"వ్యాయామం" కూర్పుల మధ్య తేడాలు

*Aerobic వ్యాయామాలు: [[సైక్లింగ్]], [[నడవడం]], [[పరుగెత్తడం]] మొదలైనవి.<ref>Wilmore, J., Knuttgen, H. 2003. Aerobic Exercise and Endurance Improving Fitness for Health Benefits. ''The Physician and Sportsmedicine, 31''(5). 45. Retrieved October 5, 2006, from ProQuest database.</ref>
*Anaerobic వ్యాయామాలు: [[కసరత్తులు]], బరువుతగ్గడానికి యంత్రాల సహాయంతో చేసే వ్యాయామాలు.<ref>de Vos, N., Singh, N., Ross, D., Stavrinos, T., et al. 2005. Optimal Load for Increasing Muscle Power During Explosive Resistance Training in Older Adults. ''The Journals of Gerontology, 60A''(5), 638-647. Retrieved October 5, 2006, from ProQuest database.</ref>
 
==ఉపయోగాలు==
==Exercise benefits==
 
Physical exercise is important for maintaining [[physical fitness]] and can contribute positively to maintaining a healthy weight; building and maintaining healthy bone density, muscle strength, and joint mobility; promoting physiological well-being; reducing surgical risks; and strengthening the immune system.
 
Frequent and regular aerobic exercise has been shown to help prevent or treat serious and life-threatening chronic conditions such as [[high blood pressure]], [[obesity]], [[heart disease]], [[Type 2 diabetes]], [[insomnia]], and [[clinical depression|depression]]. [[Strength training]] appears to have continuous energy-burning effects that persist for about 24 hours after the training, though they do not offer the same cardiovascular benefits of aerobic exercises. Exercise can also increase energy and raise one's threshold for [[Pain and nociception|pain]].{{fact|date=May 2007}}
 
There is conflicting evidence as to whether vigorous exercise (more than 70% of [[VO2 max|VO<sub>2</sub> Max]]) is more or less beneficial than moderate exercise (40 to 70% of [[VO2 max|VO<sub>2</sub> Max]]). Some studies have shown that vigorous exercise executed by healthy individuals can effectively increase [[opioid peptides]] (aka endorphins, a naturally occurring opiate that in conjunction with other neurotransmitters is responsible for exercise induced [[Euphoria (emotion)|euphoria]] and has been shown to be addictive), positively influence hormone production (i.e., increase testosterone and growth hormone),<ref>Hanc, J. 1987. Your Health Behind the Runner\'s Euphoria. \'\'Newsday, April 21, 1987,\'\' 11. Retrieved October 5, 2006, from ProQuest database</ref> benefits that are not as fully realized with moderate exercise.
 
Exercise has been shown to improve cognitive functioning via improvement of hippocampus-dependent spatial learning, and enhancement of synaptic plasticity and neurogenesis.<ref>{{cite journal | last = van Praag H, Kempermann G, Gage FH. | title = Ontogeny Running increases cell proliferation and neurogenesis in the adult mouse dentate gyrus. | journal = Nature Neuroscience. | volume = 2 | issue = 3 | pages = 266-70 | date = 1999 | url = http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=10195220 | format = Abstract | accessdate = 2007-03-28}}</ref> In addition, physical activity has been shown to be neuroprotective in many neurodegenerative and neuromuscular diseases.<ref>{{cite journal | last = Clément Grondard et al. | title = Regular Exercise Prolongs Survival in a Type 2 Spinal Muscular Atrophy Model Mouse. | journal = The Journal of Neuroscience. | volume = 25 | issue = 33 | pages = 7615-7622 | date = 2005 | url = http://www.jneurosci.org/cgi/content/abstract/25/33/7615 | format = Abstract | accessdate = 2007-03-28}}</ref> For instance, it reduces the risk of developing [[dementia]].<ref name=wvdhhr>[http://www.wvdhhr.org/bph/oehp/hsc/dementia/prevent.htm West Virginia Department of Health and Human Resources]</ref> Physical activity is thought to have other beneficial effects related to cognition as it increases levels of nerve growth factors, which support the survival and growth of a number of neuronal cells.<ref>{{cite journal | last = Edward McAuley,* Arthur F. Kramer, and Stanley J. Colcombe | title = Cardiovascular fitness and neurocognitive function in older Adults: a brief review. | journal = BRAIN,
BEHAVIOR, and IMMUNITY. | volume = 18 | issue = 2004 | pages = 214-220 | date = 2004 | url = http://www.kch.uiuc.edu/labs/exercise-psychology/Library/pubs/McAuley_Brain_Behavior_Immunity_2004.pdf | format = Full Article | accessdate = 2007-03-28}}</ref>
 
Both aerobic and anaerobic exercise also work to increase the mechanical efficiency of the heart by increasing cardiac volume (aerobic exercise), or myocardial thickness (strength training, see [[Organ hypertrophy#Ventricular hypertrophy|Organ hypertrophy]]).
 
Not everyone benefits equally from exercise. There is tremendous variation in individual response to training: where most people will see a moderate increase in endurance from [[aerobic exercise]], some individuals will as much as double their oxygen uptake, while others will never get any benefit at all from the exercise
 
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