"జిహాద్" కూర్పుల మధ్య తేడాలు

ఇంగ్లీషును ఎత్తేసాను
(ఈ వ్యాసాన్ని WP:PROD ప్రకారం తొలగింపుకు ప్రతిపాదించా (TW))
(ఇంగ్లీషును ఎత్తేసాను)
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{{అనువాదము}}
[[జిహాద్]] (Jihad) అనగా ఆశయ సాధన కోసం శక్తివంచన లేకుండా నిర్విరామంగా [[కృషి]] చేయడం, పోరాడటం. దీన్ని కొంతవరకూ స్ట్రగుల్ అనే [[ఆంగ్ల భాష|ఆంగ్ల]] పదంతో పోల్చవచ్చు. ఇంకా విస్తృతంగా చెప్పాలంటే నిరంతరం ఆశయాన్నే దృష్టిలో పెట్టుకొని దాని కోసం పధకాలు రూపొందిచడం, [[వాక్కు]], వ్రాతల ద్వారా ప్రచారం చేయడం, అందుబాటులో ఉండే వనరులన్నీ వినియోగించుకోవడం, అనివార్యమైతే [[ఆయుధం]] చేపట్టి పోరాడటం, అవసరమైతే ఆ మార్గంలో [[ప్రాణాలు]] సైతం ధారబోయడం - ఇవన్నీ జిహాద్ క్రిందికే వస్తాయి. దైవ ప్రసన్నత పొందే సత్సంకల్పంతో [[ధర్మము|ధర్మ]] పరిరక్షణ కోసం హింసా దౌర్జన్యాలను అరికట్టేందుకు చేసే ఇలాంటి పోరాటాన్ని 'జిహాద్ ఫీ సబిలిల్లాహ్' (దైవ మార్గంలో పోరాటం) అంటారు.<ref>ఖురాన్ భావామృతం - అబుల్ ఇర్ఫాన్ , పబ్లిషర్ష్ - ఇస్లామిచ్ రీసెర్చ్ సెంటర్, హైదరాబాద్</ref> [[ఇస్లాం మతం]]లో నాల్గవ స్తంభము జిహాద్. దీనిని గురించి పవిత్ర ఖురాన్ లో ఈ క్రింది విధంగా చెప్పబడింది.
 
==పద ఉపయోగం ==
జిహాద్ అనే పదము [[ముస్లిం ప్రపంచం|ముస్లిం]] సమాజములో ఒక సాధారణ పదము, కానీ ప్రపంచవ్యాప్తంగా ఈ పదము ''ఇస్లాం కొరకు "పవిత్ర యుద్ధం"'' (holy war on behalf of Islam) అనే భావంతో ఉపయోగింపబడుచున్నది.<ref name="firestone"/> విశాల దృష్టితో చూసిన యెడల, ఈ పదము, హింస మరియు [[అహింస]] అనే [[రెండు]] భావనలనూ కలిగివున్నది. దీని సాధారణ అర్థం " దైనందిన జీవితంలో చెడు, అన్యాయం మరియు అణగార్పుకు వ్యతిరేకంగా పోరాడుతూ, ఇస్లామిక్ విలువలతో గూడిన స్వచ్ఛమైన సాధారణ [[జీవితం]] గడిపే విధము" <ref>Esposito (2002a), p.26</ref> అయిననూ ఈ పదము చర్చనీయాంశముగానూ వివాదాస్పదం గానూ ఉంది.
 
===జిహాద్-ఎ-కుబ్రా (పెద్ద జిహాద్)===
Within Islamic belief, Muhammad is said to have regarded the inner struggle for faith the "greater jihad", prioritizing it over physical fighting in defense of the [[Ummah]], or members of the global Islamic community.<ref>{{cite web | url=http://www.bbc.co.uk/religion/religions/islam/beliefs/jihad_2.shtml | title=BBC - Religion & Ethics - Jihad: The internal Jihad | accessdate=2007-01-09}}</ref> One famous [[hadith]] has the prophet saying: "We have returned from the lesser jihad (battle) to the greater jihad (jihad of the soul)."<ref>[http://www.religioscope.com/info/doc/jihad/azzam_caravan_6_conclusion.htm JOIN THE CARAVAN Imam Abdullah Azzam]</ref> Muslim scholar Mahmoud Ayoub states that "The goal of true ''jihad'' is to attain a harmony between ''islam'' (submission), ''[[iman]]'' (faith), and ''[[ihsan]]'' (righteous living)."<ref>Mahmoud M. Ayoub, ''Islam: Faith and History'', pp. 68-69)</ref> Greater jihad can be compared to the struggle that Christians refer to as "resisting sin", i.e. fighting temptation, doubt, disbelief, or detraction. The greater jihad is about holding fast against any ideas and practices that run contrary to the Muhammad's revelations (Qur'an), sayings ([[Hadith]]) and the examples set by how he lived his life ([[Sunnah]]). This concept of jihad has does not correspond to any military action.
 
In [[Literary Arabic|Modern Standard Arabic]], ''jihad'' is one of the correct terms for a struggle for any cause, violent or not, religious or [[secularism|secular]] (though كفاح ''kifāḥ'' is also used).{{Fact|date=February 2008}} For instance, [[Mahatma Gandhi]]'s struggle for [[Indian independence]] is called a "jihad" in [[Arabic language|Modern Standard Arabic]] (as well as many other dialects of Arabic); the terminology is applied to the fight for [[feminism|women's liberation]].<ref>{{cite book | last = Al-Batal | first = Mahmoud | coauthors = Kristen Brustad, and Abbas Al-Tonsi | title = Al-Kitaab fii Ta<sup>c</sup>llum al-<sup>c</sup>Arabiyya, Part II | edition = 2 | year = 2006 | month = | publisher = Georgetown University Press | location = Washington, DC | language = Arabic, English | isbn = 978-1-58901-096-3 | chapter = 6-"من رائدات الحركة النسائية العربية" (One of the Pioneers of the Arabic Feminist Movement) | quote= To struggle or exert oneself for a cause........جاهََدَ، يجاهِد، الجهاد | ref = }}</ref>
 
In modern times, [[Pakistan]]i scholar and professor [[Fazlur Rahman Malik]] has used the term to describe the struggle to establish "just moral-social order",<ref>Fazlur Rahman, ''Major Themes of the Qur'an'', (Minneapolis: Bibliotheca Islamica, 1980), pp. 63-64.</ref> while President [[Habib Bourguiba]] of [[Tunisia]] has used it to describe the struggle for economic development in that country.<ref>Rudolph Peters, ''Jihad in Classical and Modern Islam'' (Princeton, N.J.: Markus Weiner, 1996), pp. 116-17</ref>
 
===జిహాద్-ఎ-సొగ్రా (జిహాద్ బిల్ సైఫ్)===
[[Image:Taheri-azar letter.jpg|thumb|right|A part of Meditation II from [[Mohammed Reza Taheri-azar]]'s justification for his [[terrorist]] attack at the [[University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill]]. Meditation II has appeared on numerous websites critical of Islam.]]
Within [[fiqh|Islamic jurisprudence]] jihad is the only form of warfare permissible under [[Sharia|Islamic law]], and may be declared against [[Apostasy|apostates]], rebels, highway robbers, violent groups, non-Islamic leaders or non-Muslim combatants, but there are other ways to perform jihad as well, including [[civil disobedience]]. The primary aim of jihad as warfare is not the conversion of non-Muslims to Islam by force, but rather the expansion and defense of the [[Islamic state]].<ref name="firestone"/><ref name=autogenerated5 /><ref name="JPeters">R. Peters (1977), pp.3-5</ref>
 
In the classical manuals of Islamic jurisprudence, the [[Rules of war in Islam|rules associated with armed warfare]] are covered at great length.<ref name="JPeters"/> Such rules include not killing women, children and non-combatants, as well as not damaging cultivated or residential areas.<ref>{{cite web | author=Maududi | title=Human Rights in Islam, Chapter Four | url=http://www.witness-pioneer.org/vil/Books/M_hri/index.htm#CHAPTER%20FOUR:%20RIGHTS%20OF%20ENEMIES%20AT%20WAR | accessdate=2006-01-09}}</ref> More recently, modern Muslims have tried to re-interpret the Islamic sources, stressing that Jihad is essentially defensive warfare aimed at protecting Muslims and Islam.<ref name="JPeters"/> Although [[Opinion of Islamic scholars on Jihad|some Islamic scholars have differed on the implementation of Jihad]], there is consensus amongst them that the concept of jihad will always include armed struggle against persecution and oppression.<ref name="jihad">{{cite book | last = Ghamidi | first = Javed | authorlink = Javed Ahmed Ghamidi | title = [[Mizan]] | publisher = [[Al-Mawrid|Dar ul-Ishraq]] |chapter=[http://www.studying-islam.org/articletext.aspx?id=771 The Islamic Law of Jihad] | year = 2001 | doi = | {{OCLC|52901690}} }}</ref>
 
Jihad has also been applied to offensive, aggressive warfare, as exemplified by [[Muhammad]]'s own policies and the entire subsequent history of the spread of Islam. From the first generation of Islam, jihad ideology inspired the conquest of non-Muslim populations, forcing them to submit to Muslim rule or accept outright [[religious conversion|conversion]] (although conversion was not generally demanded of "Peoples of the Book," this too could be forcibly imposed on non-"Peoples of the Book"). Jihad ideologies also inspired internal civil conflict, as can be seen in early movements like the [[Kharijite]]s and the contemporary [[Egyptian Islamic Jihad]] organization (which assassinated [[Anwar Al Sadat]]) as well as Jihad organizations in [[Lebanon]], the [[Gulf states]], and [[Indonesia]].<ref name="jih"/> When used to describe warfare between Islamic groups or individuals, such as [[al-Qaeda]]'s attacks on civilians in [[Iraq]], perpetrators of violence often cite collaboration with non-Islamic powers as a justification.<ref name=VII-ATTACKS-ON-CIVILIANS>{{cite web
|title=VII.
|url=http://hrw.org/reports/2005/iraq1005/7.htm
|month=October | year=2005
|publisher=[[Human Rights Watch]]
|accessdate=2007-01-17 }}</ref> [[Terrorist]] attacks like that of [[September 11 attacks|September 11, 2001]], which was planned and executed by radical [[Islamic fundamentalism|Islamic fundamentalists]], have not been sanctioned by more [[centrism|centrist]] groups of Muslims.<ref>John K. Roth, ''Ethics'', p.775</ref>
This kind of terrorism has been condemned by Muslims all around the world.<ref>see e.g. [http://groups.colgate.edu/aarislam/response.htm], [http://www.unc.edu/~kurzman/terror.htm] and [http://home.wlu.edu/~lubint/islamonWTC.htm]</ref><ref>{{cite news|url=http://atimes.com/atimes/South_Asia/JJ10Df01.html|title=Making a mockery of jihad|author=Asghar Ali Engineer|date=October 10, 2008|publisher=Asia Times|quote=Recent terror attacks in India and abroad have created an impression that jihad is central to Koranic teaching. First of all, as we have asserted repeatedly, jihad does not mean war in the Koran as there are other words for it like qital and harb. Jihad has been used in the Koran in its root meaning: to strive for betterment of society, to spread goodness (maruf) and contain evil (munkar).|accessdate=2008-10-10|work=|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20081120162356/http://www.atimes.com/atimes/South_Asia/JJ10Df01.html|archive-date=2008-11-20|url-status=dead}}</ref>
 
