ప్రధాన మెనూను తెరువు

మార్పులు

సవరణ సారాంశం లేదు
2017 నాటికి ఐక్యరాజ్యసమితిలో ఇతర సభ్య దేశాలు పశ్చిమ సహారా ప్రాంతాలపై మొరాకో సార్వభౌమత్వాన్ని అధికారికంగా గుర్తించలేదు.
<ref>{{cite web|url=https://www.un.org/en/sc/repertoire/93-95/Chapter%208/AFRICA/93-95_8-3-%20WESTERN%20SAHARA.pdf|title=Report of the Secretary-General on the situation concerning Western Sahara (paragraph 37, p. 10)|format=PDF|date=2 March 1993|accessdate=4 October 2014}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.wsrw.org/a105x1410|title=Western Sahara not part of EFTA-Morocco free trade agreement – wsrw.org|first=Western Sahara Resource|last=Watch|website=www.wsrw.org}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.scilj.se/news/international-law-allows-the-recognition-of-western-sahara/|title=International law allows the recognition of Western Sahara – Stockholm Center for International Law and Justice|date=7 November 2015|publisher=}}</ref> అయినప్పటికీ అనేక దేశాలు మొరాకో స్వాధికార భూభాగంగా భవిష్యత్తు గుర్తింపుకు మద్దతు పలికాయి. మొత్తంగా అనేక ఇతర వివాదాస్పద విలీనాల (ఉదా: రష్యా క్రిమియాను విలీనం చేసుకోవడం) లాగా ఈ విలీనం తగినంతగా అంతర్జాతీయ సమాజం దృష్టిని ఆకర్షించలేదు.{{fact|date=November 2018}}
== History ==
{{main article|History of Western Sahara}}
 
=== Early history ===
{{further information|Timeline of Serer history|Serer history}}
 
The earliest known inhabitants of Western Sahara were the [[Gaetuli]]. Depending on the century, Roman-era sources describe the area as inhabited by Gaetulian Autololes or the Gaetulian Daradae tribes. Berber heritage is still evident from regional and place-name [[toponymy]], as well as from tribal names.
 
Other early inhabitants of Western Sahara may be the [[Bafour]]<ref>{{cite web |first=Robert |last=Handloff |title=The West Sudanic Empires |url=http://www.shsu.edu/~his_ncp/WestSud.html |publisher=Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress |accessdate=3 September 2009 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110511101722/http://www.shsu.edu/~his_ncp/WestSud.html |archive-date=11 May 2011 |dead-url=yes |df=dmy-all }}</ref> and later the [[Serer people|Serer]]. The Bafour were later replaced or absorbed by [[Berber languages|Berber-speaking]] populations which eventually merged in turn with the migrating [[Beni Ḥassān]] Arab tribes.
 
The arrival of Islam in the 8th century played a major role in the development of the [[Maghreb]] region. Trade developed further, and the territory may have been one of the routes for [[Camel train|caravans]], especially between [[Marrakesh]] and [[Tombouctou Region|Tombouctou]] in Mali.
 
In the 11th century, the [[Maqil]] Arabs (fewer than 200 individuals) settled in [[Morocco]] (mainly in the [[Draa River]] valley, between the [[Moulouya River]], [[Tafilalt]] and [[Taourirt, Morocco|Taourirt]]).<ref name=khaldun>History of Ibn Khaldun Volume 6, pp80-90 by [[ibn Khaldun]]</ref> Towards the end of the [[Almohad Caliphate]], the Beni Hassan, a sub-tribe of the Maqil, were called by the local ruler of the [[Sous]] to quell a rebellion; they settled in the Sous [[Ksar|Ksours]] and controlled such cities as [[Taroudant]].<ref name=khaldun/> During [[Marinid dynasty]] rule, the Beni Hassan rebelled but were defeated by the Sultan and escaped beyond the Saguia el-Hamra dry river.<ref name=khaldun/><ref>''[[Rawd al-Qirtas]]'', [[Ibn Abi Zar]]</ref> The Beni Hassan then were at constant war with the [[Lamtuna]] nomadic Berbers of the [[Sahara]]. Over roughly five centuries, through a complex process of acculturation and mixing seen elsewhere in the Maghreb and North Africa, some of the indigenous Berber tribes mixed with the Maqil Arab tribes and formed a culture unique to Morocco and Mauritania.{{Citation needed|date=September 2011}}
 
