"మౌర్య సామ్రాజ్యం" కూర్పుల మధ్య తేడాలు

[[File:Taxila1.jpg|thumb|The [[Dharmarajika]] [[stupa]] in [[Taxila]], modern [[Pakistan]], is also thought to have been established by Emperor [[Asoka]].]]
[[Magadha]], the centre of the empire, was also the birthplace of [[Buddhism]]. Ashoka initially practised Hinduism but later embraced Buddhism; following the [[Kalinga War]], he renounced expansionism and aggression, and the harsher injunctions of the ''[[Arthashastra]]'' on the use of force, intensive policing, and ruthless measures for tax collection and against rebels. Ashoka sent a mission led by his son [[Mahinda (buddhist monk)|Mahinda]] and daughter [[Sanghamitta]] to [[Sri Lanka]], whose king [[Devanampiya Tissa of Anuradhapura|Tissa]] was so charmed with Buddhist ideals that he adopted them himself and made Buddhism the state religion. Ashoka sent many Buddhist missions to [[West Asia]], [[Greece]] and [[South East Asia]], and commissioned the construction of monasteries and schools, as well as the publication of Buddhist literature across the empire. He is believed to have built as many as 84,000 stupas across India, such as [[Sanchi]] and [[Mahabodhi Temple]], and he increased the popularity of Buddhism in [[Afghanistan]], [[Thailand]] and [[North Asia]] including [[Siberia]]. Ashoka helped convene the [[Buddhist Councils|Third Buddhist Council]] of India's and South Asia's Buddhist orders near his capital, a council that undertook much work of reform and expansion of the Buddhist religion. Indian merchants embraced Buddhism and played a large role in spreading the religion across the Mauryan Empire.<ref>Jerry Bentley, ''Old World Encounters: Cross-Cultural Contacts in Pre-Modern Times'' (New York: Oxford University Press), 46</ref>
==Architectural remains==
{{Main|Edicts of Ashoka|Sanchi Stupa|Mauryan art}}
[[File:Barabar Caves 2.JPG|thumb|upright=1.2|Mauryan architecture in the [[Barabar Caves]]. [[Lomas Rishi Cave]]. 3rd century BCE.]]
 
The greatest monument of this period, executed in the reign of [[Chandragupta Maurya]], was the old palace at the site of [[Kumhrar]]. Excavations at the site of [[Kumhrar]] nearby have unearthed the remains of the palace. The palace is thought to have been an aggregate of buildings, the most important of which was an immense pillared hall supported on a high substratum of timbers. The pillars were set in regular rows, thus dividing the hall into a number of smaller square bays. The number of columns is 80, each about {{formatnum:{{#expr:9.75-2.74 round 0}}}} meters high. According to the eyewitness account of [[Megasthenes]], the palace was chiefly constructed of timber, and was considered to exceed in splendour and magnificence the palaces of Susa and Ecbatana, its gilded pillars being adorned with golden vines and silver birds. The buildings stood in an extensive park studded with fish ponds and furnished with a great variety of ornamental trees and shrubs.<ref>"L'age d'or de l'Inde Classique", p23</ref>{{better source|date=August 2016}} Kauṭilya's [[Arthashastra]] also gives the method of palace construction from this period. Later fragments of stone pillars, including one nearly complete, with their round tapering shafts and smooth polish, indicate that Ashoka was responsible for the construction of the stone columns which replaced the earlier wooden ones.{{citation needed|date=August 2016}}
 
[[File:Early stupa 6 meters in diameter with fallen umbrella on side in Chakpat near Chakdara.jpg|thumb|left|An early [[stupa]], 6 meters in diameter, with fallen umbrella on side. Chakpat, near [[Chakdara]]. Probably Maurya, 3rd century BCE.]]
During the Ashokan period, stonework was of a highly diversified order and comprised lofty free-standing pillars, railings of [[stupas]], lion thrones and other colossal figures. The use of stone had reached such great perfection during this time that even small fragments of stone art were given a high lustrous polish resembling fine enamel. This period marked the beginning of the Buddhist school of architecture. Ashoka was responsible for the construction of several [[stupas]], which were large domes and bearing symbols of Buddha. The most important ones are located at [[Sanchi]], [[Bharhut]], [[Amaravathi village, Guntur district|Amaravati]], [[Bodhgaya]] and [[Nagarjunakonda]]. The most widespread examples of Mauryan architecture are the [[Ashoka pillar]]s and carved edicts of Ashoka, often exquisitely decorated, with more than 40 spread throughout the [[Indian subcontinent]].<ref>"L'age d'or de l'Inde Classique", p22</ref>{{better source|date=August 2016}}
 
The peacock was a dynastic symbol of Mauryans, as depicted by Ashoka's pillars at Nandangarh and Sanchi Stupa.{{sfn|R. K. Mookerji|1966|p=15}}
 
{| class="wikitable" style="margin:0 auto;" align="center" colspan="2" cellpadding="3" style="font-size: 80%; width: 100%;"
|align=center colspan=2 style="background:#F4A460; font-size: 100%;"| '''Maurya structures and decorations at [[Sanchi]]<br />(3rd century BCE)'''
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|align="center" style="font-size: 100%; width: 1%;"|[[File:Sanchi Great Stupa Mauryan configuration.jpg|250px]]<br />Approximate reconstitution of the Great Stupa at [[Sanchi]] under the [[Mauryan Empire|Mauryas]].
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<gallery mode="packed" heights="200px">
File:Ashokan Pillar - Stupa 1 - Sanchi Hill 2013-02-21 4361.JPG|Remains of the [[Pillars of Ashoka|Ashokan Pillar]] in polished stone (right of the Southern Gateway).
File:Ashoka pillar remains near Southern Gateway Stupa 1 Sanchi.jpg|Remains of the shaft of the pillar of Ashoka, under a shed near the Southern Gateway.
Sanchi Ashoka pillar with schism edit in 1913.jpg|Pillar and its inscription (the "Schism Edict") upon discovery.
File:Sanchi_capital_right_side_view.jpg|The capital nowadays.<ref>Described in Marshall [https://archive.org/stream/in.ernet.dli.2015.532798 p.25-28 Ashoka pillar].</ref>
</gallery>
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