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== జిహాద్ చరిత్ర ==
===మూలాలు===
The beginnings of Jihad are traced back to the words and actions of Muhammad and the Qu’ran.<ref name="autogenerated1">Rudolph Peters, Jihād (The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World); http://www.oxfordislamicstudies/MainSearch.html (accessed February 17, 2008)</ref> This word of [[Allah]] explicitly encourages the use of Jihad against the unbelievers.<ref name="autogenerated4">Jonathon P. Berkey, The Formation of Islam; Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, 2003</ref> [[Sura]] 25, verse 52 states: “Therefore, do not obey the disbelievers, and strive against them with this, a great striving.”<ref>{{Cite web |url=http://www.submission.org/suras/sura25.html |title=ఆర్కైవ్ నకలు |website= |access-date=2009-03-03 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20100107023807/http://www.submission.org/suras/sura25.html |archive-date=2010-01-07 |url-status=dead }}</ref> It was, therefore, the duty of all Muslims to strive against those who did not believe in [[Allah]] and took offensive action against Muslims. The Qu’ran, however, never uses the term Jihad for fighting and combat in the name of Allah; qital is used to mean “fighting.” The struggle for Jihad in the Qu’ran was originally intended for the nearby neighbors of the Muslims, but as time passed and more enemies arose, the Qu’ranic statements supporting Jihad were updated for the new adversaries<ref name="autogenerated4" />. The first documentation of the law of Jihad was written by ‘Abd al-Rahman al-Awza’i and [[Muhammad ibn al-Hasan al-Shaybani]]. The document grew out of debates that had surfaced ever since Muhammad's death.<ref name="autogenerated1" />
 
===ప్రారంభంలో జిహాద్ ఉదాహరణలు===
[[Spain in the Middle Ages|Medieval Spain]] was the scene of almost constant [[warfare]] between Muslims and Christians. Periodic raiding expeditions were sent from [[Al-Andalus]] to ravage the Christian [[Iberia]]n kingdoms, bringing back treasure and [[slave]]s. In raid against [[Lisbon]] in 1189, for example, the [[Almohad]] caliph [[Yaqub al-Mansur]] took 3,000 female and child captives, while his governor of [[Córdoba, Spain|Córdoba]], in a subsequent attack upon [[Silves]] in 1191, took 3,000 Christian slaves.<ref>[http://libro.uca.edu/rc/rc1.htm Ransoming Captives in Crusader Spain: The Order of Merced on the Christian-Islamic Frontier]</ref>
 
The [[Almohad Dynasty]] (From [[Arabic]] الموحدون ''[[Al-Muwahhidūn|al-Muwahhidun]]'', i.e. "[[monotheist|the monotheists]]" or "the [[Wahhabism|Unitarians]]"), was a [[Berber people|Berber]], Muslim dynasty that was founded in the 12th century, and conquered all [[Northern Africa]] as far as [[Libya]], together with [[Al-Andalus]] ([[Moors|Moorish]] [[Iberian peninsula|Spain]]). The Almohads, who declared an everlasting Jihad against the Christians, far surpassed the [[Almoravides]] in fundamentalist outlook, and they treated the ''dhimmis'' harshly.<ref>[{{Cite web |url=http://www.myjewishlearning.com/history_community/Medieval/IntergroupTO/JewishMuslim/Almohads.htm |title=The Almohads] |website= |access-date=2009-03-03 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20090213223723/http://www.myjewishlearning.com/history_community/Medieval/IntergroupTO/JewishMuslim/Almohads.htm |archive-date=2009-02-13 |url-status=dead }}</ref> Faced with the choice of either death or conversion, many [[Jew]]s and Christians emigrated.<ref name=frank>Frank and Leaman, 2003, p. 137-138.</ref><ref>[{{Cite web |url=http://www.theforgottenrefugees.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=66&Itemid=39 |title=The Forgotten Refugees] |website= |access-date=2009-03-03 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20070928051923/http://www.theforgottenrefugees.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=66&Itemid=39 |archive-date=2007-09-28 |url-status=dead }}</ref> Some, such as the family of [[Maimonides]], fled east to more tolerant Muslim lands,<ref name=frank/> while others went northward to settle in the growing Christian kingdoms.<ref>[http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Judaism/Sephardim.html Sephardim]</ref><ref>Kraemer, 2005, pp. 16-17.</ref>
 