=== Spanish province ===
{{see also|Spanish Sahara|Spanish Morocco}}
[[File:Western Sahara 1876.png|thumb|upright=1.8|Western Sahara 1876]]
While initial Spanish interest in the Sahara was focused on using it as a port for the slave trade, by the 1700s Spain had transitioned economic activity on the Saharan coast towards commercial fishing.<ref>Besenyo, Janos. ''Western Sahara''. Publikon, 2009, P. 49.</ref> After an agreement among the European colonial powers at the [[Berlin Conference]] in 1884 on the division of [[scramble for Africa|spheres of influence in Africa]], Spain seized control of Western Sahara and established it as a Spanish colony.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www1.american.edu/ted/ice/sahara.htm |title=ICE Conflict Case ZSahara |publisher=.american.edu |date=17 March 1997 |accessdate=13 November 2011 |deadurl=yes |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20120125165704/http://www1.american.edu/ted/ice/sahara.htm |archivedate=25 January 2012 |df=dmy-all }}</ref> After 1939 and the outbreak of World War II, this area was administered by [[Spanish Morocco]]. As a consequence, [[Ahmed Belbachir Haskouri]], the Chief of Cabinet, General Secretary of the Government of Spanish Morocco, cooperated with the Spanish to select governors in that area. The Saharan lords who were already in prominent positions, such as the members of Maa El Ainain family, provided a recommended list of candidates for new governors. Together with the Spanish High Commissioner, Belbachir selected from this list.{{citation needed|date=May 2010}} During the annual celebration of [[Muhammad]]'s birthday, these lords paid their respects to the caliph to show loyalty to the Moroccan monarchy.{{Citation needed|date=May 2010}}[[File:Morocco Protectorate.svg|thumb|Spanish and French protectorates in Morocco and Spanish Sahara, 1912.]]As time went by, Spanish colonial rule began to unravel with the general wave of decolonization after World War II; former North African and sub-Saharan African possessions and protectorates gained independence from European powers. Spanish decolonization proceeded more slowly, but internal political and social pressures for it in mainland Spain built up towards the end of [[Francisco Franco]]'s rule. There was a global trend towards complete [[decolonization]]. Spain began rapidly to divest itself of most of its remaining colonial possessions. By 1974–75 the government issued promises of a referendum on independence in Western Sahara.
 
At the same time, Morocco and Mauritania, which had historical and competing claims of sovereignty over the territory, argued that it had been artificially separated from their territories by the European colonial powers. Algeria, which also bordered the territory, viewed their demands with suspicion, as Morocco also claimed the Algerian provinces of [[Tindouf Province|Tindouf]] and [[Béchar Province|Béchar]]. After arguing for a process of decolonization to be guided by the United Nations, the Algerian government under [[Houari Boumédiènne]] in 1975 committed to assisting the Polisario Front, which opposed both Moroccan and Mauritanian claims and demanded full independence of Western Sahara.
 
The UN attempted to settle these disputes through a [[UN visiting mission to Spanish Sahara|visiting mission]] in late 1975, as well as a [[International Court of Justice Advisory Opinion on Western Sahara|verdict]] from the [[International Court of Justice]] (ICJ). It acknowledged that Western Sahara had historical links with Morocco and Mauritania, but not sufficient to prove the sovereignty of either State over the territory at the time of the Spanish colonization. The population of the territory thus possessed the right of [[self-determination]]. On 6 November 1975 Morocco initiated the [[Green March]] into Western Sahara; 350,000 unarmed Moroccans converged on the city of [[Tarfaya]] in southern Morocco and waited for a signal from King [[Hassan II of Morocco]] to cross the border in a peaceful march. A few days before, on 31 October, Moroccan troops invaded Western Sahara from the north.<ref>{{cite book|last1=János|first1=Besenyő|title=Western Sahara|date=2009|publisher=Publikon Publishers|location=Pécs|isbn=978-963-88332-0-4|url=http://www.kalasnyikov.hu/dokumentumok/besenyo_western_sahara.pdf}}</ref>
 
