"ఐర్లాండ్" కూర్పుల మధ్య తేడాలు

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[[Shelta language|Shelta]], the language of the nomadic [[Irish Travellers]] is native to Ireland.<ref name=McArthur>{{cite book |editor-last=McArthur |editor-first=Tom |title=The Oxford Companion to the English Language |publisher=[[Oxford University Press]] |date=1992 |pages= |isbn=978-0-19-214183-5}}</ref>
==Culture==
{{Main|Culture of Ireland|Culture of Northern Ireland}}
[[File:Ardboe Cross.jpg|upright|thumb|[[Ardboe High Cross]], [[County Tyrone]]|alt=Tall stone cross, with intricate carved patterns, protected by metal railings surrounded by short cut grass. Trees are to either side, cows in open countryside are in the middle distance.]]
Ireland's culture comprises elements of the culture of ancient peoples, later immigrant and broadcast cultural influences (chiefly [[Gaels|Gaelic culture]], [[Anglicisation]], [[Americanisation]] and aspects of broader [[European culture]]). In broad terms, Ireland is regarded as one of the [[Celtic nations]] of Europe, alongside [[Scotland]], [[Wales]], [[Cornwall]], [[Isle of Man]] and [[Brittany]]. This combination of cultural influences is visible in the intricate designs termed ''Irish [[Interlace (visual arts)|interlace]]'' or ''[[Celtic knot]]work.'' These can be seen in the ornamentation of medieval religious and secular works. The style is still popular today in jewellery and graphic art,<ref name="BBC 1">{{cite news |title=Tionchar na gCeilteach |url= http://www.bbc.co.uk/irish/articles/view/720/english/ |access-date=23 January 2010 |date=23 May 2009 |work=BBC News Online}}</ref> as is the distinctive style of [[traditional Irish music]] and dance, and has become indicative of modern "Celtic" culture in general.
 
[[Religion in Ireland|Religion]] has played a significant role in the cultural life of the island since ancient times (and since the 17th century [[Plantations of Ireland|plantations]], has been the focus of political identity and divisions on the island). Ireland's pre-Christian heritage fused with the [[Celtic Church]] following the missions of [[Saint Patrick]] in the 5th century. The [[Hiberno-Scottish mission]]s, begun by the Irish monk Saint [[Columba]], spread the [[Celtic Christianity|Irish vision of Christianity]] to [[pagan]] [[Anglo-Saxon England|England]] and the [[Frankish Empire]]. These missions brought written language to an illiterate population of Europe during the [[Early Middle Ages|Dark Ages]] that followed the [[fall of Rome]], earning Ireland the sobriquet, "the island of saints and scholars".
 
Since the 20th century the [[Irish pub]]s worldwide have become, especially those with a full range of cultural and gastronomic offerings, outposts of Irish culture.
 
The Republic of Ireland's national theatre is the [[Abbey Theatre]], which was founded in 1904, and the national Irish-language theatre is [[An Taibhdhearc]], which was established in 1928 in [[Galway]].<ref>{{cite web |title=Stair na Taibhdheirce |publisher=An Taibhdheirce |date=2014 |url= http://antaibhdhearc.com/theatre-info/fuinn/ |access-date= 28 May 2014}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=An Taibhdhearc |publisher=Fodor's |url= http://www.fodors.com/world/europe/ireland/county-clare-galway-and-the-aran-islands |access-date=4 October 2014 |dead-url=yes |archive-url= https://web.archive.org/web/20141002060446/http://www.fodors.com/world/europe/ireland/county-clare-galway-and-the-aran-islands/ |archive-date=2 October 2014}}</ref> Playwrights such as [[Seán O'Casey]], [[Brian Friel]], [[Sebastian Barry]], [[Conor McPherson]] and [[Billy Roche]] are internationally renowned.<ref>{{Cite book |last=Houston |first=Eugenie |title=Working and Living in Ireland |publisher=Working and Living Publications |date=2001 |isbn=978-0-9536896-8-2 |page=253}}</ref>
 
===Arts===
{{Main|Music of Ireland|Irish dance|Irish literature|Irish art|Irish theatre}}
 
[[File:KellsFol032vChristEnthroned.jpg|thumb|upright|Illuminated page from [[Book of Kells]]]]
 
====Literature====
Ireland has made a large contribution to world literature in all its branches, both in Irish and English. Poetry in Irish is among the oldest [[vernacular literature|vernacular poetry]] in Europe, with the earliest examples dating from the 6th century.
Irish remained the dominant literary language down to the nineteenth century, despite the spread of English from the seventeenth century on. Prominent names from the medieval period and later include [[Gofraidh Fionn Ó Dálaigh]] (fourteenth century), [[Dáibhí Ó Bruadair]] (seventeenth century) and [[Aogán Ó Rathaille]] (eighteenth century). [[Eibhlín Dubh Ní Chonaill]] (c. 1743 – c. 1800) was an outstanding poet in the oral tradition. The latter part of the nineteenth century saw a rapid replacement of Irish by English. By 1900, however, cultural nationalists had begun the [[Gaelic revival]], which saw the beginnings of a modern literature in Irish. This was to produce a number of notable writers, including [[Máirtín Ó Cadhain]], [[Máire Mhac an tSaoi]] and others. Irish-language publishers such as [[Coiscéim]] and [[Cló Iar-Chonnacht]] continue to produce scores of titles every year.
 