The word itself has been recorded in [[English language|English]] since 1869, in the Muslim sense, and has been used for any doctrinal jihad since c. 1880.<ref>Oxford English Dictionary</ref>
 
===వివాదం===
Controversy has arisen over whether use of the term jihad without further explanation refers to jihad of the sword, and whether some have used confusion over the definition of the term to their advantage.<ref>[http://www.meforum.org/article/357 What Does Jihad Mean?] "For example, [[Yasir Arafat]]'s May 1994 call in [[Johannesburg]] for a "jihad to liberate [[Jerusalem]]" was a turning point in the peace process; [[Israel]]is heard him speak about using violence to gain political ends and questioned his peaceable intentions. Both Arafat himself and his aides then clarified that he was speaking about a "peaceful jihad" for Jerusalem."</ref>
 
Middle East historian [[Bernard Lewis]] argues that "the overwhelming majority of classical theologians, jurists, and traditionalists [i.e., specialists in the hadith] ... understood the obligation of jihad in a military sense."<ref>Bernard Lewis, ''The Political Language of Islam'' (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1988), p. 72.</ref>
 
Scholar David Cook writes:
<blockquote>In reading Muslim literature -- both contemporary and classical -- one can see that the evidence for the primacy of spiritual jihad is negligible. Today it is certain that no Muslim, writing in a non-Western language (such as [[Arabic]], [[Persian language|Persian]], [[Urdu]]), would ever make claims that jihad is primarily nonviolent or has been superseded by the spiritual jihad. Such claims are made solely by Western scholars, primarily those who study [[Sufism]] and/or work in interfaith dialogue, and by Muslim apologists who are trying to present Islam in the most innocuous manner possible.<ref>Cook, David, ''Understanding Jihad,'' University of California Press, 2005, p.165-6</ref></blockquote>
 
And according to Douglas Streusand, "in hadith collections, jihad means armed action; for example, the 199 references to jihad in the most standard collection of hadith, Sahih al-Bukhari, all assume that jihad means warfare."<ref>Muhammad ibn Isma'il Bukhari, ''The Translation of the Meaning of Sahih al-Bukhari'', trans. Muhammad Muhsin Khan, 8 vols. (Medina: Dar al-Fikr: 1981), 4:34-204. Quoted in
[http://www.meforum.org/article/357 Douglas Streusand, `What Does Jihad Mean?`] ''Middle East Quarterly'', September 1997.</ref>
 
Some fundamentalist Muslim traditionalists see that the world is divided into two houses: the House of Islamic Peace ([[Dar al-Salam]]), in which Muslim governments rule and Muslim law prevails, and the House of War ([[Dar al-Harb]]), the rest of the world, still inhabited. The presumption is that by natural law these domains will compete and fighting is inevitable therefore the duty of jihad will continue, interrupted only by truces, until all the world either adopts the Muslim faith or submits to Muslim rule. Those who fight in the jihad qualify for rewards in both worlds &mdash; treasure in this one, paradise in the next. For most of the recorded history of Islam, from the lifetime of the Prophet [[Muhammad]] onward, the word jihad was used in a primarily military sense.<ref>Lewis, Bernard, ''[[The Crisis of Islam]]'', 2001 Chapter 2</ref>
 
Nevertheless, the hadith is there, and the fact remains that ideas regarding which hadith are to be considered "controversial" are more often than not based upon the preconceived ideology of certain factions rather than the consensus of the [[ummah]], or even historical or theological exegesis. Furthermore, all of the greatest saints ([[wali]]) of Islam and the majority of the ummah have supported Muhammad's interpretation of jihad according to this hadith, as well as that of the [[Qur'an]] itself, as being critical to daily religious practice in which the believer is urged to engage in struggle (jihad) within oneself ([[nafs]]) against the incessant promptings of the evil one.<ref>Muhaiyaddeen, M. R. Bawa: ''Islam & World Peace: Explanations of a Sufi'' Fellowship Press, Philadelphia 1987</ref>
 
A number of Islamic scholars have distinguished jihad, as legitimate struggle, from [[fasad]], as illegitimate violence and troublemaking, and argue that [[terrorism]] should be called fasad, not jihad.
 
== జిహాద్ చరిత్ర ==
<br />
===మూలాలు===
The beginnings of Jihad are traced back to the words and actions of Muhammad and the Qu’ran.<ref name="autogenerated1">Rudolph Peters, Jihād (The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World); http://www.oxfordislamicstudies/MainSearch.html{{Dead link|date=జనవరి 2020 |bot=InternetArchiveBot |fix-attempted=yes }} (accessed February 17, 2008)</ref> This word of [[Allah]] explicitly encourages the use of Jihad against the unbelievers.<ref name="autogenerated4">Jonathon P. Berkey, The Formation of Islam; Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, 2003</ref> [[Sura]] 25, verse 52 states: “Therefore, do not obey the disbelievers, and strive against them with this, a great striving.”<ref>{{Cite web |url=http://www.submission.org/suras/sura25.html |title=ఆర్కైవ్ నకలు |website= |access-date=2009-03-03 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20100107023807/http://www.submission.org/suras/sura25.html |archive-date=2010-01-07 |url-status=dead }}</ref> It was, therefore, the duty of all Muslims to strive against those who did not believe in [[Allah]] and took offensive action against Muslims. The Qu’ran, however, never uses the term Jihad for fighting and combat in the name of Allah; qital is used to mean “fighting.” The struggle for Jihad in the Qu’ran was originally intended for the nearby neighbors of the Muslims, but as time passed and more enemies arose, the Qu’ranic statements supporting Jihad were updated for the new adversaries<ref name="autogenerated4" />. The first documentation of the law of Jihad was written by ‘Abd al-Rahman al-Awza’i and [[Muhammad ibn al-Hasan al-Shaybani]]. The document grew out of debates that had surfaced ever since Muhammad's death.<ref name="autogenerated1" />
 
===ప్రారంభంలో జిహాద్ ఉదాహరణలు===
The first forms of military Jihad occurred after the migration ([[Hijra (Islam)|hijra]]) of Muhammad and his small group of followers to [[Medina]] from [[Mecca]] and the conversion of several inhabitants of the city to Islam. The first revelation concerning the struggle against the Meccans was surah 22, verses 39-40:<ref>William M. Watt: ''Muhammad at Medina'', p.4; q.v. the [[Tafsir]] regarding these verses</ref>
{{cquote|To those against whom war is made, permission is given (to fight), because they are wronged;- and verily, Allah is most powerful for their aid. (They are) those who have been expelled from their homes in defiance of right,- (for no cause) except that they say, "our Lord is Allah". Did not Allah check one set of people by means of another, there would surely have been pulled down monasteries, churches, synagogues, and mosques, in which the name of Allah is commemorated in abundant measure. Allah will certainly aid those who aid his (cause);- for verily Allah is full of Strength, Exalted in Might, (able to enforce His Will).|4=Abdullah Yusuf Ali}}
 
There were several reasons for Muhammad and his followers to fight the Meccans:<ref>Adel Th. Khoury: ''Was sagt der Koran zum Heiligen Krieg?'', pp.89-107</ref>
For one, Muslims were defending themselves against the Meccans' attack.
According to this surah 2, verse 190 was revealed:
{{cquote|Fight in the cause of Allah those who fight you, but do not transgress limits; for Allah loveth not transgressors.|4=Abdullah Yusuf Ali}}
The Muslims had - at least partially - provoked the Meccans to attack them by robbing the goods of their [[caravan]]s.<ref>William M. Watt: ''Muhammad at Medina'', p.4; William M. Watt: ''Kurze Geschichte des Islam'', p.81; Albrecht Noth: ''Früher Islam''. In: Ulrich Haarmann: ''Geschichte der arabischen Welt'', p.37; Rudi Paret: ''Der Koran. Kommentar und Konkordanz'', 22:39</ref>
However, this was inevitable, for the Emigrants (the Muslims who had fled from Mecca to [[Yathrib]]/Medina) had lost all of their goods because of the Meccans and needed a livelihood.<ref name="autogenerated3">Rudi Paret: ''Mohammed und der Koran. Geschichte und Verkündung des arabischen Propheten'', p.128</ref> They robbed goods from Meccan caravans, which was considered justified at that time.<ref name="autogenerated3" />
 
At this time, Muslims had been persecuted and oppressed by the Meccans.<ref>Adel Th. Khoury: ''Was sagt der Koran zum Heiligen Krieg?'', p.91</ref> There were still Muslims who couldn't flee from Mecca and were still oppressed because of their faith. Surah 4, verse 75 is referring to this fact:
{{cquote|And why should ye not fight in the cause of Allah and of those who, being weak, are ill-treated (and oppressed)?- Men, women, and children, whose cry is: "Our Lord! Rescue us from this town, whose people are oppressors; and raise for us from thee one who will protect; and raise for us from thee one who will help!|4=Abdullah Yusuf Ali}}
The Meccans also refused to let the Muslims enter Mecca and by that denied them access to the[[Ka'aba]]. Surah 8, verse 34:
{{cquote|But what plea have they that Allah should not punish them, when they keep out (men) from the sacred Mosque - and they are not its guardians? No men can be its guardians except the righteous; but most of them do not understand.|4=Abdullah Yusuf Ali}}
 
The main focus of Muhammad’s later years was increasing the number of allies as well as the amount of territory under Muslim control.<ref name="autogenerated2">David Cook, Understanding Jihad; University of California Press: CA, 2005</ref> The Qu’ran is unclear as to whether Jihad is acceptable only in defense of the faith from wrong-doings or in all cases.<ref name="autogenerated1" />
 
