"పోర్చుగల్" కూర్పుల మధ్య తేడాలు

చి (భాషాదోషాల సవరణ, typos fixed: గా → గా (2), ె → ే (8), సంస్కృతిక → సాంస్కృతిక , → using AWB)
 
వయోజనుల్లో ఒక వంతు మాత్రమే పోర్చుగల్ (కాస్మెల్ మరియు ఇతరులు 2004) లో తమ ఆరోగ్యాన్ని మంచిగా లేదా చాలా మంచిగా రేట్ చేసారు.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.euro.who.int/document/chh/por_highlights.pdf |title=Highlights on health in Portugal 2004 |accessdate=25 February 2009 |deadurl=yes |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20091201122536/http://www.euro.who.int/document/chh/por_highlights.pdf |archivedate=1 December 2009 |df= }}. World Health Organization</ref>
== Culture ==
<!-- If you want to expand this section, please add new info into the main article: "Culture of Portugal", your work there will be very appreciated. -->
{{Main|Culture of Portugal}}
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| footer = [[Jerónimos Monastery]] (top) and [[Belém Tower]] (bottom) are [[Great Work|magna opera]] of the [[Manueline style]] and symbols of Portuguese nationhood.
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Portugal has developed a specific culture while being influenced by various civilizations that have crossed the Mediterranean and the European continent, or were introduced when it played an active role during the [[Portugal in the Age of Discovery|Age of Discovery]]. In the 1990s and 2000s (decade), Portugal modernized its public cultural facilities, in addition to the [[Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation]] established in 1956 in Lisbon.
 
These include the [[Belém Cultural Centre]] in Lisbon, [[Serralves Foundation]] and the [[Casa da Música]], both in [[Porto]], as well as new public cultural facilities like municipal libraries and concert halls that were built or renovated in many municipalities across the country.
Portugal is home to [[List of World Heritage Sites in Portugal|fifteen]] UNESCO [[World Heritage Site]]s, ranking it [[Table of World Heritage Sites by country|8th in Europe and 17th in the world.]]
 
=== Architecture ===
{{Main|Architecture of Portugal}}
Traditional architecture is distinctive and include the [[Manueline]], also known as Portuguese late Gothic, a sumptuous, composite Portuguese style of architectural ornamentation of the first decades of the 16th century. A 20th-century interpretation of traditional architecture, [[Soft Portuguese style]], appears extensively in major cities, especially Lisbon. Modern Portugal has given the world renowned architects like [[Eduardo Souto de Moura]], [[Álvaro Siza Vieira]] (both [[Pritzker Prize]] winners) and [[Gonçalo Byrne]]. In Portugal [[Tomás Taveira]] is also noteworthy, particularly for stadium design.<ref>{{pt icon}} [https://www.dn.pt/Inicio/interior.aspx?content_id=615671 Estádios de Tomás Taveira e Souto Moura premiados] {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110429003508/http://www.dn.pt/Inicio/interior.aspx?content_id=615671 |date=29 April 2011 }}, [[Diário de Notícias]] (8 July 2005)</ref><ref>[https://www.amazon.com/Tom%C3%A1s-Taveira-Geoffrey-Broadbent/dp/185490034X Tomás Taveira], Geoffrey Broadbent (introduction), Publisher: St Martins Pr (February 1991)</ref><ref>{{pt icon}} [http://www.arquitectura.pt/forum/f11/sao-paulo-est-dio-do-palmeiras-no-brasil-tom-s-taveira-10811/ Tomás Tveira desenha estádio do Palmeiras no Brasil] {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110429073524/http://www.arquitectura.pt/forum/f11/sao-paulo-est-dio-do-palmeiras-no-brasil-tom-s-taveira-10811/ |date=29 April 2011 }}, Diarioeconomico.com</ref>
 
=== Cinema ===
{{Main|Cinema of Portugal}}
 
[[Cinema of Portugal|Portuguese cinema]] has a long tradition, reaching back to the birth of the medium in the late 19th century.
[[António Lopes Ribeiro]], [[António Reis]], [[Pedro Costa]], [[Manoel de Oliveira]], [[João César Monteiro]], [[Edgar Pêra]], [[António-Pedro Vasconcelos]], [[Fernando Lopes (filmmaker)|Fernando Lopes]], [[João Botelho]] and [[Leonel Vieira]], are among those that gained notability. Noted Portuguese film actors include [[Joaquim de Almeida]], [[Nuno Lopes]], [[Daniela Ruah]], [[Maria de Medeiros]], [[Diogo Infante]], [[Soraia Chaves]], [[Ribeirinho]], [[Lúcia Moniz]], and [[Diogo Morgado]].
 
