"గాంబియా" కూర్పుల మధ్య తేడాలు

 
===స్వతంత్రం తరువాత (1965–ప్రస్తుతం)===
1965 ఫిబ్రవరి 18 న కామన్వెల్తులో భాగంగా రెండవ ఎలిజబెతురాణిని గాంబియా రాణిగా అంగీకరిస్తూ రూపొందించబడిన గాంబియా రాచరిక రాజ్యానికి గవర్నరు ప్రాతినిధ్యం వహించాడు. తరువాత కొంతకాలానికి జాతీయ ప్రభుత్వం గాంబియా రిపబ్లికుగా ప్రతిపాదిస్తూ ప్రజాభిప్రాయ సేకరణను నిర్వహించింది. రాజ్యాంగంను సవరించడానికి అవసరమైన మూడింట రెండు వంతుల మెజారిటీని సాధించడంలో ఈ ప్రజాభిప్రాయసేకరణ విఫలమైంది. కాని ఫలితాలు విదేశాల పరిశీలకుల దృష్టిని విస్తృతంగా ఆకర్షించింది.{{citation needed|date=January 2017}}
 
1970 ఏప్రెలు 24 న రెండవ ప్రజాభిప్రాయ సేకరణ తరువాత గాంబియా కామన్వెల్తులో గణతంత్ర రాజ్యంగా మారింది. ప్రధానిగా సర్ దాదా కైరాబా జవరా అధ్యక్షుడి కార్యదర్శిగా బాధ్యతలు స్వీకరించారు.
The Gambia achieved [[Gambia Independence Act 1964|independence]] on 18 February 1965, as a [[constitutional monarchy]] within the [[Commonwealth of Nations|Commonwealth]], with [[Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom|Elizabeth II]] as [[Queen of the Gambia]], represented by the [[Governor-General of The Gambia|Governor-General]]. Shortly thereafter, the national government held a referendum proposing that the country become a [[republic]]. This referendum failed to receive the two-thirds majority required to amend the constitution, but the results won widespread attention abroad as testimony to The Gambia's observance of secret balloting, honest elections, civil rights, and liberties.{{citation needed|date=January 2017}}
 
On 24 April 1970, The Gambia became a republic within the Commonwealth, following a second referendum. Prime Minister Sir [[Dawda Kairaba Jawara]] assumed the office of [[President of The Gambia|President]], an [[executive presidency|executive post]], combining the offices of [[head of state]] and [[head of government]].
 
Presidentఅధ్యక్షుడుగా Sirసర్ Dawdaదాదా Jawaraజవరా wasతిరిగి re-elected fiveఐదుసార్లు timesఎన్నికయ్యారు. An1981 attempted coup onజూలై 29 July 1981జరిగిన followedఒక aతిరుగుబాటు weakeningతరువాత ofఆర్ధికరంగం theబలహీనపడి economyరాజకీయవేత్తలకు andవ్యతిరేకంగా allegationsఅవినీతి ofఆరోపణలు corruption against leading politiciansచేయబడ్డాయి.<ref name="ucdp.uu.se">[[Uppsala Conflict Data Program]] [https://web.archive.org/web/20131004220417/http://www.ucdp.uu.se/gpdatabase/gpcountry.php?id=60&regionSelect=2-Southern_Africa Gambia. In depth: Economic crisis and a leftist coup attempt in 1981].</ref>అధ్యక్షుడు Theజవరా coupలండనును attemptసందర్శించిన occurredసమయంలో whileసోషలిస్టు Presidentకుకొయి Jawaraసాంబా wasసన్యంగు visitingవ్యూహంలో Londonవామపక్ష and" wasనేషనల్ carriedరివల్యూషనరీ outకౌంసిల్ by the leftist [[National Revolutionary Council]]", composedరివల్యూషనరీ ofసోషలిస్టు [[Kukoiపార్టీ Samba Sanyang]]'s Socialist and Revolutionary Labour Party (SRLP) and elements of the Field Forceకౌంస్లిలు, aదేశ paramilitaryసైనికదళాలు forceఅధ్యక్షుడికి whichవ్యతిరేకంగా constitutedతిరుగుబాటు theచేసారు. bulk of the country's armed forces.<ref name="ucdp.uu.se"/>
 