Major battles in the history of Islam arose between the Meccans and the Muslims; one of the most important to the latter was the [[Battle of Badr]] in 624 AD.<ref name="autogenerated2" /> This Muslim victory over [[polytheists]] showed “demonstration of divine guidance and intervention on behalf of Muslims, even when outnumbered.”<ref>The Oxford Dictionary of Islam, Badr, Battle of; http://oxfordislamicstudies.com/MainSearch.html (accessed February 17, 2008)</ref> Other early battles included battles in [[Uhud]] (625), [[Khandaq]] (627), [[Mecca]] (630) and [[Hunayn]] (630). These battles, especially [[Uhud]] and [[Khandaq]], were unsuccessful in comparison to the [[Battle of Badr]].<ref name="autogenerated2" />. In relating this battle, the Qu’ran states that Allah sent an “unseen army of [[angels]]” that helped the Muslims defeat the Meccans.<ref>John L. Esposito, Islam, the Straight Path; Oxford University Press: New York,2005</ref>
 
===జిహాద్ మరియు క్రూసేడులు===
The European [[crusaders]] conquered much of the territory held within the Islamic state, dividing it into four kingdoms, the most important being the state of [[Jerusalem]]. The Crusades originally had the goal of recapturing Jerusalem and the [[Holy Land]] (former [[Christian]] territory) from Muslim rule and were originally launched in response to a call from the [[Eastern Orthodox]] [[Byzantine Empire]] for help against the expansion of the Muslim [[Seljuk Turks]] into [[Anatolia]]. There was little drive to retake the lands from the crusaders, save the few attacks made by the [[Egypt]]ian [[Fatimids]]. This changed, however, with the coming of [[Zangi]], ruler of what is today northern [[Iraq]]. He took [[Edessa]], which triggered the [[Second Crusade]], which was little more than a 47-year stalemate. The stalemate was ended with the victory of [[Saladin|Salah al-Din al-Ayyubi]] (known in the west as Saladin) over the forces of Jerusalem at the [[Horns of Hattin]] in 1187. It was during the course of the stalemate that a great deal of literature regarding Jihad was written.<ref name="autogenerated2" /> While amassing his armies in [[Syria]], Saladin had to create a doctrine which would unite his forces and make them fight until the bitter end, which would be the only way they could re-conquer the lands taken in the [[First Crusade]]. He did this through the creation of Jihad [[propaganda]]. It stated that any one who would abandon the Jihad would be committing a [[sin]] that could not be washed away by any means. It also put his [[amirs]] at the center of power, just under his rule. While this propaganda was successful in uniting his forces for a time, the fervor burned out quickly. Much of Saladin's teachings were rejected after his death.<ref>Richard P. Bonney, Jihad: From Qu'ran to Bin Laden; Palgrave Macmillan: Hampshire, 2004</ref>
 
===ఇస్లామీయ స్పెయిన్ మరియు పోర్చుగల్===
[[Spain in the Middle Ages|Medieval Spain]] was the scene of almost constant [[warfare]] between Muslims and Christians. Periodic raiding expeditions were sent from [[Al-Andalus]] to ravage the Christian [[Iberia]]n kingdoms, bringing back treasure and [[slave]]s. In raid against [[Lisbon]] in 1189, for example, the [[Almohad]] caliph [[Yaqub al-Mansur]] took 3,000 female and child captives, while his governor of [[Córdoba, Spain|Córdoba]], in a subsequent attack upon [[Silves]] in 1191, took 3,000 Christian slaves.<ref>[http://libro.uca.edu/rc/rc1.htm Ransoming Captives in Crusader Spain: The Order of Merced on the Christian-Islamic Frontier]</ref>
 
The [[Almohad Dynasty]] (From [[Arabic]] الموحدون ''[[Al-Muwahhidūn|al-Muwahhidun]]'', i.e. "[[monotheist|the monotheists]]" or "the [[Wahhabism|Unitarians]]"), was a [[Berber people|Berber]], Muslim dynasty that was founded in the 12th century, and conquered all [[Northern Africa]] as far as [[Libya]], together with [[Al-Andalus]] ([[Moors|Moorish]] [[Iberian peninsula|Spain]]). The Almohads, who declared an everlasting Jihad against the Christians, far surpassed the [[Almoravides]] in fundamentalist outlook, and they treated the ''dhimmis'' harshly.<ref>{{Cite web |url=http://www.myjewishlearning.com/history_community/Medieval/IntergroupTO/JewishMuslim/Almohads.htm |title=The Almohads |website= |access-date=2009-03-03 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20090213223723/http://www.myjewishlearning.com/history_community/Medieval/IntergroupTO/JewishMuslim/Almohads.htm |archive-date=2009-02-13 |url-status=dead }}</ref> Faced with the choice of either death or conversion, many [[Jew]]s and Christians emigrated.<ref name=frank>Frank and Leaman, 2003, p. 137-138.</ref><ref>{{Cite web |url=http://www.theforgottenrefugees.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=66&Itemid=39 |title=The Forgotten Refugees |website= |access-date=2009-03-03 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20070928051923/http://www.theforgottenrefugees.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=66&Itemid=39 |archive-date=2007-09-28 |url-status=dead }}</ref> Some, such as the family of [[Maimonides]], fled east to more tolerant Muslim lands,<ref name=frank/> while others went northward to settle in the growing Christian kingdoms.<ref>[http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Judaism/Sephardim.html Sephardim]</ref><ref>Kraemer, 2005, pp. 16-17.</ref>
 
===భారత ఉపఖండం===
[[Sir Jadunath Sarkar]] contends that several Muslim invaders were waging a systematic Jihad against [[Hindu]]s in [[India]] to the effect that "Every device short of massacre in cold blood was resorted to in order to convert heathen subjects."<ref>{{cite book |last=Sarkar |first= Jadunath |authorlink=Jadunath Sarkar |title=How the Muslims forcibly converted the Hindus of India, Pakistan and Bangladesh to Islam }}</ref> In particular the records kept by al-Utbi, [[Mahmud Ghazni|Mahmud al-Ghazni]]'s secretary, in the Tarikh-i-Yamini document several episodes of bloody military campaigns. In 1527, [[Babur]] ordered a Jihad against [[Rajput]]s at the [[battle of Khanwa]]. Publicly addressing his men, he declared the forthcoming battle a Jihad. His soldiers were facing a non-Muslim army for the first time ever. This, he said, was their chance to become either a ''Ghazi'' (soldier of Islam) or a ''Shaheed'' (Martyr of Islam). The [[Mughal Empire|Mughal]] emperor [[Aurangzeb]] waged a Jihad against those identified as heterodox within India's Islamic community, such as [[Shi'a]] Muslims.<ref>[http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1G1-98572377.html The Shade of Swords Jihad and the Conflict between Islam and Christianity M. J. Akbar]</ref><ref>K. S. Lal: ''[[Growth of Muslim Population in Medieval India]]'', 1973</ref>
 
===తైమూర్ లంగ్===
[[తైమూర్ లంగ్]], 14వ శతాబ్దానికి చెందిన ''టర్కో-మంగోల్'' దండయాత్రలు చేపట్టిన వాడు. పశ్చిమ మరియు మధ్యాసియా ప్రాంతాలను జయించాడు. ఇతను తనకు తాను "గాజీ" (పవిత్రయుద్ధం చేసేవాడు) అని ప్రకటించుకున్నాడు. కానీ ఇతను కేవలం తన రాజ్యకాంక్షను పూర్ణం చేసుకొనుటకు [[చెంగిజ్ ఖాన్]] లా ఘోరమైన దండయాత్రలు చేపట్టాడు. ఇతను దండయాత్రలు చేపట్టిన రాజ్యాలు దాదాపు ముస్లింల రాజ్యాలే. అయిననూ ఇతను తన దండయాత్రలకు జిహాద్ అనే పేరు పెట్టుకుని ముస్లింలనే మట్టుబెట్టే మారణహోమం సృష్టించాడు.<ref>[http://arts.independent.co.uk/books/reviews/article24043.ece Tamerlane: Sword of Islam, Conqueror of the World, by Justin Marozzi]{{Dead link|date=జనవరి 2020 |bot=InternetArchiveBot |fix-attempted=yes }}</ref>
 
<br />
=== ఫూలాని జిహాద్‌లు ===
The Fula or [[Fula jihads|Fulani jihads]], were a series of independent but loosely connected events across [[West Africa]] between the late 17th century and [[European colonization]], in which Muslim [[Fula]]s took control of various parts of the region.<ref>[http://www.britannica.com/eb/topic-620352/Usman-dan-Fodio Usman dan Fodio (Fulani leader)]</ref> Between 1750 and 1900, between one- to two-thirds of the entire population of the Fulani jihad states consisted of slaves.<ref>[http://www.britannica.com/blackhistory/article-24157 Welcome to Encyclopædia Britannica's Guide to Black History]</ref>
 
===కాకసస్===
In 1784, Imam [[Sheikh Mansur]], a [[Chechen people|Chechen]] warrior and [[Islamic mysticism|Muslim mystic]], led a coalition of Muslim [[Peoples of the Caucasus|Caucasian tribes]] from throughout the [[Caucasus]] in a ghazavat, or holy war, against the [[Russia]]n invaders.<ref>{{Cite web |url=http://www.islamicsupremecouncil.org/bin/site/wrappers/spirituality-sufism_caucasus.html |title=Sufism in the Caucasus |website= |access-date=2009-03-03 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20090223235641/http://www.islamicsupremecouncil.org/bin/site/wrappers/spirituality-sufism_caucasus.html |archive-date=2009-02-23 |url-status=dead }}</ref> Sheikh Mansur was captured in 1791 and died in the Schlusselburg Fortress. [[Caucasian Avars|Avarian]] Islamic scholar [[Ghazi Muhammad]] preached that Jihad would not occur until the Caucasians followed [[Sharia]] completely rather than following a mixture of Islamic laws and ''adat'' (customary traditions). By 1829, Mullah began proselytizing and claiming that obeying Sharia, giving [[zakat]], prayer, and [[hajj]] would not be accepted by Allah if the [[Russian people|Russians]] were still present in the area. He even went on to claim that marriages would become void and children bastards if any Russians were still in the Caucasus. In 1829 he was proclaimed [[imam]] in [[Ghimry]], where he formally made the call for a holy war. In 1834, Ghazi Muhammad died at the battle of Ghimri, and [[Imam Shamil]] took his place as the premier leader of the Caucasian resistance. Imam Shamil succeeded in accomplishing what Sheik Mansur had started: to unite North Caucasian highlanders in their struggle against the [[Russian Empire]]. He was a leader of anti-Russian resistance in the [[Caucasian War]] and was the third [[Imam]] of [[Dagestan]] and [[Chechnya]] (1834-1859).<ref>[http://www.angelfire.com/rnb/bashiri/CentAsia/Shamil.html Imam Shamil of Dagestan]</ref><ref>[http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe/5095926.stm Tough lessons in defiant Dagestan]</ref>
 
