"జిహాద్" కూర్పుల మధ్య తేడాలు

7 మూలము(ల)ను భద్రపరచటానికి ప్రయత్నించగా, 2 పనిచేయనివిగా గుర్తించాను.) #IABot (v2.0
(2 మూలము(ల)ను భద్రపరచటానికి ప్రయత్నించగా, 0 పనిచేయనివిగా గుర్తించాను.) #IABot (v2.0)
(7 మూలము(ల)ను భద్రపరచటానికి ప్రయత్నించగా, 2 పనిచేయనివిగా గుర్తించాను.) #IABot (v2.0)
|publisher=[[Human Rights Watch]]
|accessdate=2007-01-17 }}</ref> [[Terrorist]] attacks like that of [[September 11 attacks|September 11, 2001]], which was planned and executed by radical [[Islamic fundamentalism|Islamic fundamentalists]], have not been sanctioned by more [[centrism|centrist]] groups of Muslims.<ref>John K. Roth, ''Ethics'', p.775</ref>
This kind of terrorism has been condemned by Muslims all around the world.<ref>see e.g. [http://groups.colgate.edu/aarislam/response.htm], [http://www.unc.edu/~kurzman/terror.htm] and [http://home.wlu.edu/~lubint/islamonWTC.htm]</ref><ref>{{cite news|url=http://atimes.com/atimes/South_Asia/JJ10Df01.html|title=Making a mockery of jihad|author=Asghar Ali Engineer |date=October 10, 2008 |publisher=Asia Times|quote= Recent terror attacks in India and abroad have created an impression that jihad is central to Koranic teaching. First of all, as we have asserted repeatedly, jihad does not mean war in the Koran as there are other words for it like qital and harb. Jihad has been used in the Koran in its root meaning: to strive for betterment of society, to spread goodness (maruf) and contain evil (munkar). | accessdate=2008-10-10|work=|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20081120162356/http://www.atimes.com/atimes/South_Asia/JJ10Df01.html|archive-date=2008-11-20|url-status=dead}}</ref>
 
The word itself has been recorded in [[English language|English]] since 1869, in the Muslim sense, and has been used for any doctrinal jihad since c. 1880.<ref>Oxford English Dictionary</ref>
== జిహాద్ చరిత్ర ==
===మూలాలు===
The beginnings of Jihad are traced back to the words and actions of Muhammad and the Qu’ran.<ref name="autogenerated1">Rudolph Peters, Jihād (The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World); http://www.oxfordislamicstudies/MainSearch.html{{Dead link|date=జనవరి 2020 |bot=InternetArchiveBot |fix-attempted=yes }} (accessed February 17, 2008)</ref> This word of [[Allah]] explicitly encourages the use of Jihad against the unbelievers.<ref name="autogenerated4">Jonathon P. Berkey, The Formation of Islam; Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, 2003</ref> [[Sura]] 25, verse 52 states: “Therefore, do not obey the disbelievers, and strive against them with this, a great striving.”<ref>{{Cite web |url=http://www.submission.org/suras/sura25.html |title=ఆర్కైవ్ నకలు |website= |access-date=2009-03-03 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20100107023807/http://www.submission.org/suras/sura25.html |archive-date=2010-01-07 |url-status=dead }}</ref> It was, therefore, the duty of all Muslims to strive against those who did not believe in [[Allah]] and took offensive action against Muslims. The Qu’ran, however, never uses the term Jihad for fighting and combat in the name of Allah; qital is used to mean “fighting.” The struggle for Jihad in the Qu’ran was originally intended for the nearby neighbors of the Muslims, but as time passed and more enemies arose, the Qu’ranic statements supporting Jihad were updated for the new adversaries<ref name="autogenerated4" />. The first documentation of the law of Jihad was written by ‘Abd al-Rahman al-Awza’i and [[Muhammad ibn al-Hasan al-Shaybani]]. The document grew out of debates that had surfaced ever since Muhammad's death.<ref name="autogenerated1" />
 
===ప్రారంభంలో జిహాద్ ఉదాహరణలు===
 
===తైమూర్ లంగ్===
[[తైమూర్ లంగ్]], 14వ శతాబ్దానికి చెందిన ''టర్కో-మంగోల్'' దండయాత్రలు చేపట్టిన వాడు. పశ్చిమ మరియు మధ్యాసియా ప్రాంతాలను జయించాడు. ఇతను తనకు తాను "గాజీ" (పవిత్రయుద్ధం చేసేవాడు) అని ప్రకటించుకున్నాడు. కానీ ఇతను కేవలం తన రాజ్యకాంక్షను పూర్ణం చేసుకొనుటకు [[చెంగిజ్ ఖాన్]] లా ఘోరమైన దండయాత్రలు చేపట్టాడు. ఇతను దండయాత్రలు చేపట్టిన రాజ్యాలు దాదాపు ముస్లింల రాజ్యాలే. అయిననూ ఇతను తన దండయాత్రలకు జిహాద్ అనే పేరు పెట్టుకుని ముస్లింలనే మట్టుబెట్టే మారణహోమం సృష్టించాడు.<ref>[http://arts.independent.co.uk/books/reviews/article24043.ece Tamerlane: Sword of Islam, Conqueror of the World, by Justin Marozzi]{{Dead link|date=జనవరి 2020 |bot=InternetArchiveBot |fix-attempted=yes }}</ref>
 