 
అధ్యక్షుడు జవరా సెనెగలు నుండి సైనిక సాయం కోరాడు. జులై 31 న గాంబియాకు 400 మంది సైనికులను నియమించారు. ఆగస్టు 6 నాటికి, 2,700 సెనెగలు సైనికులు తిరుగుబాటు బలగాలను ఓడించారు.<ref name="ucdp.uu.se"/> తిరుగుబాటు సమయంలో, తరువాత జరిగిన హింసాకాండలో 500 - 800 మంది చంపబడ్డారు.<ref name="ucdp.uu.se"/> 1981 లో జరిగిన తిరుగుబాటు తరువాత 1982 లో సెనెగలు, గాంబియా సమాఖ్య ఒప్పందంలో సంతకం చేశాయి. సెనెగాంబియా కాన్ఫెడరేషన్ రెండు దేశాల సాయుధ దళాలను మిళితం చేసి వారి ఆర్థిక వ్యవస్థలు, కరెన్సీలను ఏకం చేయాలని లక్ష్యంగా పెట్టుకుంది. కేవలం ఏడు సంవత్సరాల తర్వాత 1989 లో కాంఫిడరేషను నుండి గాంబియా శాశ్వతంగా నిష్క్రమించింది.
 
President Jawara requested military aid from [[Senegal]], which deployed 400 troops to The Gambia on 31 July. By 6 August, some 2,700 Senegalese troops had been deployed, defeating the rebel force.<ref name="ucdp.uu.se"/> Between 500 and 800 people were killed during the coup and the ensuing violence.<ref name="ucdp.uu.se"/>
In 1982, in the aftermath of the 1981 attempted coup, Senegal and The Gambia signed a treaty of confederation. The [[Senegambia Confederation]] aimed to combine the armed forces of the two states and to unify their economies and currencies. After just seven years, The Gambia permanently withdrew from the confederation in 1989.
 
In 1994, the [[Armed Forces Provisional Ruling Council]] (AFPRC) [[1994 Gambian coup d'état|deposed the Jawara government]] and banned opposition political activity. Lieutenant [[Yahya A.J.J. Jammeh]], chairman of the AFPRC, became head of state. Jammeh was just 29 years old at the time of the coup. The AFPRC announced a transition plan for return to democratic civilian government. The Provisional Independent Electoral Commission (PIEC) was established in 1996 to conduct national elections and transformed into the Independent Electoral Commission (IEC) in 1997 and became responsible for registration of voters and for the conduct of elections and referendums.
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Incumbent President Jammeh faced opposition leaders Adama Barrow from the Independent Coalition of parties<ref>[http://www.senenews.com/2016/10/31/gambie-lopposition-designe-adama-barrow-comme-candidat-unique-pour-affronter-yahya-jammeh-en-decembre_170269.html Gambie : l'opposition désigne Adama Barrow comme candidat unique pour affronter Yahya Jammeh en décembre]. Senenews.com (31 October 2016). Retrieved on 18 December 2016.</ref> and Mamma Kandeh from the Gambia Democratic Congress party<ref>[http://www.freedomnewspaper.com/gambia-will-mama-kandehs-nomination-papers-be-accepted/ Gambia: Will Mama Kandeh's Nomination Papers Be Accepted? – Freedom Newspaper]. Freedomnewspaper.com (6 November 2016). Retrieved on 18 December 2016.</ref> in the December 2016 presidential elections. The Gambia sentenced main opposition leader and human rights advocate [[Ousainou Darboe]] to 3 years in prison in July 2016,<ref>{{Cite news |url=https://www.amnesty.org/en/latest/news/2016/07/gambia-prison-sentences-for-opposition-leaders-continues-downward-spiral-for-human-rights/ |title=Gambia: Prison sentences for opposition leaders continues downward spiral for human rights |date=20 July 2016 |work=Amnesty International}}</ref> disqualifying him from running in the presidential election.
 
disqualifying him from running in the presidential election.
 