In English, [[Jonathan Swift]] (30 November 1667 – 19 October 1745), often called the foremost [[satirist]] in the English language, gained fame for works such as ''[[Gulliver's Travels]]'' and ''[[A Modest Proposal]]''. Other notable eighteenth century writers of Irish origin included [[Oliver Goldsmith]] and [[Richard Brinsley Sheridan]], though they spent most of their lives in England. The Anglo-Irish novel came to the fore in the nineteenth century, featuring such writers as [[Charles Kickham]], [[William Carleton]], and (in collaboration) [[Edith Somerville]] and [[Violet Florence Martin]]. The playwright and poet [[Oscar Wilde]], noted for his epigrams, was born in Ireland.
 
In the 20th century, Ireland produced four winners of the [[Nobel Prize for Literature]]: [[George Bernard Shaw]], [[William Butler Yeats]], [[Samuel Beckett]] and [[Seamus Heaney]]. Although not a [[Nobel Prize]] winner, [[James Joyce]] is widely considered to be one of the most significant writers of the 20th century. Joyce's 1922 novel ''[[Ulysses (novel)|Ulysses]]'' is considered one of the most important works of [[Modernist literature]] and his life is celebrated annually on 16 June in Dublin as "[[Bloomsday]]".<ref>{{cite web |title=What is Bloomsday? |publisher=James Joyce Centre |url= http://jamesjoyce.ie/what-is-bloomsday/ |access-date=4 October 2014 |dead-url=yes |archive-url= https://web.archive.org/web/20140916080551/http://jamesjoyce.ie/what-is-bloomsday/ |archive-date=16 September 2014}}</ref> A comparable writer in Irish is Máirtín Ó Cadhain, whose novel [[Cré na Cille]] is regarded as a modernist masterpiece and has been translated into several languages.
 
Modern Irish literature is often connected with its rural heritage<ref>{{Cite book |first=Andrew |last=Higgins Wyndham |title=Re-imagining Ireland |publisher=University of Virginia Press |location=Charlottesville |date=2006}}</ref> through English-language writers such as [[John McGahern]] and [[Seamus Heaney]] and Irish-language writers such as [[Máirtín Ó Direáin]] and others from the [[Gaeltacht]].
 
[[File:Revolutionary Joyce.jpg|thumb|upright|[[James Joyce]] one of the most significant writers of the 20th century]]
 
====Music====
Music has been in evidence in Ireland since prehistoric times.<ref>O'Dwyer, Simon: ''Prehistoric Music in Ireland'' (Stroud, Gloucestershire: Tempus Publishing, 2004), {{ISBN|0-7524-3129-3}}.</ref> Although in the [[early Middle Ages]] the church was "quite unlike its counterpart in continental Europe",<ref>Brannon, Patrick V.: "Medieval Ireland: Music in Cathedral, Church and Cloister", in: ''Early Music'' 28.2 (May 2000), p. 193.</ref> there was considerable interchange between monastic settlements in Ireland and the rest of Europe that contributed to what is known as [[Gregorian chant]]. Outside religious establishments, musical genres in early Gaelic Ireland are referred to as a triad of weeping music (''goltraige''), laughing music (''geantraige'') and sleeping music (''suantraige'').<ref>Buckley, Ann: "Medieval Ireland, Music in", in: ''The Encyclopaedia of Music in Ireland'', ed. by Harry White and Barra Boydell (Dublin: UCD Press, 2013), {{ISBN|978-1-906359-78-2}}, p. 659.</ref> Vocal and instrumental music (e.g. for the harp, pipes, and various [[string instrument]]s) was transmitted orally, but the [[Irish harp]], in particular, was of such significance that it became Ireland's national symbol. Classical music following European models first developed in urban areas, in establishments of Anglo-Irish rule such as [[Dublin Castle]], [[St Patrick's Cathedral, Dublin|St Patrick's Cathedral]] and [[Christ Church Cathedral, Dublin|Christ Church]] as well as the country houses of the Anglo-Irish ascendancy, with the first performance of [[George Frideric Handel|Handel]]'s ''[[Messiah (Handel)|Messiah]]'' (1742) being among the highlights of the baroque era. In the 19th century, public concerts provided access to classical music to all classes of society. Yet, for political and financial reasons Ireland has been too small to provide a living to many musicians, so the names of the better-known [[List of Irish classical composers|Irish composers]] of this time belong to emigrants.
 
Irish [[folk music|traditional music]] and [[dance]] has seen a surge in popularity and global coverage since the 1960s. In the middle years of the 20th century, as Irish society was modernising, traditional music had fallen out of favour, especially in urban areas.<ref>{{Cite book |last=Geraghty |first=Des |title=Luke Kelly: A Memoir |publisher=Basement Press |date=1994 |pages=26–30 |isbn=978-1-85594-090-1}}</ref> However during the 1960s, there was a revival of interest in Irish traditional music led by groups such as [[The Dubliners]], [[The Chieftains]], [[The Wolfe Tones]], the [[Clancy Brothers]], [[Sweeney's Men]] and individuals like [[Seán Ó Riada]] and [[Christy Moore]]. Groups and musicians including [[Horslips]], [[Van Morrison]] and [[Thin Lizzy]] incorporated elements of Irish traditional music into contemporary [[rock music]] and, during the 1970s and 1980s, the distinction between traditional and rock musicians became blurred, with many individuals regularly crossing over between these styles of playing. This trend can be seen more recently in the work of artists like [[Enya]], [[The Saw Doctors]], [[The Corrs]], [[Sinéad O'Connor]], [[Clannad (musical group)|Clannad]], [[The Cranberries]] and [[The Pogues]] among others.
 