===సూడాన్ లో మహదీలు===
During the 1870s, European initiatives against the [[slave trade]] caused an economic crisis in northern [[Sudan]], precipitating the rise of [[Mahdist]] forces.<ref>[http://www.american.edu/ted/ice/sudan.htm Civil War in the Sudan: Resources or Religion?]</ref><ref>[http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1G1-20649477.html Slave trade in the Sudan in the nineteenth century and its suppression in the years 1877-80.]</ref> [[Muhammad Ahmad|Muhammad Ahmed Al Mahdi]] was a religious leader, who proclaimed himself the [[Mahdi]] - the prophesied redeemer of Islam who will appear at [[end times]] - in 1881, and declared a Jihad against [[Ottoman]] rulers. He declared all "[[Turkish people|Turks]]" infidels and called for their [[execution]].<ref>Holt, P.M., ''The Mahdist State in Sudan,'' Clarendon Press, Oxford 1958, p.51</ref> The Mahdi raised an army and led a successful religious war to topple the [[Ottoman Empire|Ottoman]]-[[Egypt]]ian occupation of Sudan. Victory created an Islamic state, one that quickly reinstituted slavery. In the West he is most famous for defeating and later killing [[Great Britain|British]] general [[Charles George Gordon]], in the [[battle of Khartoum|fall of Khartoum]].<ref>[https://archive.is/20120630181108/lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/sdtoc.html US Library of Congress, A Country Study: Sudan]</ref>
 
===వహాబీలు===
The [[First Saudi State|Saudi]] [[Salafi]] sheiks were convinced that it was their religious mission to wage Jihad against all other forms of Islam. In 1801 and 1802, the Saudi Wahhabists under [[Abdul Aziz ibn Muhammad ibn Saud]] attacked and captured the holy [[Shia]] cities of [[Karbala]] and [[Najaf]] in [[Iraq]], massacred the Shiites and destroyed the tombs of the Shiite [[Husayn ibn Ali|Imam Husayn]] and [[Ali bin Abu Talib]]. In 1802 they occupied [[Taif]] where they massacred the population. In 1803 and 1804 the Wahhabis captured Mecca and Medina, destroying monuments and various holy Muslim sites and shrines, such as the shrine built over the tomb of [[Fatima Zahra]], the daughter of Muhammad, and even intended to destroy the grave of Muhammad himself.<ref>[http://www.islamicamagazine.com/Issue-15/The-Destruction-of-Holy-Sites-in-Mecca-and-Medina.html The Destruction of Holy Sites in Mecca and Medina]</ref><ref>[http://countrystudies.us/saudi-arabia/7.htm Saudi Arabia - THE SAUD FAMILY AND WAHHABI ISLAM]</ref><ref>Nibras Kazimi, [http://www.nysun.com/article/65662?page_no=3 A Paladin Gears Up for War], [[The New York Sun]], November 1, 2007</ref><ref>John R Bradley, [http://www.atimes.com/atimes/Middle_East/GC17Ak01.html Saudi's Shi'ites walk tightrope], [[Asia Times]], March 17, 2005</ref><ref>Amir Taheri, [http://www.timesonline.co.uk/article/0,,1072-1236007,00.html Death is big business in Najaf, but Iraq's future depends on who controls it], [[The Times]], August 28, 2004</ref>
 
===ఉస్మానియా సామ్రాజ్యం===
Upon succeeding his father, [[Suleiman the Magnificent]] began a series of [[Ottoman wars in Europe|military conquests in Europe]].<ref>[http://www-personal.umich.edu/~sarhaus/larimore02/suleiman.html Life Span of Suleiman The Magnificent, 1494-1566]</ref> On August 29, 1526, he defeated [[Louis II of Hungary]] (1516–26) at the [[battle of Mohács]]. In its wake, Hungarian resistance collapsed and the [[Ottoman Empire]] became the preeminent power in Central and Eastern Europe.<ref>Kinross, 187.</ref> In July 1683 Sultan [[Mehmet IV]] proclaimed a Jihad and the Turkish grand vizier, [[Kara Mustafa Pasha]], laid [[Battle of Vienna|siege to the Vienna]] with an army of 138,000 men.<ref>[http://www.americanthinker.com/2005/10/ottoman_dhimmitude.html Ottoman Dhimmitude]</ref><ref>[http://coursesa.matrix.msu.edu/~fisher/hst373/readings/inalcik6.html Supply of Slaves]</ref><ref>[http://www.americanthinker.com/2005/04/the_living_legacy_of_jihad_sla.html The living legacy of jihad slavery]</ref>
 
On November 14, 1914, in [[Constantinople]], capital of the [[Ottoman Empire]], the religious leader [[Sheikh-ul-Islam]] declares Jihad on behalf of the Ottoman government, urging Muslims all over the world - including in the [[Allies of World War I|Allied]] countries - to take up arms against Britain, Russia, [[France]] and [[Serbia and Montenegro]] in [[World War I]].<ref>[http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/worldwars/wwone/middle_east_01.shtml The Middle East during World War One]</ref> On the other hand, [[Sheikh]] [[Hussein ibn Ali]], the [[Emir]] of [[Mecca]], refused to accommodate Ottoman requests that he endorse this jihad, a requirement that was necessary were a jihad to become popular, on the grounds that:<blockquote>'the Holy War was doctrinally incompatible with an aggressive war, and absurd with a Christian ally: [[Germany]]'<ref>[[T. E. Lawrence]], ''The Seven Pillars of Wisdom'', Jonathan Cape, London (1926) 1954 p. 49.</ref></blockquote>
 
===ఆఫ్ఘనిస్తాన్===
[[Ahmad Shah Durrani|Ahmad Shah]], founder of the [[Durrani Empire]], declared a jihad against the [[Maratha]]s, and warriors from various [[Pashtun people|Pashtun]] tribes, as well as other tribes answered his call. The [[Third battle of Panipat]] (January 1761), fought between largely [[Islam|Muslim]] and largely [[Hinduism|Hindu]] armies who numbered as many as 100,000 troops each, was waged along a twelve-kilometre front, and resulted in a decisive victory for Ahmad Shah.<ref>for a detailed account of the battle fought see Chapter VI of The Fall of the Moghul Empire of Hindustan by H.G. Keene. Available online at [http://emotional-literacy-education.com/classic-books-online-a/tfmeh10.htm] {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110710191356/http://emotional-literacy-education.com/classic-books-online-a/tfmeh10.htm |date=2011-07-10 }}</ref>
 
In response to the [[Hazara people|Hazara]] uprising of 1892, the Afghan Emir [[Abdur Rahman]] declared a "Jihad" against the [[Shiites]]. The large army defeated the rebellion at its center, in [[Oruzgan]], by 1892 and the local population was severely massacred. According to S. A. Mousavi, ''"thousands of Hazara men, women, and children were sold as slaves in the markets of Kabul and Qandahar, while numerous towers of human heads were made from the defeated rebels as a warning to others who might challenge the rule of the Amir"''. Until the 20th century, some Hazaras were still kept as slaves by the [[Pashtun]]s; although [[Amanullah Khan]] banned [[slavery]] in Afghanistan during his reign,<ref>[http://www.afghangovernment.com/Constitution1923.htm Afghan Constitution: 1923]</ref> the tradition carried on unofficially for many more years.<ref>{{Cite web |url=http://www.afghanmagazine.com/2004_06/articles/hsadat.shtml |title=Afghan History: kite flying, kite running and kite banning By Mir Hekmatullah Sadat |website= |access-date=2009-03-03 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110613114859/http://www.afghanmagazine.com/2004_06/articles/hsadat.shtml |archive-date=2011-06-13 |url-status=dead }}</ref>
 
The [[First Anglo-Afghan War]] (1838–42) was one of Britain’s most ill-advised and disastrous wars. [[William Brydon]] was the sole survivor of the invading British army of 16,500 soldiers and civilians.<ref>[http://www.britishbattles.com/first-afghan-war/kabul-gandamak.htm First Afghan War - Battle of Kabul and Retreat to Gandamak]</ref> As in the earlier [[Invasions of Afghanistan|wars against the British]] and [[Soviet war in Afghanistan|Soviets]], Afghan resistance to the [[Invasions of Afghanistan#American invasion|American invaders]] took the traditional form of a Muslim holy war against the infidels.<ref>[http://www.canada.com/edmontonjournal/news/opinion/story.html?id=1db342f6-7872-4c39-8410-81ad3a916908&k=25970 Reason to hope Canadians don't repeat history in Afghanistan], Alan G. Jamieson, The Edmonton Journal, July 31 2006</ref> During September 2002, the remnants of the [[Taliban]] forces began a recruitment drive in [[Pashtun people|Pashtun]] areas in both [[Afghanistan]] and [[Pakistan]] to launch a renewed "jihad" or holy war against the pro-Western Afghan government and the U.S-led coalition. [[Pamphlet]]s distributed in secret during the night also began to appear in many villages in the former Taliban heartland in southeastern Afghanistan that called for jihad.<ref>{{cite web|title= Leaflet War Rages in Afghan Countryside|author=|publisher=[[Associated Press]]|date=2003-02-14|url=http://www.intellnet.org/news/2003/02/14/16788-1.html|accessdate=2007-02-28}}</ref> Small mobile training camps were established along the border with Pakistan by al-Qaeda and Taliban fugitives to train new recruits in [[guerrilla warfare]] and [[terrorism|terrorist tactics]], according to Afghan sources and a United Nations report.<ref>{{cite web|title=Taliban regroups - on the road|author=Tohid, Owias|publisher=[[Christian Science Monitor]]|date=2003-06-27|url=http://www.csmonitor.com/2003/0627/p06s01-wosc.html?related |accessdate=2007-02-28}}</ref>
 
Most of the new recruits were drawn from the [[madrassa]]s or religious schools of the tribal areas of Pakistan, from which the Taliban had originally arisen. As of 2008, the [[insurgency]], in the form of a [[War in Afghanistan (2001–present)|Taliban guerrilla war]], continues.
 
Alhough there is no evidence that the [[Central Intelligence Agency|CIA]] directly supported the Taliban or [[Al Qaeda]], some basis for military support of the Taliban was provided when, in the early 1980s, the CIA and the ISI (Pakistan's Interservices Intelligence Agency) provided arms to [[Mujahideen#Afghanistan|Afghan mujahideens]] resisting the [[Soviet invasion of Afghanistan]],<ref>[http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9C0DE3DC1438F93BA25750C0A9649C8B63&sec=&spon=&pagewanted=2 Turning Out Guerrillas and Terrorists to Wage a Holy War], New York Times, March 18, 2002</ref> and the ISI assisted the process of gathering radical Muslims from around the world to fight against the Soviets. [[Osama Bin Laden]] was one of the key players in organizing training camps for the foreign Muslim volunteers. The U.S. poured funds and arms into Afghanistan, and "by 1987, 65,000 tons of U.S.-made weapons and ammunition a year were entering the war."<ref>Rashid, ''Taliban'' (2000)</ref>
 
===అల్జీరియా===
In 1830, [[Algeria]] was [[French rule in Algeria|invaded by France]]; French [[colonialism|colonial]] domination over Algeria supplanted what had been domination in name only by the [[Ottoman Empire]]. Within two years, `[[Abd al-Qādir]] was made an ''amir'' and with the loyalty of a number of [[tribe]]s began a jihad against the French. He was effective at using [[guerrilla warfare]] and for a decade, up until 1842, scored many victories. He was noted for his [[chivalry]]. On December 21, 1847, Abd al-Qādir was forced to surrender.<ref>[http://www.country-data.com/cgi-bin/query/r-333.html Abd al Qadir], Library of Congress</ref>
 
[[Abd al-Qadir]] is recognized and venerated as the first hero of Algerian independence. Not without cause, his green and white standard was adopted by the Algerian liberation movement during the [[Algerian War|War of Independence]] and became the national flag of independent Algeria.
 