===భారత ఉపఖండం===
 
===కాకసస్===
In 1784, Imam [[Sheikh Mansur]], a [[Chechen people|Chechen]] warrior and [[Islamic mysticism|Muslim mystic]], led a coalition of Muslim [[Peoples of the Caucasus|Caucasian tribes]] from throughout the [[Caucasus]] in a ghazavat, or holy war, against the [[Russia]]n invaders.<ref>[{{Cite web |url=http://www.islamicsupremecouncil.org/bin/site/wrappers/spirituality-sufism_caucasus.html |title=Sufism in the Caucasus] |website= |access-date=2009-03-03 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20090223235641/http://www.islamicsupremecouncil.org/bin/site/wrappers/spirituality-sufism_caucasus.html |archive-date=2009-02-23 |url-status=dead }}</ref> Sheikh Mansur was captured in 1791 and died in the Schlusselburg Fortress. [[Caucasian Avars|Avarian]] Islamic scholar [[Ghazi Muhammad]] preached that Jihad would not occur until the Caucasians followed [[Sharia]] completely rather than following a mixture of Islamic laws and ''adat'' (customary traditions). By 1829, Mullah began proselytizing and claiming that obeying Sharia, giving [[zakat]], prayer, and [[hajj]] would not be accepted by Allah if the [[Russian people|Russians]] were still present in the area. He even went on to claim that marriages would become void and children bastards if any Russians were still in the Caucasus. In 1829 he was proclaimed [[imam]] in [[Ghimry]], where he formally made the call for a holy war. In 1834, Ghazi Muhammad died at the battle of Ghimri, and [[Imam Shamil]] took his place as the premier leader of the Caucasian resistance. Imam Shamil succeeded in accomplishing what Sheik Mansur had started: to unite North Caucasian highlanders in their struggle against the [[Russian Empire]]. He was a leader of anti-Russian resistance in the [[Caucasian War]] and was the third [[Imam]] of [[Dagestan]] and [[Chechnya]] (1834-1859).<ref>[http://www.angelfire.com/rnb/bashiri/CentAsia/Shamil.html Imam Shamil of Dagestan]</ref><ref>[http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe/5095926.stm Tough lessons in defiant Dagestan]</ref>
 
===సూడాన్ లో మహదీలు===
 
===ఆఫ్ఘనిస్తాన్===
[[Ahmad Shah Durrani|Ahmad Shah]], founder of the [[Durrani Empire]], declared a jihad against the [[Maratha]]s, and warriors from various [[Pashtun people|Pashtun]] tribes, as well as other tribes answered his call. The [[Third battle of Panipat]] (January 1761), fought between largely [[Islam|Muslim]] and largely [[Hinduism|Hindu]] armies who numbered as many as 100,000 troops each, was waged along a twelve-kilometre front, and resulted in a decisive victory for Ahmad Shah.<ref>for a detailed account of the battle fought see Chapter VI of The Fall of the Moghul Empire of Hindustan by H.G. Keene. Available online at [http://emotional-literacy-education.com/classic-books-online-a/tfmeh10.htm] {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110710191356/http://emotional-literacy-education.com/classic-books-online-a/tfmeh10.htm |date=2011-07-10 }}</ref>
</ref>
 