====Art====
The earliest known Irish graphic art and sculpture are Neolithic carvings found at sites such as [[Newgrange]]<ref>{{Cite book |last1=O'Kelly |first1=Michael J. |last2=O'Kelly |first2=Claire |title=Newgrange: Archaeology Art and Legend |publisher=Thames and Hudson |date=1982 |location=London |url= https://books.google.com/?id=bGiMHQAACAAJ |isbn=978-0-500-27371-5}}</ref> and is traced through [[Bronze age]] artefacts and the religious carvings and [[illuminated manuscripts]] of the medieval period. During the course of the 19th and 20th centuries, a strong tradition of painting emerged, including such figures as [[John Butler Yeats]], [[William Orpen]], [[Jack Yeats]] and [[Louis le Brocquy]]. Contemporary Irish visual artists of note include [[Sean Scully]], [[Kevin Abosch]], and [[Alice Maher]].
 
===Science===
[[File:Robert Boyle 0001.jpg|thumb|upright|[[Robert Boyle]] formulated Boyle's Law.]]
The Irish philosopher and theologian [[Johannes Scotus Eriugena]] was considered one of the leading intellectuals of the early Middle Ages. Sir [[Ernest Henry Shackleton]], an Irish explorer, was one of the principal figures of Antarctic exploration. He, along with his expedition, made the first ascent of [[Mount Erebus]] and the discovery of the approximate location of the [[South Magnetic Pole]]. [[Robert Boyle]] was a 17th-century natural philosopher, chemist, physicist, inventor and early [[gentleman scientist]]. He is largely regarded one of the founders of modern chemistry and is best known for the formulation of [[Boyle's law]].<ref name="ucc boyle boi">{{cite web |last=Reville |first=William |title=Ireland's Scientific Heritage |website=Understanding Science: Famous Irish Scientists |publisher=[[University College Cork]], Faculty of Science |date=14 December 2000 |url= http://undersci.ucc.ie/wp-content/uploads/sites/12/2014/11/Robert_Boyle.pdf |access-date=30 August 2015}}</ref>
 
19th century physicist, [[John Tyndall]], discovered the [[Tyndall effect]]. [[Father Nicholas Joseph Callan]], Professor of Natural Philosophy in [[Maynooth College]], is best known for his invention of the [[induction coil]], [[transformer]] and he discovered an early method of [[galvanisation]] in the 19th century.
 
Other notable Irish [[physicists]] include [[Ernest Walton]], winner of the 1951 [[Nobel Prize in Physics]]. With [[Sir John Douglas Cockcroft]], he was the first to split the nucleus of the atom by artificial means and made contributions to the development of a new theory of [[wave equation]].<ref>{{cite web |url= https://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/physics/laureates/1951/press.html?print=1 |title=Nobel Prize in Physics 1951 – Presentation Speech |first=Professor I. |last=Waller |website=NobelPrize.org |publisher=Alfred Nobel Memorial Foundation |date=1951 |access-date=4 April 2012}}</ref> William Thomson, or [[Lord Kelvin]], is the person whom the absolute temperature unit, the [[kelvin]], is named after. Sir [[Joseph Larmor]], a physicist and mathematician, made innovations in the understanding of electricity, dynamics, thermodynamics and the electron theory of matter. His most influential work was Aether and Matter, a book on theoretical physics published in 1900.<ref name="physicsworld">{{Cite news |first=Mark |last=McCartney |title=William Thomson: king of Victorian physics |work=[[Physics World]] |url= http://physicsworld.com/cws/article/print/16484 |date=1 December 2002 |access-date=22 November 2008}} {{subscription required}}</ref>
 
[[George Johnstone Stoney]] introduced the term ''[[electron]]'' in 1891. [[John Stewart Bell]] was the originator of [[Bell's Theorem]] and a paper concerning the discovery of the [[Chiral anomaly|Bell-Jackiw-Adler anomaly]] and was nominated for a Nobel prize.<ref>{{cite news |title=John Bell: Belfast street named after physicist who proved Einstein wrong |work=BBC News Online |date=19 February 2015 |url= https://www.bbc.com/news/uk-northern-ireland-31536765 |access-date=30 August 2015}}</ref> The astronomer [[Jocelyn Bell Burnell]], from [[Lurgan]], [[County Armagh]], discovered pulsars in 1967. Notable mathematicians include Sir [[William Rowan Hamilton]], famous for work in [[Hamiltonian mechanics|classical mechanics]] and the invention of [[quaternions]]. [[Francis Ysidro Edgeworth]]'s contribution of the [[Edgeworth Box]] remains influential in neo-classical microeconomic theory to this day; while [[Richard Cantillon]] inspired [[Adam Smith]], among others. [[John B. Cosgrave]] was a specialist in [[number theory]] and discovered a 2000-digit [[prime number]] in 1999 and a record composite [[Fermat number]] in 2003. [[John Lighton Synge]] made progress in different fields of science, including mechanics and geometrical methods in general relativity. He had mathematician [[John Forbes Nash, Jr.|John Nash]] as one of his students. [[Kathleen Lonsdale]], born in Ireland and most known for her work with [[X-ray crystallography|crystallography]], became the first female president of the British Association for the Advancement of Science.<ref>{{Cite news |url= http://www.science.ie/features/archived-feature-articles/five-irish-scientists.html |title=Five Irish Scientists Who Put Chemistry on the Map |work=Science.ie |publisher=Science Foundation Ireland |access-date=24 November 2016}}</ref>
 
Ireland has nine universities, seven in the Republic of Ireland and two in Northern Ireland, including [[Trinity College, Dublin]] and the [[University College Dublin]], as well as numerous third-level colleges and institutes and a branch of the Open University, the [[Open University in Ireland]].
 