=== Literature ===
{{Main|Portuguese literature}}
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| image1 = Luís de Camões por François Gérard.jpg
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| caption1 = [[Luís Vaz de Camões]], legendary poet of the [[Portuguese Renaissance]]
| caption2 = [[Fernando Pessoa]], prolific writer in 20th-century [[Portuguese language|Portuguese]] literature
}}
Portuguese literature, one of the earliest Western literatures, developed through text as well as song. Until 1350, the [[Portuguese-Galician]] [[troubadour]]s spread their literary influence to most of the Iberian Peninsula.<ref>''Poesia e Prosa Medievais'', p. 9, para. 4</ref> [[Gil Vicente]] (c. 1465–c. 1536) was one of the founders of Portuguese dramatic traditions.
 
Adventurer and poet [[Luís de Camões]] (c. 1524–1580) wrote the epic poem ''[[Os Lusíadas]]'' (''The Lusiads''), with [[Virgil]]'s ''[[Aeneid]]'' as his main influence.<ref name="WDL">{{cite web |url = http://www.wdl.org/en/item/11198/ |title = The Lusiads |website = [[World Digital Library]] |date = 1800–1882 |accessdate = 31 August 2013 }}</ref> Modern Portuguese poetry is rooted in neoclassic and contemporary styles, as exemplified by [[Fernando Pessoa]] (1888–1935). Modern Portuguese literature is represented by authors such as [[Almeida Garrett]], [[Camilo Castelo Branco]], [[José Maria de Eça de Queirós|Eça de Queirós]], [[Fernando Pessoa]], [[Sophia de Mello Breyner Andresen]], [[António Lobo Antunes]] and [[Miguel Torga]]. Particularly popular and distinguished is [[José Saramago]], recipient of the 1998 [[Nobel Prize in Literature]].
 
=== Cuisine ===
<!-- If you want to expand this section, please add new info into the main articles: "Portuguese cuisine" and "Portuguese wine", your work there will be very appreciated. -->
{{Main|Portuguese cuisine|Portuguese wine}}
Portuguese cuisine is diverse. The Portuguese consume a lot of dry [[cod]] (''[[bacalhau]]'' in Portuguese), for which there are hundreds of [[Bacalhau#Bacalhau dishes|recipes]].<ref>SILVA, A. J. M. (2015), The fable of the cod and the promised sea. About portuguese traditions of bacalhau, in BARATA, F. T- and ROCHA, J. M. (eds.), Heritages and Memories from the Sea, Proceedings of the 1st International Conference of the UNESCO Chair in Intangible Heritage and Traditional Know-How: Linking Heritage, 14–16 January 2015. University of Evora, Évora, pp. 130–143. [https://www.academia.edu/15680102/The_fable_of_the_cod_and_the_promised_sea._About_portuguese_traditions_of_bacalhau PDF version]</ref> There are more than enough ''[[bacalhau]]'' dishes; over one for each day of the year. Two other popular fish recipes are grilled [[sardines]] and [[caldeirada]], a potato-based [[stew]] that can be made from several types of fish. Typical Portuguese meat recipes made out of beef, pork, lamb, or chicken include ''[[cozido à portuguesa]]'', ''[[feijoada]]'', ''[[frango de churrasco]]'', ''leitão'' (roast [[suckling pig]]) and ''[[carne de porco à alentejana]]''. A very popular northern dish is the arroz de sarrabulho (rice stewed in pigs blood) or the arroz de cabidela (rice and chickens meat stewed in chickens blood).
[[File:Rabelo_Douro_en%E2%80%93Porto.jpg|thumb|right|200px|[[Portuguese wine]], such as [[Port wine]] (being transported here into [[Porto]]), is world-famous.]]
Typical fast food dishes include the [[Francesinha]] (Frenchie) from Porto, "Tripas à moda do Porto" which is also a traditional plate from Porto, and ''bifanas'' (grilled pork) or ''prego'' (grilled beef) [[sandwich]]es, which are well known around the country. The Portuguese art of [[pastry]] has its origins in the many [[medieval]] Catholic monasteries spread widely across the country. These monasteries, using very few ingredients (mostly almonds, flour, eggs and some liquor), managed to create a spectacular wide range of different pastries, of which [[pastéis de Belém]] (or ''pastéis de nata'') originally from Lisbon, and ''[[ovos moles]]'' from Aveiro are examples. Portuguese cuisine is very diverse, with different regions having their own traditional dishes. The Portuguese have a culture of good food, and throughout the country there are myriads of good restaurants and typical small ''tasquinhas''.
 