=== ఫూలాని జిహాద్‌లు ===
[[Gibril Haddad]] has analyzed the basis for the belief that internal jihad is the "greater jihad", ''Jihad al-akbar''. Haddad identifies the primary historical basis for this belief in a pair of similarly worded [[hadith|hadeeth]], in which Mohammed is reported to have told warriors returning home that they had returned from the lesser jihad of struggle against non-Muslims to a greater jihad of struggle against lust. Although Haddad notes that the authenticity of both hadeeth is questionable, he nevertheless concludes that the underlying principle of superiority internal jihad does have a reliable basis in the Qur'an and other writings.<ref name="Haddad-LivingIslam">{{cite web|url=http://www.livingislam.org/n/dgjh_e.html |title=Documentation of "Greater Jihad" hadith |accessdate=|dateformat= mdy |accessdate= August 16 2006 |author= |last=Haddad |first=Gibril |authorlink=Gibril Haddad |coauthors= |date=2005-02-28 |year= |month= |format=HTML |work= |publisher=living Islam |pages= |language= |archiveurl= |archivedate=}}</ref><ref name="Haddad-SunniPath">{{cite web |url=http://www.sunnipath.com/resources/Questions/qa00002862.aspx |title=RE: Accusations on Shaykh Hamza Yusuf |accessdate=August 16 2006 |dateformat=mdy |author= |last=Haddad |first=Gibril |authorlink=Gibril Haddad |coauthors= |date= |year= |month= |format=HTML |work= |publisher=sunnipath.com |pages= |language= |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20060725001826/http://www.sunnipath.com/resources/Questions/qa00002862.aspx |archivedate=2006-07-25 |url-status=dead }}]</ref><!--Note: In my opinion, Gibril meets reliable source standards because he's a published Islamic translator and scholar, writing within the area of his expertise-TheronJ-->
 
On the other hand, the [[Hanbali]] scholar [[Ibn Qayyim Al-Jawziyya]] did believe that "internal Jihad" is important<ref>[{{Cite web |url=http://www.abc.se/~m9783/n/dgjh_e.html |title=Documentation of "Greater Jihad" hadith<!-- Bot generated title -->] |website= |access-date=2009-03-03 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20051113235503/http://www.abc.se/~m9783/n/dgjh_e.html |archive-date=2005-11-13 |url-status=dead }}</ref> but he suggests those [[hadith]] as weak which consider "Jihad of the heart/soul" to be more important than "Jihad by the sword".<ref>[http://www.peacewithrealism.org/jihad/jihad03.htm ''Jihad'' in the ''Hadith''], ''Peace with Realism'', April 16, 2006</ref> Contemporary Islamic scholar [[Abdullah Yusuf Azzam]] has argued the hadith is not just weak but "is in fact a false, fabricated hadith which has no basis. It is only a saying of Ibrahim Ibn Abi `Abalah, one of the Successors, and it contradicts textual evidence and reality."<ref>[http://www.religioscope.com/info/doc/jihad/azzam_caravan_6_conclusion.htm JOIN THE CARAVAN]</ref>
 
Muslim jurists explained there are four kinds of ''jihad fi sabilillah'' (struggle in the cause of God):<ref name>Majid Khadduri: ''War and Peace in the Law of Islam'', p.56</ref>
* '''Jihad by the sword''' ''(jihad bis saif)'' refers to ''qital fi sabilillah'' (armed fighting in the way of God, or holy war), the most common usage by [[Salafi]] Muslims and offshoots of the [[Muslim Brotherhood]].
 
Some contemporary Islamists have succeeded in replacing the greater jihad, the fight against desires, with the lesser jihad, the holy war to establish, defend and extend the Islamic state.<ref>[{{Cite web |url=http://www.hoover.org/publications/policyreview/3431076.html |title=''Understanding Jihad'', February, 2005] |website= |access-date=2009-03-03 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20081206092016/http://www.hoover.org/publications/policyreview/3431076.html |archive-date=2008-12-06 |url-status=dead }}</ref>
 
===సూఫీల దృష్టికోణం===
{{Wikiquote}}
 
*[https://web.archive.org/web/20090704024613/http://sahityaavalokanam.net/?p=68 జిహాద్ గురించి ఇబ్న్ వరాక్]
*[http://www.civiljihad.com జిహాద్ న్యూస్]
*[http://www.alislam.org/jihad/ ఇస్లాంలో జిహాద్ ]
*[http://www.alislam.org/terrorism.html జిహాద్ మరియు టెర్రరిజం]
*[https://web.archive.org/web/20090327102019/http://blogs.omeriqbal.com/news/125 Jihad and Muslim Support for Suicide Bombings]
*[http://www.islamic-vision.com/articles/26/1/Concept-of-Peace-Jihad-And-Condemnation-of-Terrorism-in-Islam/Page1.html Concept of Peace Jihad And Condemnation of Terrorism in Islam]
*[http://www.oxfordislamicstudies.com/article/opr/t243/e175 Jihad], [[:en:Oxford University Press|ఆక్స్‌ఫర్డ్ ఇస్లామిక్ స్టడీస్ సెంటర్]]
*[http://www.theage.com.au/news/opinion/why-the-bombers-are-so-angry-at-us/2005/07/22/1121539145036.html Why the bombers are so angry at us]
*[http://voi.org/books/jihad/ జిహాద్] - సుహాస్ మజూందార్
*{{cite news|url=http://atimes.com/atimes/South_Asia/JJ10Df01.html|title=Making a mockery of jihad|author=Asghar Ali Engineer |date=October 10, 2008 |publisher=Asia Times|accessdate=2008-10-10|work=|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20081120162356/http://www.atimes.com/atimes/South_Asia/JJ10Df01.html|archive-date=2008-11-20|url-status=dead}}
*[https://web.archive.org/web/20081206011359/http://forums.sunnahinspirations.org/index.php?topic=89.msg252#msg252 Explaining the Concept of Jihad]
 
[[వర్గం:అరబ్బీ పదజాలము]]
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