===Sports===
{{Main|Sport in Ireland}}
{{See also|Irish people#Sports|l1=List of Irish sports people}}
 
[[Gaelic football]] is the most popular sport in Ireland in terms of match attendance and community involvement, with about 2,600 clubs on the island. In 2003 it represented 34% of total sports attendances at events in Ireland and abroad, followed by [[hurling]] at 23%, soccer at 16% and [[rugby football|rugby]] at 8%.<ref name="esri">{{cite web |url= http://www.esri.ie/pdf/BKMNINT180_Main%20Text_Social%20and%20Economic%20Value%20of%20Sport.pdf |publisher=Economic and Social Research Institute |format=PDF |title=The Social Significance of Sport |access-date=21 October 2008 |archive-url= https://web.archive.org/web/20150712134834/http://www.esri.ie/pdf/BKMNINT180_Main%20Text_Social%20and%20Economic%20Value%20of%20Sport.pdf |archive-date=12 July 2015}}</ref> The [[All-Ireland Football Final]] is the most watched event in the sporting calendar.<ref>{{cite web |url= http://www.finfacts.com/irelandbusinessnews/publish/article_10004396.shtml |title=Initiative's latest ViewerTrack study shows that in Ireland GAA and soccer still dominate the sporting arena, while globally the Superbowl (sic) was the most watched sporting event of 2005 |website=FinFacts.com |publisher=Finfacts Multimedia |date=4 January 2006 |access-date=24 January 2010}}</ref> Soccer is the most widely played team game on the island, and the most popular in [[Northern Ireland]].<ref name="esri"/><ref name="FootballSoccer">{{cite web |url= http://www.culturenorthernireland.org/article/709/soccer-in-northern-ireland |title=Soccer in Northern Ireland |website=Culture Northern Ireland |publisher=Nerve Centre |location=Derry/Londonderry |date=14 July 2008 |access-date=8 June 2011}}</ref>
 
Other sporting activities with the highest levels of playing participation include swimming, golf, aerobics, cycling, and billiards/snooker.<ref>{{cite web |url= http://www.esri.ie/UserFiles/publications/20070223162340/BKMNINT178_Main%20Text%20Chapters%201-4.pdf |title=Sports Participation and Health Among Adults in Ireland |publisher=Economic and Social Research Institute |access-date=15 October 2008 |archive-url= https://web.archive.org/web/20150904125738/http://www.esri.ie/UserFiles/publications/20070223162340/BKMNINT178_Main%20Text%20Chapters%201-4.pdf |archive-date= 4 September 2015}}</ref> Many other sports are also played and followed, including [[boxing]], [[cricket]], [[fishing]], [[greyhound racing]], [[Gaelic handball|handball]], [[hockey]], [[horse racing]], [[motor sport]], [[show jumping]] and [[tennis]].
 
The island fields a single international team in most sports. One notable exception to this is association football, although both associations continued to field international teams under the name "Ireland" until the 1950s. The sport is also the most notable exception where the [[Republic of Ireland national football team|Republic of Ireland]] and [[Northern Ireland national football team|Northern Ireland]] field separate international teams. Northern Ireland has produced two World Snooker Champions.
 
====Field sports====
[[File:Tyrone Blanket Defence.jpg|thumb|[[Tyrone GAA|Tyrone]] v [[Kerry GAA|Kerry]] in the [[2005 All-Ireland Senior Football Championship Final]]]]
[[Gaelic football]], [[hurling]] and [[Gaelic handball|handball]] are the best-known of the Irish traditional sports, collectively known as [[Gaelic games]]. Gaelic games are governed by the [[Gaelic Athletic Association]] (GAA), with the exception of ladies' Gaelic football and camogie (women's variant of hurling), which are governed by separate organisations. The headquarters of the GAA (and the main stadium) is located at the 82,500<ref>{{cite web |url= http://www.crokepark.ie/ |title=Croke Park. Not just a venue. A destination |publisher=Croke Park Stadium / Gaelic Athletic Association |access-date=3 October 2007}}</ref> capacity [[Croke Park]] in north Dublin. Many major GAA games are played there, including the semi-finals and finals of the [[All-Ireland Senior Football Championship]] and [[All-Ireland Senior Hurling Championship]]. During the redevelopment of the [[Lansdowne Road|Lansdowne Road stadium]] in 2007–10, international rugby and soccer were played there.<ref>{{Cite news |url= https://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/02/05/AR2007020501459.html |title=For First Time, Croke Park Is Ireland's Common Ground |date=6 February 2007 |access-date=14 August 2008 |work=The Washington Post |first=Michael |last=Moynihan}}</ref> All GAA players, even at the highest level, are amateurs, receiving no wages, although they are permitted to receive a limited amount of sport-related income from commercial sponsorship.
 