Portuguese wines have enjoyed international recognition since the times of the Romans, who associated Portugal with their god [[Dionysus|Bacchus]]. Today, the country is known by wine lovers and its wines have won several international prizes. Some of the best Portuguese wines are [[Vinho Verde]], [[Vinho Alvarinho]], [[Vinho do Douro]], [[Vinho do Alentejo]], [[Vinho do Dão]], [[Vinho da Bairrada]] and the sweet [[Port Wine]], [[Madeira Wine]], and the [[Moscatel]] from [[Setúbal]] and [[Favaios]]. Port and Madeira are particularly appreciated in a wide range of places around the world.
 
=== Music ===
{{Main|Music of Portugal}}
[[File:Jose malhoa fado.jpg|thumb|left|200px|[[Fado]], depicted in this famous painting (c. 1910) by [[José Malhoa]], is Portugal's traditional music.]]
[[Music of Portugal|Portuguese music]] encompasses a wide variety of genres. The traditional one is the Portuguese folk music which has deep roots in local costumes having as instruments bagpipes, drums, flutes, tambourines, accordions and small guitars (''cavaquinho''). Apart Portuguese folk music other renowned genre is [[Fado]], a melancholic urban music originated in [[Lisbon]] in the 19th century, probably inside bohemian environments, usually associated with the [[Portuguese guitar]] and ''saudade'', or longing. [[Coimbra fado]], a unique type of "[[troubadour]] serenading" fado, is also noteworthy. Internationally notable performers include [[Amália Rodrigues]], [[Carlos Paredes]], [[José Afonso]], [[Mariza]], [[Carlos do Carmo]], [[António Chainho]], [[Mísia]], and [[Madredeus]].
 
In the classical music domain, Portugal is represented by names as the pianists [[Artur Pizarro]], [[Maria João Pires]], [[Sequeira Costa]], the violinists Carlos Damas, [[Gerardo Ribeiro]] and in the past by the great cellist [[Guilhermina Suggia]]. Notable composers include [[José Vianna da Motta]], [[Carlos Seixas]], [[João Domingos Bomtempo]], [[João de Sousa Carvalho]], [[Luís de Freitas Branco]] and his student [[Joly Braga Santos]], [[Fernando Lopes-Graça]], [[Emmanuel Nunes]] and [[Sérgio Azevedo]]. Similarly, contemporary composers such as Nuno Malo and Miguel d'Oliveira have achieved some international success writing.
[[File:AmaliaRodrigues1969 (cropped).jpg|thumb|[[Amália Rodrigues]], known as the ''Queen of [[Fado]]'', performing in 1969.]]
In addition to [[Folk music|Folk]], Fado and Classical music, other genres are present at Portugal like pop and other types of modern music, particularly from North America and the United Kingdom, as well as a wide range of Portuguese, Caribbean, Lusophone African and Brazilian artists and bands. Artists with international recognition include [[Dulce Pontes]], [[Moonspell]], [[Buraka Som Sistema]], [[Blasted Mechanism]], [[David Carreira]] and [[The Gift (band)|The Gift]], with the three latter being nominees for a [[MTV Europe Music Award]].
 
Portugal has several summer music festivals, such as ''[[Festival Sudoeste]]'' in [[Zambujeira do Mar]], ''[[Festival de Paredes de Coura]]'' in [[Paredes de Coura]], ''[[Festival Vilar de Mouros]]'' near [[Caminha]], [[Boom Festival]] in [[Idanha-a-Nova Municipality]], ''[[NOS Alive]]'', ''Sumol Summer Fest'' in [[Ericeira]], ''[[Rock in Rio#Lisboa, Portugal, and Madrid, Spain|Rock in Rio Lisboa]]'' and ''[[Super Bock Super Rock]]'' in [[Greater Lisbon]]. Out of the summer season, Portugal has a large number of festivals, designed more to an urban audience, like Flowfest or Hip Hop Porto. Furthermore, one of the largest international [[Goa trance]] festivals takes place in central Portugal every two years, the Boom Festival, that is also the only festival in Portugal to win international awards: European Festival Award 2010 – Green'n'Clean Festival of the Year and the Greener Festival Award Outstanding 2008 and 2010. There is also the student festivals of ''[[Queima das Fitas]]'' are major events in a number of cities across Portugal. In 2005, Portugal held the [[MTV Europe Music Awards]], in [[Pavilhão Atlântico]], [[Lisbon]]. Furthermore, Portugal won the [[Eurovision Song Contest 2017]] in [[Kiev]] with the song "[[Amar pelos dois]]" presented by [[Salvador Sobral]], and subsequently hosted the [[Eurovision Song Contest 2018|2018 contest]] at the [[Altice Arena]] in [[Lisbon]].<ref>{{cite web|url=https://eurovision.tv/story/portugal-salvador-sobral-winner-eurovision-2017|title=PORTUGAL WINS THE 2017 EUROVISION SONG CONTEST!|website=Eurovision.tv|accessdate=2 August 2017}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=https://eurovision.tv/story/eurovision-2018-dates-and-host-city-confirmed|title=Lisbon revealed as Host City of the 2018 Eurovision Song Contest!|publisher=}}</ref>
 