=== Demands for independence ===
 
[[File:Western sahara walls moroccan map-en.svg|thumb|upright=1.6|System of the [[Moroccan Wall]]s in Western Sahara set up in the 1980s]]
[[File:RASD - Commemoration of the 30th independence day in the Liberated Territories (2006).jpg|thumb|Commemoration of the 30th independence day from [[Spain]] in the [[Free Zone (Western Sahara)|Liberated Territories]] (2005)]]
In the waning days of General [[Francisco Franco|Franco]]'s rule, and after the [[Green March]], the Spanish government signed a [[Madrid Accords|tripartite agreement]] with Morocco and Mauritania as it moved to transfer the territory on 14 November 1975. The accords were based on a bipartite administration, and Morocco and Mauritania each moved to annex the territories, with Morocco taking control of the northern two-thirds of Western Sahara as its [[Southern Provinces]], and Mauritania taking control of the southern third as [[Tiris al-Gharbiyya]]. Spain terminated its presence in Spanish Sahara within three months, repatriating Spanish remains from its cemeteries.<ref>Tomás Bárbulo, "La historia prohibida del Sáhara Español," ''Destino, Imago mundi,'' Volume 21, 2002, Page 292</ref>
 
The Moroccan and Mauritanian annexations were resisted by the [[Polisario Front]], which had gained backing from [[Algeria]].<ref>{{Cite news|url=https://www.newspapers.com/clip/7091323//|title=Algeria Claims Spanish Sahara Is Being Invaded|last=|first=|date=1 January 1976|work=The Monroe News-Star|access-date=19 October 2016|via=Newspapers.com}}</ref> It initiated guerrilla warfare and, in 1979, Mauritania withdrew due to pressure from Polisario, including a bombardment of its capital and other economic targets. Morocco extended its control to the rest of the territory. It gradually contained the guerrillas by setting up [[Moroccan Western Sahara Wall|the extensive sand-berm in the desert]] (known as the Border Wall or Moroccan Wall) to exclude guerrilla fighters.<ref>{{Cite news|url=http://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/features/2015/05/western-sahara-struggle-freedom-cut-wall-150528065625790.html|title=Western Sahara's Struggle for Freedom Cut Off By a Wall|last=McNeish|first=Hannah|date=5 June 2015|work=Al Jazeera|access-date=17 October 2016}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=https://www.newyorker.com/news/news-desk/is-one-of-africas-oldest-conflicts-finally-nearing-its-end|title=Is One of Africa's Oldest Conflicts Finally Nearing Its End?|quotation=For the past forty years, tens of thousands of Moroccan soldiers have manned a wall of sand that curls for one and a half thousand miles through the howling Sahara. The vast plain around it is empty and flat, interrupted only by occasional horseshoe dunes that traverse it. But the Berm, as the wall is known, is no natural phenomenon. It was built by the Kingdom of Morocco, in the nineteen-eighties, and it's the longest defensive fortification in use today—and the second-longest ever, after China's Great Wall|website=Newyorker.com|accessdate=30 December 2018}}</ref> Hostilities ceased in a 1991 cease-fire, overseen by the peacekeeping mission [[United Nations Mission for the Referendum in Western Sahara|MINURSO]], under the terms of a UN [[Settlement Plan]].
 
=== Stalling of the referendum and Settlement Plan ===
[[File:Maps of Western Sahara.png|thumb|upright=3.4|{{center|Ways to show Western Sahara in maps}}]]
The referendum, originally scheduled for 1992, foresaw giving the local population the option between independence or affirming integration with Morocco, but it quickly stalled. In 1997, the [[Houston Agreement]] attempted to revive the proposal for a referendum but likewise has hitherto not had success. {{As of|2010}}, negotiations over terms have not resulted in any substantive action. At the heart of the dispute lies the question of who qualifies to be registered to participate in the referendum, and, since about the year 2000, Morocco considers that since there is no agreement on persons entitled to vote, a referendum is not possible. Meanwhile, Polisario still insisted on a referendum with independence as a clear option, without offering a solution to the problem of who is qualified to be registered to participate in it.
 