The [[Irish Football Association]] (IFA) was originally the governing body for soccer across the island. The game has been played in an organised fashion in Ireland since the 1870s, with [[Cliftonville F.C.]] in Belfast being Ireland's oldest club. It was most popular, especially in its first decades, around Belfast and in Ulster. However, some clubs based outside Belfast thought that the IFA largely favoured Ulster-based clubs in such matters as selection for the national team. In 1921, following an incident in which, despite an earlier promise, the IFA moved an [[Irish Cup]] semi-final replay from Dublin to Belfast,<ref>{{cite web |title=FAI History: 1921–1930 |publisher=Football Association of Ireland |date=5 June 2009 |url= http://www.fai.ie/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=222&Itemid=226 |access-date=30 December 2009}}</ref> Dublin-based clubs broke away to form the Football Association of the Irish Free State. Today the southern association is known as the [[Football Association of Ireland]] (FAI). Despite being initially blacklisted by the [[Home Nations]]' associations, the FAI was recognised by [[FIFA]] in 1923 and organised its first international fixture in 1926 (against [[Italy national football team|Italy]]). However, both the IFA and FAI continued to select their teams from the whole of Ireland, with some players earning international caps for matches with both teams. Both also referred to their respective teams as ''Ireland''.
 
[[File:Paul O'Connell Ireland Rugby.jpg|thumb|upright|[[Paul O'Connell]] reaching for the ball during a [[Line-out (rugby union)|line out]] against [[Argentina national rugby union team|Argentina]] in 2007.]]
In 1950, FIFA directed the associations only to select players from within their respective territories and, in 1953, directed that the FAI's team be known only as "[[Republic of Ireland national football team|Republic of Ireland]]" and that the IFA's team be known as "[[Northern Ireland national football team|Northern Ireland]]" (with certain exceptions). Northern Ireland qualified for the [[FIFA World Cup|World Cup]] finals in [[1958 FIFA World Cup|1958]] (reaching the quarter-finals), [[1982 FIFA World Cup|1982]] and [[1986 FIFA World Cup|1986]] and the [[UEFA European Championship|European Championship]] in [[UEFA Euro 2016|2016]]. The Republic qualified for the World Cup finals in [[1990 FIFA World Cup|1990]] (reaching the quarter-finals), [[1994 FIFA World Cup|1994]], [[2002 FIFA World Cup|2002]] and the [[UEFA European Championship|European Championships]] in [[UEFA Euro 1988|1988]], [[UEFA Euro 2012|2012]] and [[UEFA Euro 2016|2016]]. Across Ireland, there is significant interest in the [[Premier League|English]] and, to a lesser extent, [[Scottish Premier League|Scottish]] soccer leagues.
 
Unlike soccer, Ireland continues to field a single [[Ireland national rugby union team|national rugby team]] and a single association, the [[Irish Rugby Football Union]] (IRFU), governs the sport across the island. The Irish rugby team have played in every [[Rugby World Cup]], making the quarter-finals in six of them. Ireland also hosted games during the [[1991 Rugby World Cup|1991]] and the [[1999 Rugby World Cup]]s (including a quarter-final). There are four professional Irish teams; all four play in the [[Pro14]] and at least three compete for the [[Heineken Cup]]. Irish rugby has become increasingly competitive at both the international and provincial levels since the sport went professional in 1994. During that time, [[Ulster Rugby|Ulster]] ([[1998–99 Heineken Cup|1999]]),<ref name="heineken champions archive">{{cite web |url=http://archive.ercrugby.com/heinekencup/champions.php |title=Champions of Europe |publisher=European Club Rugby |website=ERCRugby.com |date=2014 |access-date=4 October 2014 |deadurl=yes |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20141006080223/http://archive.ercrugby.com/heinekencup/champions.php |archivedate=6 October 2014 |df=dmy-all }}</ref> [[Munster Rugby|Munster]] ([[2005–06 Heineken Cup|2006]]<ref>{{Cite news |url= http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport2/hi/rugby_union/european/4998452.stm |title=Munster 23-19 Biarritz |work=BBC News Online |date=20 May 2006 |access-date=13 October 2011}}</ref> and [[2007–08 Heineken Cup|2008]])<ref name="heineken champions archive"/> and [[Leinster Rugby|Leinster]] ([[2008–09 Heineken Cup|2009]], [[2010–11 Heineken Cup|2011]] and [[2011–12 Heineken Cup|2012]])<ref name="heineken champions archive"/> have won the Heineken Cup. In addition to this, the Irish International side has had increased success in the [[Six Nations Championship]] against the other European elite sides. This success, including [[Triple Crown (rugby union)|Triple Crowns]] in 2004, 2006 and 2007, culminated with a clean sweep of victories, known as a [[Grand Slam (rugby union)|Grand Slam]], in 2009 and 2018.<ref>{{cite news |url= https://www.bbc.com/sport/rugby-union/17274833 |title=Six Nations roll of honour |work=BBC News Online |date=2014 |access-date=28 May 2014}}</ref>
 