The [[Algerian Civil War]] (1991–2002) was an armed conflict between the [[Algeria]]n government and various [[Islamist]] rebel groups which began in 1991. By 1997, the organized jihad in Algeria had disintegrated into criminal thuggery and Algeria was wracked by [[List of Algerian massacres of the 1990s|massacres]] of intense brutality and unprecedented size.<ref>{{Cite web |url=http://www.nmhschool.org/tthornton/algeria.php |title=Algeria |website= |access-date=2009-03-03 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20080218155900/http://www.nmhschool.org/tthornton/algeria.php |archive-date=2008-02-18 |url-status=dead }}</ref><ref>[https://archive.is/20120709161111/findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m2501/is_3_23/ai_78804226/pg_1 Centrifugal Tendencies In The Algerian Civil War], Arab Studies Quarterly (ASQ)</ref>
 
== ముస్లిం సమూహాలలో జిహాద్ ==
===సున్నీ దృష్టికోణం===
{{see also|:en:Opinion of Islamic scholars on Jihad{{!}}జిహాద్ పట్ల ముస్లిం ధార్మికవేత్తల అభిప్రాయాలు}}
Jihad has been classified either as ''al-jihād al-akbar'' (the greater jihad), the struggle against one's soul (''[[nafs]]''), or ''al-jihād al-asghar'' (the lesser jihad), the external, physical effort, often implying fighting (this is similar to the shiite view of jihad as well).
 
[[Gibril Haddad]] has analyzed the basis for the belief that internal jihad is the "greater jihad", ''Jihad al-akbar''. Haddad identifies the primary historical basis for this belief in a pair of similarly worded [[hadith|hadeeth]], in which Mohammed is reported to have told warriors returning home that they had returned from the lesser jihad of struggle against non-Muslims to a greater jihad of struggle against lust. Although Haddad notes that the authenticity of both hadeeth is questionable, he nevertheless concludes that the underlying principle of superiority internal jihad does have a reliable basis in the Qur'an and other writings.<ref name="Haddad-LivingIslam">{{cite web|url=http://www.livingislam.org/n/dgjh_e.html |title=Documentation of "Greater Jihad" hadith |accessdate=|dateformat= mdy |accessdate= August 16 2006 |author= |last=Haddad |first=Gibril |authorlink=Gibril Haddad |coauthors= |date=2005-02-28 |year= |month= |format=HTML |work= |publisher=living Islam |pages= |language= |archiveurl= |archivedate=}}</ref><ref name="Haddad-SunniPath">{{cite web |url=http://www.sunnipath.com/resources/Questions/qa00002862.aspx |title=RE: Accusations on Shaykh Hamza Yusuf |accessdate=August 16 2006 |dateformat=mdy |author= |last=Haddad |first=Gibril |authorlink=Gibril Haddad |coauthors= |date= |year= |month= |format=HTML |work= |publisher=sunnipath.com |pages= |language= |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20060725001826/http://www.sunnipath.com/resources/Questions/qa00002862.aspx |archivedate=2006-07-25 |url-status=dead }}]</ref><!--Note: In my opinion, Gibril meets reliable source standards because he's a published Islamic translator and scholar, writing within the area of his expertise-TheronJ-->
 
On the other hand, the [[Hanbali]] scholar [[Ibn Qayyim Al-Jawziyya]] did believe that "internal Jihad" is important<ref>{{Cite web |url=http://www.abc.se/~m9783/n/dgjh_e.html |title=Documentation of "Greater Jihad" hadith<!-- Bot generated title --> |website= |access-date=2009-03-03 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20051113235503/http://www.abc.se/~m9783/n/dgjh_e.html |archive-date=2005-11-13 |url-status=dead }}</ref> but he suggests those [[hadith]] as weak which consider "Jihad of the heart/soul" to be more important than "Jihad by the sword".<ref>[http://www.peacewithrealism.org/jihad/jihad03.htm ''Jihad'' in the ''Hadith''], ''Peace with Realism'', April 16, 2006</ref> Contemporary Islamic scholar [[Abdullah Yusuf Azzam]] has argued the hadith is not just weak but "is in fact a false, fabricated hadith which has no basis. It is only a saying of Ibrahim Ibn Abi `Abalah, one of the Successors, and it contradicts textual evidence and reality."<ref>[http://www.religioscope.com/info/doc/jihad/azzam_caravan_6_conclusion.htm JOIN THE CARAVAN]</ref>
 
Muslim jurists explained there are four kinds of ''jihad fi sabilillah'' (struggle in the cause of God):<ref name>Majid Khadduri: ''War and Peace in the Law of Islam'', p.56</ref>
 
* '''Jihad of the heart''' ''(jihad bil qalb/nafs)'' is concerned with combatting [[the devil]] and in the attempt to escape his persuasion to evil. This type of Jihad was regarded as the greater jihad (''al-jihad al-akbar'').
* '''Jihad by the tongue''' ''(jihad bil lisan)'' is concerned with speaking the truth and spreading the word of Islam with one's tongue.
* '''Jihad by the hand''' ''(jihad bil yad)'' refers to choosing to do what is right and to combat injustice and what is wrong with action.
* '''Jihad by the sword''' ''(jihad bis saif)'' refers to ''qital fi sabilillah'' (armed fighting in the way of God, or holy war), the most common usage by [[Salafi]] Muslims and offshoots of the [[Muslim Brotherhood]].
 
Some contemporary Islamists have succeeded in replacing the greater jihad, the fight against desires, with the lesser jihad, the holy war to establish, defend and extend the Islamic state.<ref>{{Cite web |url=http://www.hoover.org/publications/policyreview/3431076.html |title=''Understanding Jihad'', February, 2005 |website= |access-date=2009-03-03 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20081206092016/http://www.hoover.org/publications/policyreview/3431076.html |archive-date=2008-12-06 |url-status=dead }}</ref>
 
===సూఫీల దృష్టికోణం===
The Sufic view classifies "Jihad" into two; the "[[Greater Jihad]]" and the "[[Lesser Jihad]]". Muhammad put the emphasis on the "greater Jihad" by saying that "Holy is the warrior who is at war with himself". In this sense external wars and strife are seen but a satanic counterfeit of the true "jihad" which can only be fought and won within; no other Salvation existing can save man without the efforts of the man himself being added to the work involved of self-refinement. In this sense it is the western view of the [[Holy Grail]] which comes closest to the Sufic ideal; for to the Sufis Perfection is the Grail; and the Holy Grail is for those who after they become perfect by giving all they have to the poor then go on to become "Abdal" or "changed ones" like Enoch who was "taken" by God because he "walked with God". ([[Genesis]]:5:24) here the "Holy Ones" gain the surname "Hadrat" or "The Presence".
 
==జిహాద్ మరియు యుద్ధం==
{{seealso|:en:Offensive jihad|Defensive jihad|Ghazw|Opinion of Islamic scholars on Jihad|ఇత్మామ్ అల్-హుజ్జా}}
The Qur’an asserts that if the use of force would not have been allowed in curbing the evils by nations, the disruption and disorder caused by insurgent nations could have reached the extent that the places of worship would have become deserted and forsaken. As it states:
{{cquote|And had it not been that Allah checks one set of people with another, the monasteries and churches, the [[synagogue]]s and the [[mosque]]s, in which His praise is abundantly celebrated would have been utterly destroyed.|4=[[Qur'an]]}}
 
[[:en:Javed Ahmed Ghamidi|జావేద్ అహ్మద్ గమీది]] divides just warfare into two types:
# Against injustice and oppression
# Against the rejecters of truth after it has become evident to them
 
The first type of Jihad is generally considered eternal, but Ghamidi holds that the second is specific to people who were selected by God for delivering the truth as an obligation. They are called witnesses of the truth (Arabic:'''{{lang|ar|شهادة}}''', see also [[Itmam al-hujjah]]); the implication being that they bear witness to the truth before other people in such a complete and ultimate manner that no one is left with an excuse to deny the truth.<ref name="jihad" /> There is a dispute among Islamic jurists as to whether the act of being "witness" was only for the [[Sahaba|Companions]] of Muhammad or whether this responsibility is still being held by modern Muslims, which may entitle them to take actions to subdue other Non-Muslim nations. Proponents of [[Sahaba|Companions]] of Muhammad as being "the witness" translate the following verse only for the Companions<ref name="jihad" /> while others translate it for the whole [[Ummah|Muslim nation]].<ref>[[Sayyid Abul Ala Maududi]], [[The Meaning of the Qur'an (tafsir)]], commentary on verse 2:143.[http://www.translatedquran.com/meaning.asp?sno=2&tno=79] {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20090114020324/http://www.translatedquran.com/meaning.asp?sno=2&tno=79 |date=2009-01-14 }}</ref> As in Qur'an:
{{వ్యాఖ్య|And similarly [O [[Sahaba|Companions]] of the [[Muhammad|Prophet]]!] We have made you an intermediate group<ref>This means that this group stands between Muhammad and the rest of the world who were able to observe the whole process of ''witnessing''</ref> so that you be witnesses [to this religion] before the nations, and the Messenger be such a witness before you.|[[ఖురాన్]]}}
 
Similarly, proponents of Companions of Muhammad as being "the witness" present following verse to argue that the Companions were chosen people as witnesses just as God chooses Messengers from mankind. As in Qur'an:<ref name="jihad" />
{{వ్యాఖ్య|He has chosen you, and has imposed no difficulties on you in religion; it is the religion of your father Abraham. It is He Who has named you Muslims, both before and in this [Qur’an]: [He chose you so that] the Messenger may be a witness [of this religion] to you, and you be witnesses of this religion to non-Muslims [of your times].|[[Qur'an]]|{{Quran-usc|22|78}}||}}
 
