-run educational establishments is provided on a competitive basis, a system of ''[[numerus clausus]]'' is enforced through a national database on student admissions. However, every higher education institution offers also a number of additional vacant places through other extraordinary admission processes for sportsmen, mature applicants (over 23 years old), [[international students]], foreign students from the [[Lusosphere]], degree owners from other institutions, students from other institutions ([[Transfer admissions in the United States|academic transfer]]), former students (readmission), and course change, which are subject to specific standards and regulations set by each institution or course department.
 
Most student costs are supported with public money. However, with the increasing tuition fees a student has to pay to attend a Portuguese state-run higher education institution and the attraction of new types of students (many as part-time students or in evening classes) like employees, businessmen, parents, and pensioners, many departments make a substantial profit from every additional student enrolled in courses, with benefits for the college or university's gross tuition revenue and without loss of educational quality (teacher per student, computer per student, classroom size per student, etc.).
 
Portugal has entered into [[Higher education in Portugal#International partnership agreements|cooperation agreements with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and other US institutions]] to further develop and increase the effectiveness of Portuguese higher education and research.
 
=== Health ===
{{Main|Health in Portugal}}
{{multiple image
| direction = vertical
| align = left
| image1 = Hospital Geral de Santo António (14027237313).jpg
| image2 = Hospital de Santa Maria.jpg
| footer = Santo António Hospital, in [[Porto]] (above), and Santa Maria Hospital, in [[Lisbon]] (bottom).
}}
According to the latest [[Human Development Report]], the average [[life expectancy]] in 2015 was 81.3 years.<ref>[[List of countries by life expectancy]]</ref>
 
Portugal ranks 12th in the best public health systems in the world, ahead of high developed countries like the United Kingdom, Germany or Sweden.<ref>[[World Health Organization ranking of health systems in 2000]]</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://countryeconomy.com/demography/life-expectancy/portugal|title=Portugal - Life expectancy at birth 2015|website=Countryeconomy.com|accessdate=2 August 2017}}</ref>
 
The Portuguese health system is characterized by three coexisting systems: the National Health Service (''Serviço Nacional de Saúde'', SNS), special social health insurance schemes for certain professions (health subsystems) and voluntary private health insurance. The SNS provides universal coverage. In addition, about 25% of the population is covered by the health subsystems, 10% by private insurance schemes and another 7% by mutual funds.
 
The Ministry of Health is responsible for developing health policy as well as managing the SNS.
Five regional health administrations are in charge of implementing the national health policy objectives, developing guidelines and protocols and supervising health care delivery. Decentralization efforts have aimed at shifting financial and management responsibility to the regional level. In practice, however, the autonomy of regional health administrations over budget setting and spending has been limited to primary care.
 
The SNS is predominantly funded through general taxation. Employer (including the state) and employee contributions represent the main funding sources of the health subsystems. In addition, direct payments by the patient and voluntary health insurance premiums account for a large proportion of funding.
 
Similar to the other Eur-A countries, most Portuguese die from [[noncommunicable diseases]]. Mortality from [[cardiovascular diseases]] (CVD) is higher than in the [[eurozone]], but its two main components, ischaemic heart disease and cerebrovascular disease, display inverse trends compared with the Eur-A, with [[cerebrovascular disease]] being the single biggest killer in Portugal (17%). Portuguese people die 12% less often from cancer than in the Eur-A, but mortality is not declining as rapidly as in the Eur-A. Cancer is more frequent among children as well as among women younger than 44 years. Although lung cancer (slowly increasing among women) and breast cancer (decreasing rapidly) are scarcer, cancer of the cervix and the prostate are more frequent.
Portugal has the highest mortality rate for diabetes in the Eur-A, with a sharp increase since the 1980s.
[[File:FCM-UNL.JPG|thumb|right|200px|The Medical Department of the [[Universidade Nova de Lisboa]]]]
Portugal's [[infant mortality rate]] has dropped sharply since the late 1970s, when 24 of 1000 newborns died in the first year of life. It is now around 2 deaths per a 1000 newborns. This improvement was mainly due to the decrease in neonatal mortality, from 15.5 to 2.4 per 1000 live births.
 
People are usually well informed about their health status, the positive and negative effects of their behaviour on their health and their use of health care services. Yet their perceptions of their health can differ from what administrative and examination-based data show about levels of illness within populations. Thus, survey results based on self-reporting at the household level complement other data on health status and the use of services.
 
Only one third of adults rated their health as good or very good in Portugal (Kasmel et al., 2004). This is the lowest of the Eur-A countries reporting and reflects the relatively adverse situation of the country in terms of mortality and selected morbidity.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.euro.who.int/document/chh/por_highlights.pdf |title=Highlights on health in Portugal 2004 |accessdate=25 February 2009 |deadurl=yes |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20091201122536/http://www.euro.who.int/document/chh/por_highlights.pdf |archivedate=1 December 2009 |df= }}. World Health Organization</ref>
 
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