====Other sports====
[[File:Irl-Sligo horse racing.jpg|thumb|[[Horse racing]] in [[Sligo]]]]
[[Horse racing]] and [[greyhound racing]] are both popular in Ireland. There are frequent horse race meetings and greyhound stadiums are well-attended. The island is noted for the breeding and training of race horses and is also a large exporter of racing dogs.<ref>{{Cite journal |author=FGS Consulting |title=Review of the Horse and Greyhound Racing Fund |publisher=Department of Arts, Sport and Tourism |date=May 2009 |page=11 |url= http://www.arts-sport-tourism.gov.ie/pdfs/DAST_%20Review_of_H%20_GFund%20_FGS_Final_May%2009.pdf |format=PDF |access-date=29 March 2010 |archive-url= https://web.archive.org/web/20110723073729/http://www.arts-sport-tourism.gov.ie/pdfs/DAST_%20Review_of_H%20_GFund%20_FGS_Final_May%2009.pdf |archive-date=23 July 2011}}</ref> The horse racing sector is largely concentrated in the [[County Kildare]].<ref>{{cite web |url= http://www.curragh.ie/about-us/history-of-the-curragh/ |title=Kildare at the heart of the Irish bloodstock industry |publisher=The Curragh Racecourse |access-date=29 March 2010}}</ref>
 
Irish athletics has seen a heightened success rate since the year 2000, with [[Sonia O'Sullivan]] winning two medals at 5,000 metres on the track; gold at the 1995 [[IAAF World Championships in Athletics|World Championships]] and silver at the [[2000 Summer Olympics|2000 Sydney Olympics]]. [[Gillian O'Sullivan]] won silver in the 20k walk at the 2003 World Championships, while sprint hurdler [[Derval O'Rourke]] won gold at the 2006 World Indoor Championship in [[Moscow]]. Olive Loughnane won a silver medal in the 20k walk in the World Athletics Championships in Berlin in 2009.
 
Ireland has won more medals in boxing than in any other Olympic sport. Boxing is governed by the [[Irish Athletic Boxing Association]]. [[Michael Carruth]] won a [[gold medal]] and [[Wayne McCullough]] won a [[silver medal]] in the [[1992 Summer Olympics|Barcelona Olympic Games]]. In 2008 Kenneth Egan won a silver medal in the Beijing Games.<ref>{{Cite news |url= http://www.rte.ie/news/2008/0824/107262-olympic/ |title=RTÉ News: Irish boxer loses out on Olympic gold |work=RTÉ News |publisher=[[Raidió Teilifís Éireann]] |date=28 August 2008 |access-date=28 February 2010}}</ref> [[Paddy Barnes]] secured bronze in those games and gold in the [[2010 European Amateur Boxing Championships]] (where Ireland came 2nd in the overall medal table) and [[2010 Commonwealth Games]]. [[Katie Taylor]] has won gold in every European and World championship since 2005. In August 2012 at the Olympic Games in London Katie Taylor created history by becoming the first Irish woman to win a gold medal in boxing in the 60&nbsp;kg lightweight.<ref>{{cite news |url= http://www.rte.ie/sport/boxing/2010/0918/270858-taylork_world/ |title=Katie Taylor wins World Boxing Championships |date=18 September 2010 |work=RTÉ Sport |publisher=Raidió Teilifís Éireann |access-date=20 September 2010}}</ref>
 
Golf is very popular, and golf tourism is a major industry attracting more than 240,000 golfing visitors annually.<ref>{{cite web |url= http://www.ireland.com/what-is-available/golf/articles/golfing-ireland |title=Golfing in Ireland |website=Ireland.com |publisher=Tourism Ireland |access-date=28 May 2014}}</ref> The [[2006 Ryder Cup|2006]] [[Ryder Cup]] was held at [[The Kildare Hotel and Golf Club|The K Club]] in [[County Kildare]].<ref>{{cite web |title=2006 Ryder Cup Team Europe |publisher=PGA of America, Ryder Cup Limited, and Turner Sports Interactive |date=23 January 2006 |url= http://www.rydercup.com/2006/europe/news/20060123_home.html |access-date=8 November 2008}}</ref> [[Pádraig Harrington]] became the first Irishman since [[Fred Daly (golfer)|Fred Daly]] in 1947 to win the [[The Open Championship|British Open]] at [[Carnoustie]] in July 2007.<ref>{{cite web |last=Brennan |first=Séamus |author-link=Séamus Brennan |title=Séamus Brennan, Minister for Arts, Sport and Tourism comments on victory by Padraig Harrington in the 2007 British Open Golf Championship |date=22 July 2007 |website=arts-sport-tourism.gov.ie |publisher=Department of Arts, Sport and Tourism |location=Dublin |url= http://www.arts-sport-tourism.gov.ie/publications/release.asp?ID=2028 |access-date=8 November 2008 |archive-url= https://web.archive.org/web/20110723073843/http://www.arts-sport-tourism.gov.ie/publications/release.asp?ID=2028 |archive-date=23 July 2011}}</ref> He successfully defended his title in July 2008<ref>{{Cite news |url= http://www.randa.org/en/RandA/News/News/2008/October/Peter-Dawson-speaks-about-golf-s-Olympic-ambition.aspx |title=Peter Dawson speaks about golf's Olympic ambition |work=OpenGolf.com |publisher=R&A Championships Ltd |date=16 December 2009 |access-date=26 March 2010 |archive-url= https://web.archive.org/web/20150403122928/http://www.randa.org/en/RandA/News/News/2008/October/Peter-Dawson-speaks-about-golf-s-Olympic-ambition.aspx |archive-date=3 April 2015}}</ref> before going on to win the [[PGA Championship]] in August.<ref>{{cite news |url= http://www.rte.ie/sport/golf/galleries/2008/0811/236140-harrington/ |title=In Pictures: Harrington wins US PGA |date=11 August 2008 |access-date=14 August 2008 |work=RTÉ News}}</ref> Harrington became the first European to win the PGA Championship in 78 years and was the first winner from Ireland. Three golfers from Northern Ireland have been particularly successful. In 2010, [[Graeme McDowell]] became the first Irish golfer to win the [[U.S. Open (golf)|U.S. Open]], and the first European to win that tournament since 1970. [[Rory McIlroy]], at the age of 22, won the 2011 U.S. Open, while [[Darren Clarke]]'s latest victory was the [[2011 Open Championship]] at Royal St. George's. In August 2012, McIlroy won his 2nd major championship by winning the USPGA Championship by a record margin of 8 shots.
 