Following is the first verse of the Qur’an in which the Companions of Muhammad, who had migrated from Mecca, were given permission to fight back if they were attacked:<ref name="jihad" />
{{వ్యాఖ్య|Permission to take up arms is hereby given to those who are attacked because they have been oppressed – Allah indeed has power to grant them victory – those who have been unjustly driven from their homes, only because they said: “Our Lord is Allah”.|[[Qur'an]]|{{Quran-usc-range|22|39|40}}||}}
 
The reason for this directive in Medina instead of Mecca considered by most Muslim scholars is that without political authority armed offensives become tantamount to spreading disorder and anarchy in the society. As one of Islamic jurist writes:
{{వ్యాఖ్య|Among ''Kafayah'' obligations, the third category is that for which the existence of a ruler is necessary e.g., ''Jihad'' and execution of punishments. Therefore, only a ruler has this prerogative. Because, indeed, no one else has the right to punish another person.|Sayyid Sabiq|Fiqhu’l-Sunnah, 2nd ed., vol. 3, (Beirut: Daru’l-Fikr, 1980), p. 30}}
===ఆత్మరక్షణ పోరాటం===
ఆత్మ రక్షణ పోరాటం (Defensive Jihad) అనే పద జాలం ప్రస్తుతం అమెరికా సామ్రాజ్యవాదానికి వ్యతిరేకంగా జరుగుతున్న ఇస్లామిక్ ఉద్యమాల విషయంలో ఉపయొగించడం కనిపిస్తోంది. ఆత్మ రక్షణ పోరాటంలో పాల్గొనే సంస్థలలో [[లెబనాన్]] దేశానికి చెందిన [[హిజ్బుల్లాహ్]] ఒకటి. అరబ్బీ భాష జిహాద్ అంటే పోరాటం అని అర్థం. ఖురాన్ లో కూడా ఆత్మ రక్షణ పోరాటం గురించి నిర్వచించడం జరిగింది. ఖురాన్ నిర్వచనంలో జిహాద్ అంటే ఉనికి (అస్తిత్వం) కోసం పోరాటం.<ref>*‍[http://www.religioscope.com/info/doc/jihad/azzam_defence_3_chap1.htm ముస్లిం దేశాల పరిరక్షణ]</ref>
 
=== యుద్ధ నియమాలు ===
The directive of the Jihad given to Muslims in Qur'an is:<ref name="jihad" />
 
These verses told Muslims that they should not merely fight the [[Banu Quraish]] if they resist them in offering [[Hajj]], but the Qur’an goes on to say that they should continue to fight them until persecution is uprooted and Islam prevails in the whole of [[Arabia]]. Initially Muslims were required to fulfill this responsibility even if the enemy was 10 times stronger. Afterwards, the Qur'an reduced the burden of this responsibility.<ref name="jihad" /> As in Qur'an:
{{quote|Prophet! Rouse the believers to wage war. If there are twenty amongst you, patient and persevering, they will subdue two hundred: if a hundred, they will subdue a thousand of the disbelievers: for these are a people without understanding.|[[Qur'an]]|{{Quran-usc|8|65}}||}}
{{quote|[From] now, God has lightened your [task] for He knows that there is now weakness amongst you: But [ever so], if there are a hundred of you, patient and persevering, they will subdue two hundred, and if a thousand, they will subdue two thousand, with the leave of God: for God is with those who patiently persevere.|[[Qur'an]]|{{Quran-usc|8|66}}||}}
 
Some interpret above verses that ''Jihad'' never becomes obligatory unless the military might of the Muslims is up to a certain level. In the times of Muhammad, when large scale conversions took place in the later phase, the Qur'an reduced the Muslim to enemy ratio to 1:2. It seems that Muslims should not only consolidate their moral character, but it is also imperative for them to build their military might if they want to wage ''Jihad'' when the need arises. The Qur’an gave a similar directive to Muslims of Muhammad times in the following words:<ref name="jihad" />
{{quote|Muster against them all the men and cavalry at your disposal so that you can strike terror into the enemies of Allah and of the believers and others beside them who may be unknown to you, though Allah knows them. And remember whatever you spend for the cause of Allah shall be repaid to you. You shall not be wronged.|Qur'an|{{Quran-usc|8|60}}||}}
 
While other scholars consider the later command of ratio 1:2 only for a particular time.<ref>[[Sayyid Abul Ala Maududi]]. ''[[Tafhim al-Qur'an]]''. [http://www.translatedquran.com/meaning.asp?sno=8&tno=253 Verse 8:66] {{Webarchive|url=https://archive.is/20120913034315/http://www.translatedquran.com/meaning.asp?sno=8&tno=253 |date=2012-09-13 }}</ref>
 
A policy was adopted regarding the extent of requirement that arose in wars that the Muslims had to fight. In the battles of [[Badr]], [[Uhud]] and [[Tabuk]], the responsibility was much more and each Muslim was required to present his services as a combatant.<ref name="jihad" /> As in Qur'an:
{{వ్యాఖ్య|Not equal are those of the believers who sit [at home] without any [genuine] excuse and those who strive hard and fight in the cause of Allah with their wealth and their lives. Allah has given preference by a degree to those who strive hard and fight with their wealth and their lives above those who sit [at home]. [In reality], for each, Allah has made a good promise and [in reality] Allah has preferred those who strive hard and fight above those who sit [at home] by a huge reward. Degrees of [higher] grades from Him and forgiveness and mercy. And Allah is Ever Forgiving, Most Merciful.|[[Qur'an]]|{{Quran-usc-range|4|95|96}}||}}
 
Qur'an also states that turning backs in the battle field, except for tactical purposes, is a big sin and will bring wrath of God.<ref>[[Amin Ahsan Islahi]], [[Tadabbur-i-Qur'an]], 2nd ed., vol. 3, (Lahore: Faran Foundation, 1986), pp. 450-1</ref> As in Qur'an:
{{వ్యాఖ్య|O you who believe! when you meet those who disbelieve marching for war, then turn not your backs to them. And whoever shall turn his back to them on that day-- unless he turn aside for the sake of fighting or withdraws to a company-- then he, indeed, becomes deserving of Allah's wrath, and his abode is hell; and an evil destination shall it be.|[[Qur'an]]|{{Quran-usc-range|8|15|16}}||}}
 
=== The driving force ===
Islamic scholars agree that ''Jihad'' should not be undertaken to gratify one’s whims nor to obtain wealth and riches. Many also consider that it must also not be undertaken to conquer territories and rule them or to acquire fame or to appease the emotions of communal support, partisanship and animosity. On the contrary, it should be undertaken only and only for the cause of Allah as is evident from the words.<ref name="jihad" /> As in Qur'an:
{{వ్యాఖ్య|Those who believe, fight in the cause of Allah, and those who disbelieve, fight in the cause of Satan. So fight you against the friends of Satan. Ever feeble indeed is the plot of Satan.|[[ఖురాన్]]|{{Quran-usc|4|76}}||}}
Prophet Muhammad, at various instances, also explained very forcefully this purport of the Qur’an:
* Abu Musa Ash‘ari (rta) narrates that once a person came to the Prophet (sws) and said that some people fight for the spoils of war, some for fame and some to show off their valor; he then asked the Prophet (sws): “Which one of them fights in the way of Allah”. The Prophet (sws) replied: “Only that person fights in the way of Allah who sets foot in the battlefield to raise high the name of Allah”. [[Sahih Bukhari]] 2810
* Abu Hurayrah (rta) narrates from the Prophet (sws): “I swear by the Almighty that a person who is wounded in the way of Allah – and Allah knows full well who is actually wounded in His way – he would be raised on the Day of Judgement such that his colour be the colour of blood with the fragrance of musk around him”. [[Sahih Bukhari]] 2803
* Ibn Jabr narrates from the Prophet (sws): “A person whose feet become dust ridden because of [striving] in the way of Allah will never be touched by the flames of Hell”. [[Sahih Bukhari]] 2811
* Sahal Ibn Sa‘ad says that the Prophet (sws) once said: “To reside in a border area for a day to protect [people] against an enemy [invasion] is better than this world and everything it has”. [[Sahih Bukhari]] 2892.
 
Similarly as a reward for participation in such a strive, the Qur'an states:
{{వ్యాఖ్య|Consider not those who are killed in the way of Allah as dead. Nay, they are alive with their Lord, and they will be provided for. They rejoice in what Allah has bestowed upon them of His bounty and rejoice for the sake of those who have not yet joined them, but are left behind [not yet martyred] that on them too no fear shall come, nor shall they grieve. They rejoice in a grace and a bounty from Allah, and that Allah will not waste the reward of the believers..|[[Qur'an]]|{{Quran-usc-range|3|169|171}}||}}
 
=== నీతి పరిధులు ===
{{main|:en:Rules of war in Islam{{!}}ఇస్లాంలో యుద్ధ నియమాలు}}
[[Sharia|Islamic Law]], based upon the Quran and practices of Muhammad has set down a set of laws to be observed during the lesser Jihad.
 
Qur'an forbids fighting in sacred month and similarly within the boundaries of [[Haram]]. But if non-Muslims disregard these sanctities, Muslims are asked to retaliate in equal measure.<ref>[[Amin Ahsan Islahi]], [[Tadabbur-i-Qur'an]], 2nd ed., vol. 3, (Lahore: Faran Foundation, 1986), pp. 479-80</ref> It is stated in Qur'an:
{{quote|A sacred month for a sacred month; [similarly] other sacred things too are subject to retaliation. So if any one transgresses against you, you should also pay back in equal coins. Have fear of Allah and [keep in mind that] Allah is with those who remain within the bounds [stipulated by religion].|[[Qur'an]]|{{Quran-usc|2|194}}||}}
 
Observance of treaties and pacts is stressed in Qur'an. When some Muslims were still in Mecca, and they couldn't migrate to Medina, the Qur'an stated:
{{వ్యాఖ్య|And to those who accepted faith but did not migrate [to Madinah], you owe no duty of protection to them until they migrate; but if they seek your help in religion, it is your duty to help them except against a people with whom you have a treaty of mutual alliance; and Allah is the All-Seer of what you do.|Qur'an|{{Quran-usc|8|72}}||}}
 
Similar reports are attributed to Muhammad:
*Abu Sa‘id (rta) narrates from the Prophet (sws): “On the [[Day of Judgment]], to proclaim the traitorship of a traitor and the betrayal of a person who betrayed his words, a flag shall be hoisted which would be as high as [the extent of his] traitorship”, and [the Prophet (sws) also said]: “Remember that no traitor and betrayer of promises is greater than the one who is the leader and ruler of people”. [[Sahih Muslim]] 1738
 
=== యుద్ధాలలో ఉద్దేశ్యాలు ===
According to verses {{Quran-usc-range|8|39}}, the Qur'an implies two objectives:<ref name="jihad" />
#Uproot ''fitnah'' ('''{{lang|ar|فتنة}}''') or persecution
#Establish supremacy of God, through Islam, in the world
 