=== Visual arts ===
[[File:A Adoração dos Magos (1828) - Domingos Sequeira.png|thumb|229x229px|[[Domingos Sequeira]] was one of the most prolific [[neoclassicism|neoclassical]] painters. (''Adoration of the Magi''; 1828).|left]]
{{main|Portuguese art}}
Portugal has a [[List of Portuguese artists|rich history in painting]]. The first well-known painters date back to the 15th century&nbsp;– like [[Nuno Gonçalves]]&nbsp;– were part of the late Gothic painting period. During the renaissance Portuguese painting was highly influenced by north European painting. In the Barroque period Joana d'Obidos and Vieira Lusitano were the most prolific painters.
[[José Malhoa]], known for his work ''Fado'', and [[Columbano Bordalo Pinheiro]] (who painted the portraits of [[Teófilo Braga]] and [[Antero de Quental]]) were both references in [[Naturalist school of painting|naturalist painting]].
 
The 20th century saw the arrival of [[Modernism]], and along with it came the most prominent Portuguese painters: [[Amadeo de Souza-Cardoso]], who was heavily influenced by French painters, particularly the Delaunays ([[Robert Delaunay|Robert]] and [[Sonia Delaunay|Sonia]]). Among his best-known works is ''Canção Popular a Russa e o Fígaro''. Another great modernist painters/writers were [[Carlos Botelho]] and [[Almada Negreiros]], friend to the poet [[Fernando Pessoa]], who painted his (Pessoa's) portrait. He was deeply influenced by both [[Cubist]] and [[Futurism (art)|Futurist]] trends.
 
Prominent international figures in visual arts nowadays include painters [[Vieira da Silva]], [[Júlio Pomar]], Helena Almeida, [[Joana Vasconcelos]], [[Julião Sarmento]] and [[Paula Rego]].
 
=== Sport ===
<!-- If you want to expand this section, please add new info into the main article: "Sport in Portugal" your work will be very appreciated. -->
{{Main|Sport in Portugal}}
[[File:IRNPOR match 2018 FIFA World Cup 11 (cropped).jpg|thumb|right|[[Cristiano Ronaldo]] is consistently ranked as the best football player in the world and considered to be one of the [[List of association football players considered the greatest of all time|greatest players of all time]].<ref>[http://www.abc.net.au/news/2017-01-10/cristiano-ronaldo-wins-fourth-fifa-best-player-award/8171640 "Cristiano Ronaldo wins FIFA best player award for fourth time after Portugal, Real Madrid triumphs"], retrieved 13 May 2017.</ref>]]
[[Association football|Football]] is the most popular sport in Portugal. There are several football competitions ranging from local amateur to world-class professional level. The legendary [[Eusébio]] is still a major symbol of [[Portuguese football]] history. [[FIFA World Player of the Year]] winners [[Luís Figo]] and [[Cristiano Ronaldo]], who won the [[FIFA Ballon d'Or]], are two world-class Portuguese football players. Portuguese football managers are also noteworthy, with [[José Mourinho]] and [[Fernando Santos (Portuguese footballer)|Fernando Santos]] being among the most renowned.
 
The [[Portugal national football team]]&nbsp;– ''Seleção Nacional''&nbsp;– have won one [[UEFA European Championship]] title: the [[UEFA Euro 2016]], with a 1–0 victory in the [[UEFA Euro 2016 Final|final]] over [[France national football team|France]], the tournament hosts. In addition, Portugal finished second in the [[2004 European Football Championship|Euro 2004]] (held in Portugal), third in the [[1966 FIFA World Cup]], and fourth in the [[2006 FIFA World Cup]]. At youth level, Portugal have won two [[FIFA World Youth Championship]]s (in [[1989 FIFA World Youth Championship|1989]] and [[1991 FIFA World Youth Championship|1991]]) and several [[UEFA]] European Youth Championships.
 