====Recreation====
The west coast of Ireland, [[Lahinch]] and [[Donegal Bay]] in particular, have popular surfing beaches, being fully exposed to the [[Atlantic Ocean]]. Donegal Bay is shaped like a funnel and catches west/south-west Atlantic winds, creating good surf, especially in winter. Since just before the year 2010, [[Bundoran]] has hosted European championship surfing. [[Scuba diving]] is increasingly popular in Ireland with clear waters and large populations of sea life, particularly along the western seaboard. There are also many shipwrecks along the coast of Ireland, with some of the best [[wreck dives]] being in [[Malin Head]] and off the [[County Cork]] coast.<ref>{{cite news |last=McDaid |first=Brendan |url= http://www.belfasttelegraph.co.uk/imported/shipwrecks-ahoy-in-area-28256564.html |title=Shipwrecks ahoy in area |work=Belfast Telegraph |date=9 June 2004 |access-date=27 March 2010}}</ref>
 
With thousands of lakes, over {{convert|14000|km|mi|-2}} of fish bearing rivers and over {{convert|3700|km|mi|-1}} of coastline, Ireland is a popular [[angling]] destination. The temperate Irish climate is suited to sport angling. While [[salmon]] and [[trout]] fishing remain popular with anglers, salmon fishing in particular received a boost in 2006 with the closing of the salmon [[driftnet]] fishery. [[Coarse fishing]] continues to increase its profile. Sea angling is developed with many beaches mapped and signposted,<ref>{{cite web |title=Fishing in Ireland |publisher=Central and Regional Fisheries Boards |url= http://www.fishinginireland.info |access-date=26 March 2010}}</ref> and the range of sea angling species is around 80.<ref>{{cite web |title=Sea Fishing in Ireland |publisher=Central and Regional Fisheries Boards |url= http://www.fishinginireland.info/sea |access-date=26 March 2010}}</ref>
 
===Food and drink===
{{main|Irish cuisine}}
[[File:Cheese 61 bg 080106.jpg|thumb|[[Gubbeen cheese]], an example of the resurgence in Irish cheese making]]
Food and cuisine in Ireland takes its influence from the [[crops]] grown and animals farmed in the island's temperate climate and from the social and political circumstances of Irish history. For example, whilst from the Middle Ages until the arrival of the potato in the 16th century the dominant feature of the Irish economy was the herding of cattle, the number of cattle a person owned was equated to their social standing.<ref name="food_companion" >{{Cite book |first1=Alan |last1=Davidson |first2=Tom |last2=Jaine |title=The Oxford Companion to Food |publisher=Oxford University Press |date=2006 |pages=407–408 |isbn=978-0-19-280681-9}}</ref> Thus herders would avoid slaughtering a milk-producing cow.<ref name="food_companion" />
 
For this reason, pork and [[white meat]] were more common than beef and thick fatty strips of salted [[bacon]] (known as rashers) and the eating of salted butter (i.e. a dairy product rather than beef itself) have been a central feature of the diet in Ireland since the Middle Ages.<ref name="food_companion" /> The practice of bleeding cattle and mixing the blood with milk and butter (not unlike the practice of the [[Maasai people|Maasai]]) was common<ref>{{Cite journal |title=The History and Social Influence of the Potato |first1=Redcliffe Nathan |last1=Salaman |first2=William Glynn |last2=Burton |first3=John Gregory |last3=Hawkes |publisher=Cambridge University Press |date=1985 |pages=218–219}}</ref> and [[black pudding]], made from blood, grain (usually barley) and seasoning, remains a breakfast staple in Ireland. All of these influences can be seen today in the phenomenon of the "[[breakfast roll]]".
 
The introduction of the [[potato]] in the second half of the 16th century heavily influenced cuisine thereafter. Great poverty encouraged a subsistence approach to food and by the mid-19th century the vast majority of the population sufficed with a diet of potatoes and milk.<ref>{{Cite journal |last=Garrow |first=John |title=Feast and Famine: a History of Food and Nutrition in Ireland 1500–1920 |journal=Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine |volume=95 |issue=3 |pages=160–161 |date=March 2002 |issn=1758-1095 |pmc=1279494 |doi=10.1258/jrsm.95.3.160}}</ref> A typical family, consisting of a man, a woman and four children, would eat {{convert|18|st|kg}} of potatoes a week.<ref name="food_companion" /> Consequently, dishes that are considered as national dishes represent a fundamental unsophistication to cooking, such as the [[Irish stew]], [[bacon and cabbage]], [[boxty]], a type of potato pancake, or [[colcannon]], a dish of [[mashed potatoes]] and [[kale]] or [[cabbage]].<ref name="food_companion" />
 