==== Against persecution ====
Directives for action against persecution and unbelief:
{{వ్యాఖ్య|And fight them on until there is no more tumult or oppression, and there prevail justice and faith in Allah altogether and everywhere; but if they cease, verily Allah doth see all that they do.|Qur'an|{{Quran-usc-range|8|39}}|}}
 
Also:
{{వ్యాఖ్య|And what has come over you that you fight not in the cause of Allah, and for those weak, ill-treated and oppressed among men, women, and children, whose cry is: ‘Our Lord! Rescue us from this town whose people are oppressors, and raise for us from You one who will protect, and raise for us from You one who will help. [You should know that] those who believe fight in the cause of Allah, and those who disbelieve, fight in the cause of [[Satan]]. So fight you against the friends of Satan. Ever feeble indeed is the plot of Satan.|Qur'an|{{Quran-usc-range|4|75|76}}||}}
 
Most Muslim scholars consider it an eternal directive and believe that all types of oppression should be considered under this directive.<ref name="jihad" /><ref>''Concept of Dar Al-Islam and Dar Al-Harb'', [http://www.islamonline.net Islamonline.net] {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20181230165249/https://islamonline.net/ |date=2018-12-30 }}.[http://www.islamonline.net/servlet/Satellite?pagename=IslamOnline-English-Ask_Scholar/FatwaE/FatwaE&cid=1119503544498] {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20061021134040/http://www.islamonline.net/servlet/Satellite?pagename=IslamOnline-English-Ask_Scholar%2FFatwaE%2FFatwaE&cid=1119503544498 |date=2006-10-21 }}</ref> Similarly, if a group of Muslims commit unwarranted aggression against some of their brothers and does not desist from it even after all attempts of reconciliation, such a group according to the Qur’an should be fought with:
{{వ్యాఖ్య|And if two parties or groups among the believers start fighting, then make peace between them both. But if one of them outrages against the other, then fight you against the one which outrages till it complies with the command of Allah. Then if it complies, make reconciliation between them justly, and be equitable. Verily! Allah loves those who are the equitable. The believers are brothers to one another. So make reconciliation between your brothers, and fear Allah that you may receive mercy.|[[Qur'an]]|{{Quran-usc-range|49|9|10}}||}}
 
When asked what to do in the event that Muslims did not have a state, Muhammad directed Muslims to dissociate themselves from all other groups:
:I asked: If there is no state or ruler of the Muslims? He replied: In this situation, dissociate yourself from all groups, even if you have to chew the roots of a tree at the time of your death. [[Sahih Bukhari]] 7084
 
====అరేబియా ద్వీపకల్పంలో ఇస్లాం Supremacy====
It is stated in Qur'an:
{{వ్యాఖ్య|Indeed those who are opposing Allah and His Messenger are bound to be humiliated. The Almighty has ordained: ‘‘I and My Messengers shall always prevail’’. Indeed Allah is Mighty and Powerful.|[[Qur'an]]|{{Quran-usc-range|58|20|21}}||}}
 
After [[Itmam al-hujjah]] (clarification of religion to the addressees in its ultimate form), [[Jew]]s were subdued first, and had been granted [[amnesty]] because of various pacts. Those among them who violated these pacts were given the punishment of denying a Messenger of God.<ref name="jihad" /> Muhammad exiled the tribe of [[Banu Qaynuqa]] to [[Khyber]] and that of [[Banu Nadir]] to [[Syria]].<ref>[[Ibn Hisham]], al-Sirah al-Nabawiyyah, 2nd ed., vol. 3, (Beirut: Daru’l-Khayr, 1995), pp. 40-2 / Ibid. vol. 3, pp. 151-160</ref> The power they wielded at [[Khyber]] was crushed by an attack at their strongholds.<ref>Ibid., pp. 40-2 / Ibid., pp. 151-160</ref> Prior to this, [[Abu al-Rafi ibn Abu al-Huqayq|Abu al-Rafi]] and [[Ka'b ibn al-Ashraf]] were put to death in their houses.<ref>Ibid., pp. 43-8 / Ibn Sa‘ad, al-Tabaqatu’l-Kubra, vol. 2, (Beirut: Dar Sadir, 1960), p. 28</ref> The tribe of [[Banu Qurayza]] was guilty of treachery and disloyalty in the battle of the Ahzab.<ref>[[Ibn Hisham]], al-Sirah al-Nabawiyyah, 2nd ed., vol. 3, (Beirut: Daru’l-Khayr, 1995), pp. 180-2</ref> When the clouds of war dispersed and the chances of an external attack no longer remained, Muhammad laid siege around them. When no hope remained, they asked Muhammad to appoint [[Sa'd ibn Mua'dh]] as an arbitrator to decide their fate. Their request was accepted. Since, at that time, no specific punishment had been revealed in the Qur’an about the fate of the Jews, [[Sa'd ibn Mua'dh]] announced his verdict in accordance with the [[Torah]]. As per the Torah, the punishment in such situations was that all men should be put to death; the women and children should be made slaves and the wealth of the whole nation should be distributed among the conquerors.<ref>[[Deuteronomy]], [http://bible.ort.org/books/pentd2.asp?ACTION=displaypage&BOOK=5&CHAPTER=20 20:10-14]</ref><ref>[[Caesar E. Farah]]. [[Islam: Beliefs and Observances]], pp.52</ref> In accordance with this verdict pronounced, all men were executed.<ref>[[Ibn Hisham]], al-Sirah al-Nabawiyyah, 2nd ed., vol. 3, (Beirut: Daru’l-Khayr, 1995), pp. 188-9</ref> [[John Esposito]] writes that Muhammad's use of warfare in general was alien neither to Arab custom nor to that of the Hebrew prophets, as both believed that God had sanctioned battle with the enemies of the Lord.<ref>[[John Esposito]](2005), ''Islam: The Straight Path'', p.15</ref>
 
No other incident of note took place regarding the Jews until the revelation of [[At-Tawba]], the final judgement, was declared against them:<ref name="jihad" />
{{వ్యాఖ్య|Fight those who believe not in Allah or the Last Day, nor hold that forbidden which has been forbidden by Allah and His Messenger, nor acknowledge the Religion of Truth, from among the People of the Book, until they pay the Jizyah with willing submission and are subdued.|[[Qur'an]]|{{Quran-usc|9|29}}||}}
 
This directive related to both the Jews and the Christians. The punishment mentioned in these verses is a show of lenience to them because they were originally adherents to monotheism. The story holds that they did not benefit from this lenience because, after Muhammad's death, they once again resorted to [[fraud]] and treachery.<ref>[[Sahih Bukhari]], 2730</ref><ref>[[Abu Yusuf]], Kitab al-kharaj, Fasl fi’l-Fay wa al-Khiraj, (1302 AH), p. 42</ref><ref>[[Ahmad Ibn Yahya al-Baladhuri]], Futuhu’l-Buldan, (Qumm: Manshurat al-Arummiyyah, 1404 AH), p. 73</ref><ref>[[Ibn Athir]], Al-Kamil fi’l-Tarikh, 1st ed., vol. 2, (Beirut: Dar Beirut, 1965), p. 112</ref> Consequently, the Jews of [[Khyber]] and the Christians of [[Najran]] were exiled once and for all from the Arabian peninsula by [[Umar]]. This exile actually fulfilled the following declaration of the Qur’an about them:<ref name="jihad" />
{{quote|And had it not been that Allah had decreed exile for them, He would certainly have punished them in this world; and in the Hereafter theirs shall be the torment of the Fire.|[[Qur'an]]|{{Quran-usc|59|3}}||}}
 
When the [[polytheism|polytheists]] of Arabia had been similarly subdued, it was proclaimed in [[At-Tawba]] that in future no pact would be made with them. They would be given a final respite of four months and then they would be humiliated in retribution of their deeds and would in no way be able to escape from this punishment. After this time limit, the declaration is made in the Qur’an:<ref name="jihad" />
{{quote|And a declaration should be made from Allah and His Messenger to these people on the day of the great Hajj that Allah is free from [all] obligations to these Idolaters and so is His Messenger. So if you [O Idolaters!] repent, it is better for you, but if you turn away, then know that you cannot escape from the grasp of Allah. And give tidings [O Muhammad (sws)] of a painful torment to these disbelievers. Except those of these Idolaters with whom you have a treaty, and who have not shown treachery in it nor have supported anyone against you. So fulfill their treaty to the end of their term. Indeed, Allah loves those who abide by the limits. Then when the sacred months [after the [[Hajj]]] have passed, kill these Idolaters wherever you find them, and capture them and besiege them, and lie in wait for them in each and every ambush. But if they repent and establish the prayer, and give Zakah, then leave them alone. Indeed, Allah is Ever Forgiving, Most Merciful.|[[Qur'an]]|{{Quran-usc-range|9|3|5}}||}}
 
After the [[Treaty of Hudaybiyyah]], Muhammad himself singled out nations by writing letters to them. In all, they were written to the heads of eight countries.<ref>The names of these heads of state are: 1. Negus of Abyssinia, 2. Maqawqas of Egypt, 3. Khusro Parvez of Persia, 4. Qaysar of Rome, 5. Mundhar Ibn Sawi of Bahrain, 6. Hudhah Ibn ‘Ali of Yamamah, 7. Harith Ibn Abi Shamr of Damascus, 8. Jayfar of Amman, see [[Muhammad as a diplomat]]</ref> Consequently, after consolidating their rule in the Arabian peninsula, the [[Sahaba|Companions]] launched attacks against these countries giving them two options if they wanted to remain alive: to accept [[Islam|faith]] or to accept a life of [[dhimmi|subjugation]] by paying [[Jizya]]. None of these nations were considered to be adherents to [[polytheism]], otherwise they would have been treated in the same way as the Idolaters of Arabia.<ref name="jihad" />
 
== ముస్లిం సమాజాలలో యుద్ధాలు ==
History records instances of the "call for jihad" being invoked by Islamic leaders to legitimate wars of conquest. The major imperial Muslim dynasties of [[Ottoman Turkey]] ([[Sunni]]) and [[Persia]] ([[Shia]]) each established systems of authority around traditional Islamic institutions. In the Ottoman empire, the concept of [[ghaza]] was promulgated as a sister obligation to jihad. The Ottoman ruler [[Mehmed II]] is said to have insisted on the conquest of Constantinople (Christian Byzantium) by justifying ''ghaza'' as a basic duty. Later Ottoman rulers would apply ''ghaza'' to justify military campaigns against the Persian [[Safavid]] dynasty. Thus both rival empires established a tradition that a ruler was only considered truly in charge when his armies had been sent into the field in the name of the true faith, usually against ''giaurs'' or heretics &mdash; often meaning each other. The 'missionary' vocation of the Muslim dynasties was prestigious enough to be officially reflected in a formal title as part of a full ruler style: the Ottoman (many also had Ghazi as part of their name) Sultan [[Murad Khan II Khoja-Ghazi]], 6th Sovereign of the House of Osman (1421 - 1451), literally used [[Sultan ul-Mujahidin]]{{Fact|date=February 2007}}.
The so-called [[Fulbe jihad state]]s and a few other jihad states in [[western Africa]] were established by a series of offensive wars.<ref>{{Cite web |url=http://www.onwar.com/aced/data/uniform/usman1804.htm |title=ఆర్కైవ్ నకలు |website= |access-date=2009-03-03 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20070930200947/http://www.onwar.com/aced/data/uniform/usman1804.htm |archive-date=2007-09-30 |url-status=dead }}</ref>
 