Both sides blame each other for the stalling of the referendum. The Polisario has insisted on only allowing those found on the 1974 Spanish Census lists (see below) to vote, while Morocco has insisted that the census was flawed by evasion and sought the inclusion of members of Sahrawi tribes which escaped from Spanish invasion to the north of Morocco by the 19th century.
 
Efforts by the UN special envoys to find a common ground for both parties did not succeed. By 1999 the UN had identified about 85,000 voters, with nearly half of them in the Moroccan-controlled parts of Western Sahara or Southern Morocco, and the others scattered between the [[Sahrawi refugee camps in Tindouf Province, Algeria|Tindouf refugee camps]], Mauritania and other places of exile. Polisario accepted this voter list, as it had done with the previous list presented by the UN (both of them originally based on the Spanish census of 1974), but Morocco refused and, as rejected voter candidates began a mass-appeals procedure, insisted that each application be scrutinized individually. This again brought the process to a halt.
 
According to a NATO delegation, MINURSO election observers stated in 1999, as the deadlock continued, that "if the number of voters does not rise significantly the odds were slightly on the [[Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic|SADR]] side".<ref>{{cite web |author=iBi Center |url=http://www.nato-pa.int/archivedpub/trip/as79gsm993-morocco.asp |title=NATO PA&nbsp;– Archives |publisher=Nato-pa.int |accessdate=13 November 2011 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110928052936/http://www.nato-pa.int/archivedpub/trip/as79gsm993-morocco.asp |archive-date=28 September 2011 |dead-url=yes |df=dmy-all }}</ref> By 2001, the process had effectively stalemated and the UN Secretary-General asked the parties for the first time to explore other, third-way solutions. Indeed, shortly after the Houston Agreement (1997), Morocco officially declared that it was "no longer necessary" to include an option of independence on the ballot, offering instead autonomy. Erik Jensen, who played an administrative role in MINURSO, wrote that neither side would agree to a voter registration in which they were destined to lose (see ''[[#Bibliography|Western Sahara: Anatomy of a Stalemate]]'').
 
=== Baker Plan ===
{{main article|Baker Plan}}
As personal envoy of the Secretary-General, [[James Baker]] visited all sides and produced the document known as the "Baker Plan".<ref name="UN_S2000461">{{UN document |docid=S-2000-461 |type=Document |body=Security Council |year=2000 |accessdate=10 August 2007| date=22 May 2000}}</ref> This was discussed by the [[United Nations Security Council]] in 2000, and envisioned an autonomous [[Western Sahara Authority]] (WSA), which would be followed after five years by the referendum. Every person present in the territory would be allowed to vote, regardless of birthplace and with no regard to the Spanish census. It was rejected by both sides, although it was initially derived from a Moroccan proposal. According to Baker's draft, tens of thousands of post-annexation immigrants from Morocco proper (viewed by Polisario as settlers but by Morocco as legitimate inhabitants of the area) would be granted the vote in the Sahrawi independence referendum, and the ballot would be split three ways by the inclusion of an unspecified "[[Autonomous administrative division|autonomy]]", further undermining the independence camp. Morocco was also allowed to keep its army in the area and retain control over all security issues during both the autonomy years and the election. In 2002, the Moroccan king stated that the referendum idea was "out of date" since it "cannot be implemented";<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.countrywatch.com/facts/facts_default.aspx?type=text&topic=SEWSA |title=CountryWatch&nbsp;– Interesting Facts Of The World |publisher=Countrywatch.com |accessdate=13 November 2011 |deadurl=yes |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20081005160618/http://www.countrywatch.com/facts/facts_default.aspx?type=text&topic=SEWSA |archivedate=5 October 2008 |df=dmy-all }}</ref> Polisario retorted that that was only because of the King's refusal to allow it to take place.
 
In 2003, a new version of the plan was made official, with some additions spelling out the powers of the WSA, making it less reliant on Moroccan [[devolution]]. It also provided further detail on the referendum process in order to make it harder to stall or subvert. This second draft, commonly known as Baker II, was accepted by the Polisario as a "basis of negotiations" to the surprise of many.<ref>Shelley, Toby. ''[http://www.merip.org/mero/mero080103.html Behind the Baker Plan for Western Sahara] {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20061210082330/http://www.merip.org/mero/mero080103.html |date=10 December 2006 }}'', Middle East Report Online, 1 August 2003. Retrieved 24 August 2006.</ref> This appeared to abandon Polisario's previous position of only negotiating based on the standards of voter identification from 1991 (i.e. the Spanish census). After that, the draft quickly garnered widespread international support, culminating in the UN Security Council's unanimous endorsement of the plan in the summer of 2003.
 