In response to the [[Hazara people|Hazara]] uprising of 1892, the Afghan Emir [[Abdur Rahman]] declared a "Jihad" against the [[Shiites]]. The large army defeated the rebellion at its center, in [[Oruzgan]], by 1892 and the local population was severely massacred. According to S. A. Mousavi, ''"thousands of Hazara men, women, and children were sold as slaves in the markets of Kabul and Qandahar, while numerous towers of human heads were made from the defeated rebels as a warning to others who might challenge the rule of the Amir"''. Until the 20th century, some Hazaras were still kept as slaves by the [[Pashtun]]s; although [[Amanullah Khan]] banned [[slavery]] in Afghanistan during his reign,<ref>[http://www.afghangovernment.com/Constitution1923.htm Afghan Constitution: 1923]</ref> the tradition carried on unofficially for many more years.<ref>[http://www.afghanmagazine.com/2004_06/articles/hsadat.shtml Afghan History: kite flying, kite running and kite banning By Mir Hekmatullah Sadat]</ref>
[[Abd al-Qadir]] is recognized and venerated as the first hero of Algerian independence. Not without cause, his green and white standard was adopted by the Algerian liberation movement during the [[Algerian War|War of Independence]] and became the national flag of independent Algeria.
 
The [[Algerian Civil War]] (1991–2002) was an armed conflict between the [[Algeria]]n government and various [[Islamist]] rebel groups which began in 1991. By 1997, the organized jihad in Algeria had disintegrated into criminal thuggery and Algeria was wracked by [[List of Algerian massacres of the 1990s|massacres]] of intense brutality and unprecedented size.<ref>[{{Cite web |url=http://www.nmhschool.org/tthornton/algeria.php |title=Algeria] |website= |access-date=2009-03-03 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20080218155900/http://www.nmhschool.org/tthornton/algeria.php |archive-date=2008-02-18 |url-status=dead }}</ref><ref>[httphttps://archive.is/20120709161111/findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m2501/is_3_23/ai_78804226/pg_1 Centrifugal Tendencies In The Algerian Civil War], Arab Studies Quarterly (ASQ)</ref>
 
== ముస్లిం సమూహాలలో జిహాద్ ==
Jihad has been classified either as ''al-jihād al-akbar'' (the greater jihad), the struggle against one's soul (''[[nafs]]''), or ''al-jihād al-asghar'' (the lesser jihad), the external, physical effort, often implying fighting (this is similar to the shiite view of jihad as well).
 
[[Gibril Haddad]] has analyzed the basis for the belief that internal jihad is the "greater jihad", ''Jihad al-akbar''. Haddad identifies the primary historical basis for this belief in a pair of similarly worded [[hadith|hadeeth]], in which Mohammed is reported to have told warriors returning home that they had returned from the lesser jihad of struggle against non-Muslims to a greater jihad of struggle against lust. Although Haddad notes that the authenticity of both hadeeth is questionable, he nevertheless concludes that the underlying principle of superiority internal jihad does have a reliable basis in the Qur'an and other writings.<ref name="Haddad-LivingIslam">{{cite web|url=http://www.livingislam.org/n/dgjh_e.html |title=Documentation of "Greater Jihad" hadith |accessdate=|dateformat= mdy |accessdate= August 16 2006 |author= |last=Haddad |first=Gibril |authorlink=Gibril Haddad |coauthors= |date=2005-02-28 |year= |month= |format=HTML |work= |publisher=living Islam |pages= |language= |archiveurl= |archivedate=}}</ref><ref name="Haddad-SunniPath">{{cite web |url=http://www.sunnipath.com/resources/Questions/qa00002862.aspx |title=RE: Accusations on Shaykh Hamza Yusuf |accessdate=|dateformat=mdy |accessdate=August 16 2006 |dateformat=mdy |author= |last=Haddad |first=Gibril |authorlink=Gibril Haddad |coauthors= |date= |year= |month= |format=HTML |work= |publisher=sunnipath.com |pages= |language= |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20060725001826/http://www.sunnipath.com/resources/Questions/qa00002862.aspx |archivedate=2006-07-25 |url-status=dead }}]</ref><!--Note: In my opinion, Gibril meets reliable source standards because he's a published Islamic translator and scholar, writing within the area of his expertise-TheronJ-->
 