Since the last quarter of the 20th century, with a re-emergence of wealth in Ireland, a "New Irish Cuisine" based on traditional ingredients incorporating international influences<ref>{{Cite book |title=Ireland for Dummies |first=Elizabeth |last=Albertson |publisher=Wiley Publishing |location=Hoboken |date=2009 |isbn=978-0-470-10572-6 |page=34}}</ref> has emerged.<ref>{{Cite book |title=Ireland |first=Fionn |last=Davenport |publisher=Lonely Planet |location=London |date=2008 |isbn=978-1-74104-696-0 |page=65}}</ref> This cuisine is based on fresh vegetables, fish (especially [[salmon]], [[trout]], [[oyster]]s, [[mussel]]s and other shellfish), as well as traditional soda breads and the wide range of hand-made [[List of Irish cheeses|cheeses]] that are now being produced across the country. An example of this new cuisine is "Dublin Lawyer": lobster cooked in whiskey and cream.<ref>{{Cite book |title=Dublin |first1=Fionn |last1=Davenport |last2=Smith |first2=Jonathan |publisher=Lonely Planet |location=London |date=2006 |isbn=978-1-74104-710-3 |page=15}}</ref> The potato remains however a fundamental feature of this cuisine and the Irish remain the highest per capita<ref name="food_companion" /> consumers of potatoes in Europe. Traditional regional foods can be found throughout the country, for example [[coddle]] in Dublin or [[drisheen]] in Cork, both a type of sausage, or [[blaa]], a doughy white bread particular to [[Waterford]].
 
[[File:Distillerie OldBushmills.jpg|thumb|The [[Old Bushmills Distillery]] in [[County Antrim]]]]
 
Ireland once dominated the world's market for [[whiskey]], producing 90% of the world's whiskey at the start of the 20th century. However, as a consequence of bootleggers during the [[prohibition in the United States]] (who sold poor-quality whiskey bearing Irish-sounding names thus eroding the pre-prohibition popularity for Irish brands)<ref>{{Cite book |title=The Blackwell Companion to Modern Irish Culture |first=W. J. |last1=McCormack |publisher=Blackwell |location=Oxford |date=2001 |isbn=978-0-631-16525-5 |page=170}}</ref> and [[tariffs]] on Irish whiskey across the [[British Empire]] during the [[Anglo-Irish Trade War]] of the 1930s,<ref>{{Cite journal |first1=Brian |last1=Leavy |first2=David |last2=Wilson |title=Strategy and Leadership |publisher=Routledge |location=London |date=1994 |page=63}}</ref> sales of Irish whiskey worldwide fell to a mere 2% by the mid-20th century.<ref>{{Cite news |first=Conor |last=O'Clery |title=Whiskey Resists the Downturn |work=GlobalPost |publisher=Public Radio International (PRI) |date=25 February 2009 |url= https://www.pri.org/stories/2009-02-26/whiskey-resists-downturn |access-date=5 April 2010 |archive-url= https://web.archive.org/web/20160103003228/http://www.globalpost.com/dispatch/ireland/090225/whiskey-resists-the-downturn |archive-date=3 January 2016}}</ref> In 1953, an Irish government survey, found that 50 per cent of whiskey drinkers in the United States had never heard of [[Irish whiskey]].<ref>{{Cite book |first1=Jack |last1=Blocker |first2=David |last2=Fahey |first3=Ian|last3=Tyrrell |title=Alcohol and Temperance in Modern History |publisher=ABC-CLIO |location=Santa Barbara |date=2003 |isbn=978-1-57607-833-4 |page=653}}</ref>
 
Irish whiskey, as researched in 2009 by the CNBC American broadcaster, remains popular domestically and has grown in international sales steadily over a few decades.<ref name="not_luck">{{Cite news |title=Irish Whiskey's Growth Not Just About Luck| date=19 March 2009 |first=Christina |last=Berk |url= https://www.cnbc.com/id/29636538 |publisher=CNBC |access-date=4 April 2010}}</ref> Typically CNBC states Irish whiskey is not as smoky as a [[Scotch whisky]], but not as sweet as [[American whiskey|American]] or [[Canadian whiskey|Canadian]] whiskies.<ref name="not_luck"/> Whiskey forms the basis of traditional [[Irish Cream|cream liqueurs]], such as [[Baileys Irish Cream|Baileys]], and the "[[Irish coffee]]" (a [[cocktail]] of coffee and whiskey reputedly invented at [[Foynes|Foynes flying-boat station]]) is probably the best-known Irish cocktail.
 
[[Porter (beer)|Stout]], a kind of [[porter beer]], particularly [[Guinness]], is typically associated with Ireland, although historically it was more closely associated with [[London]]. Porter remains very popular, although it has lost sales since the mid-20th century to [[lager]]. [[Cider]], particularly ''[[Magners]]'' (marketed in the [[Republic of Ireland]] as ''Bulmers''), is also a popular drink. [[Red lemonade]], a soft-drink, is consumed on its own and as a mixer, particularly with whiskey.<ref>{{Cite book |last=Davenport |first=Fionn |title=Discover Ireland |publisher=Lonely Planet |date=2010 |location=London |page=348 |url= https://books.google.com/books?id=hhP4ieoRiuIC&pg=PA348 |isbn=978-1-74179-998-9}}</ref>
 
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