ప్రధాన మెనూను తెరువు

మార్పులు

 
Kuru kings ruled with the assistance of a rudimentary administration, including purohita (priest), village headman, army chief, food distributor, emissary, herald and spies. They extracted mandatory tribute (''bali'') from their population of commoners as well as from weaker neighboring tribes. They led frequent raids and conquests against their neighbors, especially to the east and south. To aid in governing, the kings and their Brahmin priests arranged Vedic hymns into collections and developed a new set of rituals (the now orthodox [[Srauta]] rituals) to uphold social order and strengthen the class hierarchy. High-ranked nobles could perform very elaborate sacrifices, and many rituals primarily exalted the status of the king over his people. The [[ashvamedha]] or horse sacrifice was a way for a powerful king to assert his domination in northern India.{{sfn|Witzel|1995}}
==In epic literature==
{{See also|Kauravas|Pandavas}}
[[Image:Ancient india.png|thumb|The later Kuru state in the [[Mahajanapada]] period, c. 600 BCE]]
 
The [[Sanskrit epics|epic]] poem, the ''[[Mahabharata]]'', tells of a conflict between two branches of the reigning Kuru clan possibly around 1000 BCE. However, archaeology has not furnished conclusive proof as to whether the specific events described have any historical basis. The existing text of the ''Mahabharata'' went through many layers of development and mostly belongs to the period between c. 400 BCE and 400 CE.<ref>Singh, U. (2009), ''A History of Ancient and Mediaeval India: From the Stone Age to the 12th Century'', Delhi: Longman, p. 18-21, {{ISBN|978-81-317-1677-9}}</ref> Within the [[frame story]] of the ''Mahabharata'', the historical kings [[Parikshit]] and [[Janamejaya]] are featured significantly as scions of the Kuru clan.{{sfn|Witzel|1995}}
 
A historical Kuru King named [[Dhritarashtra|Dhritarashtra Vaichitravirya]] is mentioned in the [[Kathaka]] Samhita of the [[Yajurveda]] ({{circa}} 1200–900 BCE) as a descendant of the [[Rigveda|Rigvedic]]-era king [[Sudas]]. His cattle were reportedly destroyed as a result of conflict with the [[Yoga#Vedic period (1700–500 BCE)|vratya]] ascetics; however, this Vedic mention does not provide corroboration for the accuracy of the Mahabharata's account of his reign.<ref>Witzel 1995, p.17 footnote 115</ref><ref>Michael Witzel (1990), [http://www.people.fas.harvard.edu/~witzel/vamsa.pdf "On Indian Historical Writing"], p.9 of PDF</ref>
 