On the other hand, the [[Hanbali]] scholar [[Ibn Qayyim Al-Jawziyya]] did believe that "internal Jihad" is important<ref>[http://www.abc.se/~m9783/n/dgjh_e.html Documentation of "Greater Jihad" hadith<!-- Bot generated title -->]</ref> but he suggests those [[hadith]] as weak which consider "Jihad of the heart/soul" to be more important than "Jihad by the sword".<ref>[http://www.peacewithrealism.org/jihad/jihad03.htm ''Jihad'' in the ''Hadith''], ''Peace with Realism'', April 16, 2006</ref> Contemporary Islamic scholar [[Abdullah Yusuf Azzam]] has argued the hadith is not just weak but "is in fact a false, fabricated hadith which has no basis. It is only a saying of Ibrahim Ibn Abi `Abalah, one of the Successors, and it contradicts textual evidence and reality."<ref>[http://www.religioscope.com/info/doc/jihad/azzam_caravan_6_conclusion.htm JOIN THE CARAVAN]</ref>
{{quote|Muster against them all the men and cavalry at your disposal so that you can strike terror into the enemies of Allah and of the believers and others beside them who may be unknown to you, though Allah knows them. And remember whatever you spend for the cause of Allah shall be repaid to you. You shall not be wronged.|Qur'an|{{Quran-usc|8|60}}||}}
 
While other scholars consider the later command of ratio 1:2 only for a particular time.<ref>[[Sayyid Abul Ala Maududi]]. ''[[Tafhim al-Qur'an]]''. [http://www.translatedquran.com/meaning.asp?sno=8&tno=253 Verse 8:66] {{Webarchive|url=https://archive.is/20120913034315/http://www.translatedquran.com/meaning.asp?sno=8&tno=253 |date=2012-09-13 }}</ref>
 
A policy was adopted regarding the extent of requirement that arose in wars that the Muslims had to fight. In the battles of [[Badr]], [[Uhud]] and [[Tabuk]], the responsibility was much more and each Muslim was required to present his services as a combatant.<ref name="jihad" /> As in Qur'an:
{{వ్యాఖ్య|And what has come over you that you fight not in the cause of Allah, and for those weak, ill-treated and oppressed among men, women, and children, whose cry is: ‘Our Lord! Rescue us from this town whose people are oppressors, and raise for us from You one who will protect, and raise for us from You one who will help. [You should know that] those who believe fight in the cause of Allah, and those who disbelieve, fight in the cause of [[Satan]]. So fight you against the friends of Satan. Ever feeble indeed is the plot of Satan.|Qur'an|{{Quran-usc-range|4|75|76}}||}}
 
Most Muslim scholars consider it an eternal directive and believe that all types of oppression should be considered under this directive.<ref name="jihad" /><ref>''Concept of Dar Al-Islam and Dar Al-Harb'', [http://www.islamonline.net Islamonline.net] {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20181230165249/https://islamonline.net/ |date=2018-12-30 }}.[http://www.islamonline.net/servlet/Satellite?pagename=IslamOnline-English-Ask_Scholar/FatwaE/FatwaE&cid=1119503544498] {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20061021134040/http://www.islamonline.net/servlet/Satellite?pagename=IslamOnline-English-Ask_Scholar%2FFatwaE%2FFatwaE&cid=1119503544498 |date=2006-10-21 }}</ref> Similarly, if a group of Muslims commit unwarranted aggression against some of their brothers and does not desist from it even after all attempts of reconciliation, such a group according to the Qur’an should be fought with:
{{వ్యాఖ్య|And if two parties or groups among the believers start fighting, then make peace between them both. But if one of them outrages against the other, then fight you against the one which outrages till it complies with the command of Allah. Then if it complies, make reconciliation between them justly, and be equitable. Verily! Allah loves those who are the equitable. The believers are brothers to one another. So make reconciliation between your brothers, and fear Allah that you may receive mercy.|[[Qur'an]]|{{Quran-usc-range|49|9|10}}||}}
 