[[Sporting CP]], [[FC Porto]] and [[S.L. Benfica]], are the largest [[sports clubs]] by popularity and by number of trophies won, often known as "''os três grandes''" ([[Big Three (Portugal)|"the big three"]]). They have won eight titles in the European [[UEFA]] club competitions, were present in many finals and have been regular contenders in the last stages almost every season. Other than football, many Portuguese sports clubs, including the "big three", compete in several other sports events with a varying level of success and popularity, these may include [[roller hockey (quad)|roller hockey]], [[basketball]], [[futsal]], [[Team handball|handball]], and [[volleyball]].
The [[Portuguese Football Federation]] (FPF) &nbsp;– ''Federação Portuguesa de Futebol''&nbsp;– annually hosts the [[Algarve Cup]], a prestigious [[Women's association football|women`s football]] tournament that has been celebrated in the Algarvian part of Portugal.
 
The [[Portugal national rugby union team|Portuguese national rugby union team]] qualified for the [[2007 Rugby World Cup]] and the [[Portugal national rugby sevens team|Portuguese national rugby sevens team]] has played in the [[World Rugby Sevens Series]].
[[File:Nélson Évora 2015.jpg|thumb|upright= 0.7|left|[[Nelson Évora]] won gold in [[Athletics at the 2008 Summer Olympics – Men's triple jump|triple jump]] at the [[2008 Summer Olympics|2008 Beijing Olympics]].]]
In [[athletics (sport)|athletics]], the Portuguese have won a number of gold, silver and bronze medals in the European, World and Olympic Games competitions. [[Cycling]], with [[Volta a Portugal]] being the most important race, is also a popular sports event and include professional cycling teams such as [[Sporting CP]], [[Boavista (cycling team)|Boavista]], [[Clube de Ciclismo de Tavira]] and [[União Ciclista da Maia]].
 
The country has also achieved notable performances in sports like [[fencing]], [[judo]], [[kitesurf]], [[rowing (sport)|rowing]], sailing, [[surfing]], shooting, [[taekwondo]], [[triathlon]] and [[windsurf]], owning several European and world titles. The [[paralympic]] athletes have also conquered many medals in sports like swimming, [[boccia]], [[Sport of athletics|athletics]] and [[wrestling]].
 
In motorsport, Portugal is internationally noted for the [[Rally of Portugal]], and the [[Estoril Circuit|Estoril]], [[Algarve Circuit]]s and the revived [[Porto Street Circuit]] which holds a stage of the WTCC every two years, as well as for a number of internationally noted pilots in varied [[motorsports]].
 
In equestrian sports, Portugal won the only Horseball-Pato World Championship (in 2006), achieved the third position in the First [[Horseball]] World Cup (organized in Ponte de Lima, Portugal, in 2008), and has achieved several victories in the European [[Working Equitation]] Championship.
 
In water sports, Portugal has three major sports: [[swimming (sport)|swimming]], [[water polo]] and [[surfing]]. The country also annually hosts one of the stages of the [[World Surf League]] Men's ''Championship Tour'', the [[MEO Rip Curl Pro Portugal]] in the [[Supertubos]] beach in [[Peniche, Portugal|Peniche]].
 
Northern Portugal has its own original [[martial art]], ''[[Jogo do Pau]]'', in which the fighters use staffs to confront one or several opponents. Other popular sport-related recreational outdoor activities with thousands of enthusiasts nationwide include [[airsoft]], fishing, [[golf]], hiking, hunting and [[orienteering]].
 
Portugal is one of the world's best [[golf]] destinations.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.globalgolfermag.com/matthewmooreblogspot/why-portugal-is-still-europes-1-golf-destination/|title=Why Portugal is still Europe's #1 golf destination|website=Globalgolfermag.com|accessdate=2 August 2017}}</ref> It has received several awards by the World Golf Awards.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://tripwix.com/2016/12/world-golf-awards-2016-portugal-voted-the-best-golf-destination-in-the-world/|title=World Golf Awards 2016: Portugal Voted the Best Golf Destination in the World |date=9 December 2016|website=Tripwix.com|accessdate=2 August 2017}}</ref>
 
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