Following the [[Gambian presidential election, 2016|1 December 2016 elections]], the elections commission declared [[Adama Barrow]] the winner of the presidential election.
 
 
<ref>[https://www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-38183906 Gambia's Jammeh loses to Adama Barrow in shock election result]. BBC News (2 December 2016). Retrieved on 18 December 2016.</ref>
 
 
Jammeh, who had ruled for 22 years, first announced he would step down after losing the 2016 election before declaring the results void and calling for a new vote, sparking a [[Gambian presidential election, 2016|constitutional crisis]] and leading to an [[Invasion of the Gambia|invasion]] by an [[Economic Community of West African States|ECOWAS]] coalition.
 
 
<ref name="bbc.com">[https://www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-38271480 Gambia leader Yahya Jammeh rejects election result]. BBC News (10 December 2016). Retrieved on 18 December 2016.</ref>
 
 
On 20 January 2017, Jammeh announced that he had agreed to step down and would leave the country.
 
<ref name="Agrees" />
 
 
 
 
Following the [[Gambian presidential election, 2016|1 December 2016 elections]], the elections commission declared [[Adama Barrow]] the winner of the presidential election.<ref>[https://www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-38183906 Gambia's Jammeh loses to Adama Barrow in shock election result]. BBC News (2 December 2016). Retrieved on 18 December 2016.</ref> Jammeh, who had ruled for 22 years, first announced he would step down after losing the 2016 election before declaring the results void and calling for a new vote, sparking a [[Gambian presidential election, 2016|constitutional crisis]] and leading to an [[Invasion of the Gambia|invasion]] by an [[Economic Community of West African States|ECOWAS]] coalition.<ref name="bbc.com">[https://www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-38271480 Gambia leader Yahya Jammeh rejects election result]. BBC News (10 December 2016). Retrieved on 18 December 2016.</ref> On 20 January 2017, Jammeh announced that he had agreed to step down and would leave the country.<ref name="Agrees" />
 
On 14 February 2017, The Gambia began the process of returning to its membership of the Commonwealth and formally presented its application to re-join to Secretary-General [[Patricia Scotland]] on 22 January 2018.<ref name=boris>{{cite news|url=https://www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-38968336|title=The Gambia: UK 'very pleased' about Commonwealth return|publisher=BBC}}</ref><ref name="cwlthre">{{cite news|title=The Gambia presents formal application to re-join the Commonwealth|url=http://thecommonwealth.org/media/news/gambia-presents-formal-application-re-join-commonwealth|accessdate=24 January 2018|publisher=The Commonwealth|date=23 January 2018|format=Media Release}}</ref> [[Boris Johnson]], who became the first British [[Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs|Foreign Secretary]] to visit The Gambia since the country gained independence in 1965,<ref name=borisgambia /> announced that the British government welcomed The Gambia's return to the Commonwealth.<ref name=borisgambia>[http://www.thejournal.ie/boris-johnson-gambia-3241111-Feb2017/ Boris Johnson is only delighted the Gambia wants back into the British Commonwealth]. thejournal.ie (15 February 2017)</ref> The Gambia officially rejoined the Commonwealth on 8 February 2018.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://thecommonwealth.org/media/news/gambia-rejoins-commonwealth|title=The Gambia rejoins the Commonwealth - The Commonwealth|first=Site designed and built by Hydrant|last=(http://www.hydrant.co.uk)|website=thecommonwealth.org}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2018/02/08/gambia-rejoins-commonwealth-democratic-election/|title=Gambia rejoins the Commonwealth after democratic election|first=Our Foreign|last=Staff|date=8 February 2018|publisher=|via=www.telegraph.co.uk}}</ref>
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