History records instances of the "call for jihad" being invoked by Islamic leaders to legitimate wars of conquest. The major imperial Muslim dynasties of [[Ottoman Turkey]] ([[Sunni]]) and [[Persia]] ([[Shia]]) each established systems of authority around traditional Islamic institutions. In the Ottoman empire, the concept of [[ghaza]] was promulgated as a sister obligation to jihad. The Ottoman ruler [[Mehmed II]] is said to have insisted on the conquest of Constantinople (Christian Byzantium) by justifying ''ghaza'' as a basic duty. Later Ottoman rulers would apply ''ghaza'' to justify military campaigns against the Persian [[Safavid]] dynasty. Thus both rival empires established a tradition that a ruler was only considered truly in charge when his armies had been sent into the field in the name of the true faith, usually against ''giaurs'' or heretics &mdash; often meaning each other. The 'missionary' vocation of the Muslim dynasties was prestigious enough to be officially reflected in a formal title as part of a full ruler style: the Ottoman (many also had Ghazi as part of their name) Sultan [[Murad Khan II Khoja-Ghazi]], 6th Sovereign of the House of Osman (1421 - 1451), literally used [[Sultan ul-Mujahidin]]{{Fact|date=February 2007}}.
The so-called [[Fulbe jihad state]]s and a few other jihad states in [[western Africa]] were established by a series of offensive wars.<ref>{{Cite web |url=http://www.onwar.com/aced/data/uniform/usman1804.htm |title=ఆర్కైవ్ నకలు |website= |access-date=2009-03-03 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20070930200947/http://www.onwar.com/aced/data/uniform/usman1804.htm |archive-date=2007-09-30 |url-status=dead }}</ref>
 
The commands inculcated in the Quran (in five suras from the period after Muhammad had established his power) on Muslims to put to the sword those who will neither embrace Islam nor pay a poll-tax (''[[Jizya]]'') were not interpreted as a general injunction on all Muslims constantly to make war on the infidels (originally only polytheists who claimed to be monotheists, not "People of the Book", Jesus is seen as the last of the precursors of the Prophet Muhammed; the word infidel had different historical uses, notably used by the Crusaders to refer to the Muslims they were fighting against). It was generally supposed that the order for a general war can only be given by the [[Caliph]] (an office that was claimed by the Ottoman sultans), but Muslims who did not acknowledge the spiritual authority of the Caliphate (which is vacant), such as non-Sunnis and non-Ottoman Muslim states, always looked to their own rulers for the proclamation of a jihad; there has been in fact no universal warfare by Muslims on non-believers since the early caliphate. Some proclaimed Jihad by claiming themselves as [[mahdi]], e.g. the Sudanese [[Mahommed Ahmad]] in 1882.
*[http://www.islamic-vision.com/articles/26/1/Concept-of-Peace-Jihad-And-Condemnation-of-Terrorism-in-Islam/Page1.html Concept of Peace Jihad And Condemnation of Terrorism in Islam]
*[http://www.oxfordislamicstudies.com/article/opr/t243/e175 Jihad], [[:en:Oxford University Press|ఆక్స్‌ఫర్డ్ ఇస్లామిక్ స్టడీస్ సెంటర్]]
*[https://www.webcitation.org/5kwrs0zr3?url=http://encarta.msn.com/encnet/refpages/RefArticle.aspx?refid=761582255 జిహాద్], [[:en:Encarta|Encarta Encyclopedia]]
*[http://www.britannica.com/ebc/article?tocId=9368558 Jihad], [[:en:Encyclopædia Britannica|ఎన్‌సైక్లోపీడియా బ్రిటానికా]]
*[http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?search=jihad&searchmode=none EtymologyOnLine]
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