"వాడుకరి:హనుమంత ఫలం" కూర్పుల మధ్య తేడాలు

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చి (భూపతిరాజు రమేష్ రాజు, పేజీ వాడుకరి:భూపతిరాజు రమేష్ రాజు/ప్రయోగశాల ను వాడుకరి:హనుమంత ఫలం కు తరలించారు)
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ట్యాగు: తుడిచివేత
 
==పరిచయం==
{{short description|Edible fruit-bearing species of the genus Annona}}
{{for|the thoroughbred racehorse|Cherimoya (horse)}}
 
{{speciesbox
| image = Cherimoya tree hg.jpg
| image_caption = Branch with leaves and fruit
| genus = Annona
| species = cherimola
| authority = [[Philip Miller|Mill.]]
| range_map = Range of Annona cherimola-Current.svg
| range_map_caption = Current range of native and naturalized ''A. cherimola''
| synonyms = ''Annona pubescens'' <small>Salisb.</small><br/>
''Annona tripetala'' <small>Aiton</small>
| synonyms_ref = <ref name="GRIN">{{GRIN | ''Annona cherimola'' | 3479 | accessdate = 2008-04-17}}</ref>
}}
హనుమంత ఫలం అనోనేసి కుటుంబానికి చెందిన చెట్టు.దీని శాస్త్రీయ నామం Anona Cherimola. ప్రముఖ అమెరికన్ రచయిత మార్క్ ట్వెయిన్ హనుమంత ఫలాన్ని "మానవుడికి తెలిసియున్న ఫలాల్లో అత్యంత రుచికరమైనది " అని అభివర్ణించాడు. భారత దేశంలో హనుమంత ఫలాలు ఊటీ పరిసర ప్రాంతాల్లో లభిస్తాయి.
 
===Stems and leaves===
 
Mature branches are sappy and woody.<ref name="UoC"/> Young branches and twigs have a matting of short, fine, rust colored hairs.<ref name="aft"/><ref name="PIER">{{cite book|author=Wiggins, I. L.|author2=Porter, D. M.|date=1971|title=Flora of the Galapágos Islands|publisher=Stanford University Press|pp=521–522|url=http://www.hear.org/pier/references/pierref000209.htm}} Via {{cite web
| url = http://www.hear.org/pier/species/annona_cherimola.htm
| title = ''Annona cherimola'' (PIER Species info)
| accessdate = 2008-04-17
| author = Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)
| authorlink = Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk project
| date = 2008-04-09
| work = PIER species lists
| publisher = [[United States Geological Survey]] &amp; [[United States Forest Service]]
| archiveurl= https://web.archive.org/web/20070715190852/http://www.hear.org/Pier/species/annona_cherimola.htm| archivedate=July 15, 2007| url-status= live}}</ref>
 
The leathery leaves are {{convert|5|-|25|cm|in}} long<ref name="PIER"/><ref name="ntbg">{{cite web
| url = http://ntbg.org/herbarium/detail.php?tempid=20352
| archive-url = https://web.archive.org/web/20110724111613/http://ntbg.org/herbarium/detail.php?tempid=20352
| url-status = dead
| archive-date = 2011-07-24
| title = Record Detail ANNONACEAE ''Annona cherimola'' Mill.
| accessdate = 2008-04-17
| last = Flynn
| first = Tim
| date = 2002-05-22
| work = Herbarium Database
| publisher = [[National Tropical Botanical Garden]]
}}</ref> {{convert|3|-|10|cm|in}} wide<ref name="PIER"/> and mostly elliptic, pointed at the ends and rounded near the leaf stalk. When young, they are covered with soft, fine, tangled, rust colored hairs. When mature, the leaves bear hairs only along the veins on the undersurface.<ref name="aft"/> Tops are hairless and a dull medium [[green]] with paler veins,<ref name="ntbg"/> backs velvety,<ref name="UoC"/> dull [[grey]]-green with raised pale green veins. New leaves are [[white|whitish]] below.<ref name="ntbg"/>
 
Leaves are single and alternate, dark green and slightly hairy on the top surface.<ref name="aft"/> They attach to branches with stout {{convert|6|-|10|mm|in}} long and densely hairy leaf stalks.<ref name="PIER"/>
 
===Flowers===
 
Cherimoya trees bear very pale green,<ref name="ntbg"/> [[Fleshy fruit|fleshy]] flowers. They are {{convert|3|cm|in}} long,<ref name="UoC"/> with very strong fruity odor.<ref name="ntbg"/> Each flower has three outer, greenish, fleshy, oblong, downy [[petals]] and three smaller, pinkish inner petals<ref name="aft"/> with [[yellow]] or [[brown]] finely matted hairs outside, whitish with [[purple]] spot<ref name="UoC"/> and many [[stamen]]s on the inside.<ref name="PIER"/> Flowers appear on the branches opposite to the leaves, solitary or in pairs or groups of three,<ref name="aft"/><ref name="PIER"/> on flower stalks that are covered densely with fine rust colored hairs, {{convert|8|-|12|mm|in}} long. Buds are {{convert|15|-|18|mm|in}} long, {{convert|5|-|8|mm|in}} wide at the base.<ref name="PIER"/> The pollen is shed as permanent tetrads.<ref name="LoraTestillano2009">{{cite journal|vauthors= Lora J, Testillano PS, Risueño MC, Hormaza JI, Herrero M|title=Pollen development in ''Annona cherimola'' Mill. (Annonaceae). Implications for the evolution of aggregated pollen|journal=BMC Plant Biology|volume=9|issue=1|year=2009|pages=129|issn=1471-2229|doi=10.1186/1471-2229-9-129|pmid=19874617|pmc=2774696|doi-access=free}}</ref>
 