=== End of the 2000s ===
{{update|the [[Manhasset negotiations]] (not in article)|date=September 2013}}
 
Baker resigned his post at the United Nations in 2004; his term did not see the crisis resolved.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://allafrica.com/stories/200406141270.html|title=Western Sahara: Baker Resigns As UN Mediator After Seven Years|date=14 June 2004|accessdate=4 October 2014}}</ref> His resignation followed several months of failed attempts to get Morocco to enter into formal negotiations on the plan, but he met with rejection. The new king, [[Mohammed VI of Morocco]], opposes any referendum on independence, and has said Morocco will never agree to one: "We shall not give up one inch of our beloved Sahara, not a grain of its sand."<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.timesnews.co.ke/04apr06/insight/ins4.html|title=Times News – Bold, Authoritative, and True|website=Times News|deadurl=yes|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20130605000502/http://www.timesnews.co.ke/04apr06/insight/ins4.html|archivedate=5 June 2013|df=dmy-all}}</ref>
 
Instead, he proposes, through an appointed advisory body [[Royal Advisory Council for Saharan Affairs]] (CORCAS), a self-governing Western Sahara as an autonomous community within Morocco. His father, [[Hassan II of Morocco]], initially supported the referendum idea in principle in 1982, and signed contracts with Polisario and the UN in 1991 and 1997. No major powers have expressed interest in forcing the issue, however, and Morocco has shown little interest in a real referendum.
 
The UN has put forth no replacement strategy after the breakdown of Baker II, and renewed fighting has been raised as a possibility. In 2005, former United Nations Secretary-General [[Kofi Annan]] reported increased military activity on both sides of the front and breaches of several cease-fire provisions against strengthening military fortifications.
 
Morocco has repeatedly tried to get Algeria into bilateral negotiations, based on its view of Polisario as the [[The Monkey and the Cat|cat's paw]] of the Algerian military. It has received vocal support from France and occasionally (and currently) from the United States. These negotiations would define the exact limits of a Western Sahara autonomy under Moroccan rule but only after Morocco's "inalienable right" to the territory was recognized as a precondition to the talks. The Algerian government has consistently refused, claiming it has neither the will nor the right to negotiate on the behalf of the Polisario Front.
 
Demonstrations and riots by supporters of independence or a referendum broke out in the Moroccan-controlled parts of Western Sahara in May 2005 and in parts of southern Morocco (notably the town of [[Assa (Morocco)|Assa]]). They were met by police. Several international human rights organizations expressed concern at what they termed abuse by Moroccan security forces, and a number of Sahrawi activists have been jailed. Pro-independence Sahrawi sources, including the Polisario, have given these demonstrations the name "[[Independence Intifada (Western Sahara)|Independence Intifada]]", while most sources have tended to see the events as being of limited importance. International press and other media coverage have been sparse, and reporting is complicated by the Moroccan government's policy of strictly controlling independent media coverage within the territory.
 
[[File:Manifestation in Madrid for the independence of the Western Sahara (11).jpg|thumb|right|upright=1.3|A demonstration in Madrid for the independence of Western Sahara.]]
Demonstrations and protests still occur, even after Morocco declared in February 2006 that it was contemplating a plan for devolving a limited variant of autonomy to the territory but still explicitly refused any referendum on independence. As of January 2007, the plan had not been made public, though the Moroccan government claimed that it was more or less complete.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.afrol.com/articles/18964 |title=afrol News&nbsp;– No plans for a referendum in Western Sahara |publisher=Afrol.com |accessdate=13 November 2011}}</ref>
 
Polisario has intermittently threatened to resume fighting, referring to the Moroccan refusal of a referendum as a breach of the [[Settlement Plan|cease-fire terms]], but most observers seem to consider armed conflict unlikely without the green light from [[Algeria]], which houses the Sahrawis' refugee camps and has been the main military sponsor of the movement.
 