===Kuru family tree in Mahabharata===
 
This shows the line of both parentage and succession, according to the [[Mahabharata]] (but is not corroborated by sources contemporary with the Vedic-era Kuru Kingdom). See the notes below for detail.
<!--for instructions on editing, see [[Template:Familytree]]-->
{{familytree/start}}
{{familytree | | | | | | |KUR| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |KUR = [[Kuru (kingdom)|Kuru]]<sup>'''a'''</sup>|boxstyle_KUR=border: 2px solid blue;}}
{{familytree | | | | | | | |:| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |}}
{{familytree | | | | | | | |:| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |}}
{{familytree | | |GAN |y|SAN |y|SAT|~|~|~|~|~|~|~|~|~|~|~|~|~|~|y|PAR |PAR=[[Parashara]]|boxstyle_PAR=border: 2px solid blue;|SAT=[[Satyavati]]|boxstyle_SAT=border: 2px solid red;|SAN=[[Shantanu]]<sup>'''a'''</sup>|boxstyle_SAN=border: 2px solid blue;|GAN=[[Ganges in Hinduism|Ganga]]|boxstyle_GAN=border: 2px solid red;}}
{{familytree | | | | | |!| | | |!| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |!| | | |}}
{{familytree | | | |,|-|'| | | |)|-|-|-|-|-|-|-|-|-|.| | | | | | | |`|-|.|BHI=[[Bhishma]]|boxstyle_BHI=border: 2px solid blue;}}
{{familytree | | |BHI | | | |CHI | | | |AMB |y|VIC |y|AML | | | |VYA |AML=[[Ambalika]]|boxstyle_AML=border: 2px solid red;|VIC=[[Vichitravirya]]|boxstyle_VIC=border: 2px solid blue;|AMB=[[Ambika (Mahabharata)|Ambika]]|boxstyle_AMB=border: 2px solid red;|CHI=[[Chitrāngada]]|boxstyle_CHI=border: 2px solid blue;|VYA=[[Vyasa]]|boxstyle_VYA=border: 2px solid blue;|BHI=[[Bhishma]]|boxstyle_BHI=border: 2px solid blue;}}
{{familytree | | |,|-|-|-|-|-|-|-|-|-|-|-|-|-|-|'| | | |!| | | | | |}}
{{familytree | | |!| | | |,|~|~|~|.| | | | | | | | | | |!| | | | | |}}
{{familytree | |DHR |y|GAN | |SHA| | | |y|KUN|y|PAN |y|MAD | | | KUN=[[Kunti]]|boxstyle_KUN=border: 2px solid red;|PAN=[[Pandu]]<sup>'''b'''</sup>|boxstyle_PAN=border: 2px solid blue;|MAD=[[Madri]]|boxstyle_MAD=border: 2px solid red;|DHR=[[Dhritarashtra]]<sup>'''b'''</sup>|boxstyle_DHR=border: 2px solid blue;|GAN =[[Gandhari (character)|Gandhari]]|boxstyle_GAN=border: 2px solid red;|SHA = [[Shakuni]]|boxstyle_SHA=border: 2px solid blue;}}
{{familytree | | | | |!| |,|-|-|-|-|-|-|-|-|'| | | |!| | | |!| | | | | | | | | | | | }}
{{familytree | | | | |!| |!| | | |,|-|-|-|v|-|-|-|v|'| | | |`|-|-|v|-|-|-|.| | | |}}
{{familytree | | | | |!|KAR | |YUD| |BHI | |ARJ |y|SUB ||NAK|| |SAH| |KAR = [[Karna]]<sup>'''c'''</sup>|boxstyle_KAR=border: 2px solid blue; |YUD=[[Yudhishthira]]<sup>'''d'''</sup>|boxstyle_YUD=background:#8D8; border: 2px solid blue;|BHI=[[Bhima]]<sup>'''d'''</sup>|boxstyle_BHI=background:#8D8; border: 2px solid blue;|ARJ=[[Arjuna]]<sup>'''d'''</sup>|boxstyle_ARJ=background:#8D8;border: 2px solid blue;|SUB=[[Subhadra]]
|boxstyle_SUB=border: 2px solid red;|NAK=[[Nakula]]<sup>'''d'''</sup>|boxstyle_NAK=background:#8D8; border: 2px solid blue;|SAH=[[Sahadeva]]<sup>'''d'''</sup>|boxstyle_SAH=background:#8D8; border: 2px solid blue;}}{{Familytree|||||!||||||:||||:||||:||!||||||:||||:}}{{Familytree|||||!||||||:||||L|~|~|DRA|#|~|~|~|~|~|J||||:|||DRA=[[Draupadi]]|boxstyle_DRA=border: 2px solid red;}}{{Familytree|||||!||||||L|~|~|~|~|~|~|J||L|#|~|~|~|~|~|~|~|~|~|J||}}{{familytree | |,|-|-|^|v|-|-|-|v|-|-|-|.| | | | | | |!| | |}}
{{familytree |DUR | |DU1 | |DU2 | |ETC | | | | | |!| | | | | | | | |DUR=[[Duryodhana]]<sup>'''e'''</sup>|boxstyle_DUR=background:#ff0;border: 2px solid blue;|DU2=[[Dussalā]]|boxstyle_DU2=background:#ff0;border: 2px solid red;|ETC= (98 sons)|boxstyle_ETC=background:#ff0;border: 2px solid blue;|DU1=[[Dushasana|Dushāsana]]|boxstyle_DU1=background:#ff0;border: 2px solid blue;}}
{{familytree | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |!| | |}}
{{familytree | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |!| | |}}
{{familytree | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |ABM |y|UTR | | |ABM=[[Abhimanyu]]|boxstyle_ABM=border: 2px solid blue;|UTR=[[Uttarā (Mahabharata)|Uttara]]|boxstyle_UTR=border: 2px solid red;}}
{{familytree | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |!| | | |}}
{{familytree | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |PAR |y|MAD |PAR=[[Parikshit]]|boxstyle_PAR=border: 2px solid blue;|MAD=[[Madravati]]|boxstyle_MAD=border: 2px solid red;}}
{{familytree | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |!| | |}}
{{familytree | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |JAN |JAN=[[Janamejaya II|Janamejaya]]|boxstyle_JAN=border: 2px solid blue;}}
{{familytree/end}}
 