The commands inculcated in the Quran (in five suras from the period after Muhammad had established his power) on Muslims to put to the sword those who will neither embrace Islam nor pay a poll-tax (''[[Jizya]]'') were not interpreted as a general injunction on all Muslims constantly to make war on the infidels (originally only polytheists who claimed to be monotheists, not "People of the Book", Jesus is seen as the last of the precursors of the Prophet Muhammed; the word infidel had different historical uses, notably used by the Crusaders to refer to the Muslims they were fighting against). It was generally supposed that the order for a general war can only be given by the [[Caliph]] (an office that was claimed by the Ottoman sultans), but Muslims who did not acknowledge the spiritual authority of the Caliphate (which is vacant), such as non-Sunnis and non-Ottoman Muslim states, always looked to their own rulers for the proclamation of a jihad; there has been in fact no universal warfare by Muslims on non-believers since the early caliphate. Some proclaimed Jihad by claiming themselves as [[mahdi]], e.g. the Sudanese [[Mahommed Ahmad]] in 1882.
 
== ముస్లిమేతరుల అభిప్రాయాలు ==
=== నవీన దృక్పధాలు ===
[[:en:United States Department of Justice|యునైటెడ్ స్టేట్స్ న్యాయవిభాగం]] తన "అడ్‌హాక్ జిహాద్ వివరణ"లో ఉగ్రవాద కార్యకలాపాలలో పాల్గొనుచున్న వ్యక్తులను విషయాలను వివరించింది:
** "As used in this First Superseding Indictment, 'Jihad' is the Arabic word meaning 'holy war'. In this context, jihad refers to the use of violence, including paramilitary action against persons, governments deemed to be enemies of the fundamentalist version of Islam."<ref>http://www.milnet.com/2nd-indictment-hayat-dist-court.pdf</ref>
** "As used in this Superseding Indictment, 'violent jihad' or 'jihad' include planning, preparing for, and engaging in, acts of physical violence, including murder, maiming, kidnapping, and hostage-taking."<ref>http://news.findlaw.com/hdocs/docs/padilla/uspad111705ind.pdf</ref> in the indictment against several individuals including [[José Padilla (prisoner)|José Padilla]].
* ''[[:en:Muhammad: a Biography of the Prophet (book)|''ముహమ్మద్: ప్రవక్త జీవిత గాథ]]'' లో, బి.ఎ. రాబిన్సన్ అనే రచయిత్రి ఇలా వ్రాశారు:
 
:"పోరాటం మరియు యుద్ధం కొన్ని సార్లు అనివార్యమౌతుంది, కాని, జిహాద్ లేదా సంఘర్షణలో ఇదొక చిన్న భాగమే" ("Fighting and warfare might sometimes be necessary, but it was only a minor part of the whole jihad or struggle.")<ref name="Robinson">{{cite web |url=http://www.religioustolerance.org/isl_jihad.htm |title= The Concept of Jihad "Struggle" in Islam |dateformat= mdy |accessdate=August 16 2006 |author= B.A. Robinson |authorlink= |coauthors= |date= 2003-03-28 |format= HTML |publisher= Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance |archiveurl= |archivedate=}}</ref>
 
* [[:en:Maxime Rodinson|Maxime Rodinson]], an [[Orientalism|Orientalist]], wrote that "Jihad is a propagandistic device which, as need be, resorts to armed struggle &ndash; two ingredients common to many ideological movements."<ref>Maxime Rodinson. ''Muhammad''. Random House, Inc., New York, 2002. p. 351.</ref>
* In English-speaking countries, especially the [[United States]], the term '''jihadist''', technically a derogatory term for [[mujahid]], is frequently used to describe [[militant Islam]]ic groups, including but not restricted to [[Islamic terrorism]].
 
==నేడు కొందరు అనుసరిస్తున్న జిహాద్ "ఇస్లాం" దృష్టిలో సమర్థనీయమేనా?==
 
==ఇవీ చూడండి==
* [[:en:Fasad|ఫసాద్]]
* [[:en:Islamic military jurisprudence|ఇస్లామీయ యుద్ధ న్యాయ సూత్రాలు]]
* [[:en:Itmam al-hujjah|ఇత్మామ్ అల్-హుజ్జాహ్]]
* [[:en:Mujahidin|ముజాహిదీన్]]
* [[:en:Opinion of Islamic scholars on Jihad|జిహాద్ గురించి ఇస్లామిక్ పండితుల అభిప్రాయాలు]]
* [[:en:Aslim Taslam|అస్లిం తస్లాం]]
* [[:en:Hirabah|హిరాబా]]
 
=== రాజకీయ మరియు సైనిక విషయాలు ===
* [[:en:Islam as a political movement|ఇస్లాం ఒక రాజకీయ ఉద్యమం]]
* [[:en:Islamism|ఇస్లామిజం]]
* [[:en:Militant Islam|మిలిటెంట్ ఇస్లాం]]
* [[:en:Muhammad as a general|ముహమ్మద్ ప్రవక్త ఒక జనరల్ గా]]
* [[:en:Muslim conquests|ఇస్లామీయ విజయాలు]]
* [[:en:List of wars in the Muslim world|ముస్లిం ప్రపంచంలోని యుద్ధాల జాబితా]]
 
=== ఇతర సంబంధ విషయాలు ===
* [[:en:Church Militant|చర్చి మిలిటెంట్లు]]
* [[క్రూసేడులు]]
* [[:en:Crusade (modern)|క్రూసేడులు, నవీన]]
* [[:en:Holy war|ధర్మ యుద్ధం]]
* [[:en:Inquisition|Inquisition]]
* [[:en:Just war|Just war]]
* [[:en:Martial arts|మార్షియల్ ఆర్ట్స్]]
* [[:en:Mortification|Mortification]]
* [[:en:Proselytism|ప్రొసేలిటిజం]]
* [[:en:Religious wars|మత యుద్ధాలు]]
* [[:en:Zealot|జీలాట్]]
 
=== జిహాద్ ధర్మ తత్వవేత్తలు ===
*[[:en:Ibn Taymiyyah|ఇబ్న్ తైమియా]]
*[[:en:Muhammad ibn Abd-al-Wahhab|ఇబ్న్ అబ్దుల్ వహాబ్ నజది]]
*[[:en:Syed Ahmad Shaheed|సయ్యద్ అహ్మద్ బరేల్వి మరియు మౌల్వి ఇస్మాయీల్]]
*[[:en:Hasan al-Banna|హసన్ అల్-బన్నా]]
*[[:en:Sayyid Qutb|సయ్యద్ కుతుబ్]]
*[[:en:Sayyid Abul Ala Maududi|అబుల్ అలా మౌదూది]]
*[[:en:Ali ibn Tahir al-Sulami|అలీ ఇబ్న్ తాహిర్ అల్-సులామీ]]
*[[:en:Abdullah Yusuf Azzam|అబ్దుల్లా యూసుఫ్ అజ్జాం]]
*[[ఒసామా బిన్ లాదెన్]]
*[[:en:Fazlur Rahman Malik|ఫజలుర్-రహ్మాన్ మాలిక్]]
*[[:en:Javed Ahmed Ghamidi|జావేద్ అహ్మద్ ఘమీది]]
 
==మూలాలు==
{{reflist|2}}
<br />
{{1911}}
 
== ఇతర పఠనాలు ==
* J. Turner Johnson, The Holy War Idea in Western and Islamic Traditions, Pennsylvania State University Press, University Park, Pa. 1997
 
<br />{{Wiktionary}}
==వనరులు మరియు బయటి లింకులు ==
{{Wiktionary}}
{{Wikiquote}}
 
*[https://web.archive.org/web/20090704024613/http://sahityaavalokanam.net/?p=68 జిహాద్ గురించి ఇబ్న్ వరాక్]
*[http://www.civiljihad.com జిహాద్ న్యూస్]
*[http://www.alislam.org/jihad/ ఇస్లాంలో జిహాద్ ]
*[http://www.alislam.org/terrorism.html జిహాద్ మరియు టెర్రరిజం]
*[https://web.archive.org/web/20090327102019/http://blogs.omeriqbal.com/news/125 Jihad and Muslim Support for Suicide Bombings]
*[http://www.islamic-vision.com/articles/26/1/Concept-of-Peace-Jihad-And-Condemnation-of-Terrorism-in-Islam/Page1.html Concept of Peace Jihad And Condemnation of Terrorism in Islam]
*[http://www.oxfordislamicstudies.com/article/opr/t243/e175 Jihad], [[:en:Oxford University Press|ఆక్స్‌ఫర్డ్ ఇస్లామిక్ స్టడీస్ సెంటర్]]
*[https://www.webcitation.org/5kwrs0zr3?url=http://encarta.msn.com/encnet/refpages/RefArticle.aspx?refid=761582255 జిహాద్], [[:en:Encarta|Encarta Encyclopedia]]
*[http://www.britannica.com/ebc/article?tocId=9368558 Jihad], [[:en:Encyclopædia Britannica|ఎన్‌సైక్లోపీడియా బ్రిటానికా]]
*[http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?search=jihad&searchmode=none EtymologyOnLine]
*[http://www.theage.com.au/news/opinion/why-the-bombers-are-so-angry-at-us/2005/07/22/1121539145036.html Why the bombers are so angry at us]
*[http://voi.org/books/jihad/ జిహాద్] - సుహాస్ మజూందార్
*{{cite news|url=http://atimes.com/atimes/South_Asia/JJ10Df01.html|title=Making a mockery of jihad|author=Asghar Ali Engineer|date=October 10, 2008|publisher=Asia Times|accessdate=2008-10-10|work=|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20081120162356/http://www.atimes.com/atimes/South_Asia/JJ10Df01.html|archive-date=2008-11-20|url-status=dead}}
*[https://web.archive.org/web/20081206011359/http://forums.sunnahinspirations.org/index.php?topic=89.msg252#msg252 Explaining the Concept of Jihad]
 
[[వర్గం:అరబ్బీ పదజాలము]]
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