===Fruits===
[[File:Cherimoya fruit hg.jpg|thumb|right|Ripe cherimoya fruits]]
[[Image:Cherimoya cut hg.jpg|thumb|right|Split cherimoya fruit]]
Cherimoya fruit are large green conical<ref name="ntbg"/> or heart-shaped compound fruit,<ref name="aft"/> {{convert|10|cm|in}} to {{convert|20|cm|in}} long,<ref name="aft"/> with diameters of {{convert|5|cm|in}} to {{convert|10|cm|in}},<ref name="PIER"/> and skin that gives the appearance of having [[Fruit anatomy|overlapping scales or knobby warts]]. They ripen to [[brown]] with a [[fissure]]d surface<ref name="ntbg"/> from winter into spring;<ref name="UoC"/> they weigh on the average {{convert|150|g|oz|lk=on}} to {{convert|500|g|oz}} but extra large specimens may weigh {{convert|2.7|kg|lb}} or more.<ref name="aft"/> The ripened flesh is creamy white.<ref name="ntbg"/> When ripe, the skin is green and gives slightly to pressure. Some characterize the fruit flavor as a blend of [[banana]], [[pineapple]], [[papaya]], [[peach]], and [[strawberry]].<ref>{{Cite web|url=https://www.bioversityinternational.org/fileadmin/user_upload/online_library/publications/pdfs/1303.pdf|title=Descriptors for cherimoya (Annona cherimola Mill.)|date=2008|website=Bioversity International|publisher=Bioversity International and CHERLA|access-date=19 March 2019}}</ref> The fruit can be chilled and eaten with a spoon, which has earned it another nickname, the ice cream fruit. In Peru and Chile, it is commonly used in ice creams and yogurt.<ref name="Lost crops">{{cite book| url=http://www.nap.edu/catalog/1398/lost-crops-of-the-incas-little-known-plants-of-the | chapterurl=http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=1398&page=228 |chapter =Cherimoya |title= Lost crops of the Incas: Little-known plants of the Andes with promise for worldwide cultivation | publisher=[[National Academy Press]] | vauthors=Popenoe H, King SR, León J, Kalinowski LS, Vietmeyer ND | veditors=((National Research Council)) | year=1989 | location=Washington, D.C. | pages=228–239 | isbn=978-0-309-07461-2|display-authors=etal|doi = 10.17226/1398}}</ref>
 
The cherimoya fruits are classed according to degree of surface irregularity, as:<ref name="Morton" /> ''Lisa'', almost smooth, difficult to discern areoles; ''Impresa'', with "fingerprint" depressions; ''Umbonata'', with rounded protrusions at the apex of each areole;<ref name="Scheldeman" /> ''Mamilata'' with fleshy, nipple-like protrusions; ''Tuberculata'', with conical protrusions having wartlike tips.
 
The flesh of the cherimoya contains numerous hard, inedible, black, bean-like, glossy seeds, {{convert|1|cm|in}} to {{convert|2|cm|in}} long<ref name="aft"/> and about half as wide.<ref name="PIER"/> Cherimoya seeds are poisonous if crushed open.<ref name=Morton/> Like other members of the family [[Annonaceae]], the entire plant contain small amounts of neurotoxic [[acetogenin]]s, such as [[annonacin]],<ref name=Morton/> which appear to be linked to atypical [[parkinsonism]] in [[Guadeloupe]].<ref>{{cite journal|pmid=16078200 | doi=10.1002/mds.20632 | volume=20 | issue=12 | title=Quantification of acetogenins in Annona muricata linked to atypical parkinsonism in guadeloupe |date=December 2005 | journal=[[Mov. Disord.]] | pages=1629–3 |vauthors=Champy P, etal }}</ref> Moreover, an extract of the bark can induce paralysis if injected.<ref name="Morton"/>
 
"The [[pineapple]], the [[mangosteen]], and the cherimoya", wrote the botanist [[Berthold Carl Seemann]], "are considered the finest fruits in the world, and I have tasted them in those localities where they are supposed to attain their highest perfection &ndash; the pineapple in [[Guayaquil]], the mangosteen in the [[East Indian Archipelago|Indian Archipelago]], and the cherimoya on the slopes of the Andes, and if I were asked which would be the best fruit, I would choose without hesitation, cherimoya. Its taste, indeed, surpasses that of every other fruit, and [[Thaddäus Haenke|Haenke]] was quite right when he called it the masterpiece of Nature."<ref>{{cite book |last=Popenoe |first=Wilson |year=1945|chapter=The Underdeveloped Field of Tropical Fruits|title=New Crops for the New World|editor1-last=Wilson|editor1-first=C.M.|location=New York|publisher=The MacMillan Co |page=17|isbn= |author-link= }}</ref>
 
==లంకెలు==
*http://www.stuartxchange.org/Cherimoya
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