'''Key to Symbols'''
* Male: <span style="border: solid 2px blue;">''' ''blue border'''''</span>
* Female: <span style="border: solid 2px red;">''' ''red border'' '''</span>
* [[Pandava]]s: <span style="border:solid 0.5px black; background:#8d8;">''' ''green box'' '''</span>
* [[Kaurava]]s: <span style="border:solid 0.5px black; background:#ff0;">''' ''yellow box'' '''</span>
 
===List of Kuru Kings according to epic literature===
{| class="wikitable"
|-
| 1200 BC - 1000 BC || 1000 BC - 500 BC
|-
|
* [[Pratipa]]
* [[Shantanu]]
* [[Chitrāngada]]
* [[Vichitravirya]]
* [[Dhritarashtra]]
* [[Pandu]]
* [[Yudhishthira]]
* [[Duryodhana]]
* [[Parikshit]]
* [[Janamejaya II]]
||
* [[Satanika]]
* [[Aswamedhadatta]]
* [[Asíma-krishńa]]
* [[Nichakra]]
* [[Ushńa]]
* [[Chitraratha]]
* [[Vrishńimat]]
* [[Susheńa]]
* [[Sunítha]]
* Richa
* [[Nrichakshu]]
* [[Sukhíhala]]
* [[Pariplava]]
* [[Sunaya]]
* [[Medhávin]]
* [[Nripanjaya]]
* [[Mridu]]
* [[Tigma]]
* [[Vrihadratha]]
* [[Vasudána]]
* [[Śatáníka II]]
* Udayana
* [[Ahínara]]
* [[Khańd́apáni]]
* [[Niramitra]]
* [[Kshemaka]]
|}
 
'''Notes'''
* '''a''': [[Shantanu]] was a king of the Kuru dynasty or kingdom, and was some generations removed from any ancestor called [[Kuru (kingdom)|Kuru]]. His marriage to [[Ganga (goddess)|Ganga]] preceded his marriage to [[Satyavati]].
* '''b''': [[Pandu]] and [[Dhritarashtra]] were actually fathered by [[Vyasa]] after [[Vichitravirya]]'s death. Dhritarashtra, Pandu and Vidura were the sons of Vyasa with Ambika, Ambalika and a maid servant respectively.
* '''c''': [[Karna]] was born to [[Kunti]] through her invocation of [[Surya]], before her marriage to [[Pandu]].
* '''d''': [[Yudhishthira]], [[Bhima]], [[Arjuna]], [[Nakula]] and [[Sahadeva]] were acknowledged sons of [[Pandu]] but were begotten by [[Kunti]]'s invocation of various deities. They all married [[Draupadi]] (not shown in tree) but she also had 5 sons. named [[Upapandavas]].
* '''e''': [[Duryodhana]] and his siblings were born at the same time, and they were of the same generation as their [[Pandava]] cousins.
* '''f''': After [[Dhritarashtra]] and [[Gandhari (character)|Gandhari]]'s rule in Hastinapura, [[Yudhishthira]] and [[Draupadi]] ascended the throne, not [[Arjuna]] and [[Subhadra]].
 
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