In April 2007, the government of Morocco suggested that a self-governing entity, through the [[Royal Advisory Council for Saharan Affairs]] (CORCAS), should govern the territory with some degree of autonomy for Western Sahara. The project was presented to the UN Security Council in mid-April 2007. The stalemating of the Moroccan proposal options has led the UN in the recent "Report of the UN Secretary-General" to ask the parties to enter into direct and unconditional negotiations to reach a mutually accepted political solution.<ref>[http://daccessdds.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/N07/299/28/PDF/N0729928.pdf?OpenElement Report of the Secretary-General on the situation concerning Western Sahara (13 April 2007)(ped). UN Security Council] {{webarchive|url=http://arquivo.pt/wayback/20090711072545/http://daccessdds.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/N07/299/28/PDF/N0729928.pdf?OpenElement |date=11 July 2009 }}</ref>
 
=== The 2010s ===
[[File:Posten der Frente Polisario 2.jpg|thumb|A MINURSO car (left), and a post of the Polisario Front (right) in 2017 in southern Western Sahara]]
In October 2010 Gadaym Izik camp was set up near [[Laayoune]] as a protest by displaced [[Sahrawi people]] about their living conditions. It was home to more than 12,000 people. In November 2010 Moroccan security forces entered Gadaym Izik camp in the early hours of the morning, using helicopters and water cannon to force people to leave. The Polisario Front said Moroccan security forces had killed a 26-year-old protester at the camp, a claim denied by Morocco. Protesters in Laayoune threw stones at police and set fire to tires and vehicles. Several buildings, including a TV station, were also set on fire. Moroccan officials said five security personnel had been killed in the unrest.<ref>{{cite news | url=https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-11710400 | title=Deadly Clashes as Morocco Breaks Up Western Sahara Camp |publisher=BBC News | date=11 September 2010 | accessdate=13 November 2010}}</ref>
 
On 15 November 2010, the Moroccan government accused the Algerian secret services of orchestrating and financing the Gadaym Izik camp with the intent to destabilize the region. The Spanish press was accused of mounting a campaign of disinformation to support the Sahrawi initiative, and all foreign reporters were either prevented from traveling or else expelled from the area.<ref>{{cite web |last1=PAÍS |first1=EL |title=New expulsions of Spanish citizens from Western Sahara |url=https://elpais.com/elpais/2010/11/14/inenglish/1289715642_850210.html |website=El País |language=en |date=14 November 2010}}</ref> The protest coincided with a fresh round of negotiations at the UN.<ref>{{cite news |title=Deadly Clashes Stall Western Sahara-Morocco Peace Talks |url=https://www.theguardian.com/world/2010/nov/12/western-sahara-peace-talks-stall |work=[[The Guardian]] |date=12 November 2010 |accessdate=15 November 2010 |author=[[Ian Black (journalist)|Black, Ian]]}}</ref>
 
In 2016, the European Union (EU) declared that "Western Sahara is not part of Moroccan territory."<ref>{{Cite news|url=https://www.forbes.com/sites/dominicdudley/2016/09/14/morocco-setback-western-sahara/#582f3c726a3c|title=Morocco Suffers Legal Setback As EU Official Declares Western Sahara 'Not Part Of Morocco'|last=Dudley|first=Dominic|date=14 September 2016|work=Forbes|access-date=17 October 2016|via=}}</ref> In March 2016, Morocco "expelled more than 70 U.N. civilian staffers with MINURSO" due to strained relations after [[Ban Ki-moon]] called Morocco's annexation of Western Sahara an "occupation".<ref>{{Cite news|url=http://www.chicagotribune.com/news/sns-bc-un--united-nations-western-sahara-20160829-story.html|title=UN Document Says Morocco Violated Western Sahara Cease-Fire|last=Lederer|first=Edith M.|date=30 August 2016|work=Chicago Tribune|access-date=17 October 2016|via=}}{{Dead link|date=August 2018 |bot=InternetArchiveBot |fix-attempted=yes }}</ref>
 
== వెలిపలి లింకులు ==
{{ఆఫ్రికా}}
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