"రాషిదూన్ ఖలీఫాలు" కూర్పుల మధ్య తేడాలు

వికీకరణ
(తర్జుమా మరియు వికీకరణ)
(వికీకరణ)
===అబూబక్ర్===
{{main|అబూబక్ర్}}
Soon after Muhammad's death a gathering of prominent ''[[Ansar (Islam)|Ansar]]'' and some of the ''[[Muhajirun]]'', in Medina, acclaimed Abu Bakr as the [[Succession to Muhammad|successor to Muhammad]] or the ''[[Caliph]]''.
 
Following his succession, various Arab tribes rebelled against Abu Bakr, refusing to pay the zakat, claiming that they would make the salah but wouldn't give charity. Abu Bakr insisted that the zakat and the salah both must be done to be a complete Muslim. This was the start of the ''[[Ridda wars]]'' ([[Arabic language|Arabic]] for the Wars of Apostasy).
 
After restoring peace in [[Arabia]], Abu Bakr directed his generals towards the [[Byzantine Empire|Byzantine]] and [[Sassanid Empire|Sassanid]] empires.
 
Some traditions about the origin of the ''Qur'an'' say that Abu Bakr was instrumental in preserving it in written form, as he was the first to order the collection of the sacred revelations.
 
Abu Bakr died in [[634]] in [[Medina]], naming [[Umar ibn al-Khattab]] as his successor shortly before his death.
 
===ఉమర్ ఇబ్న్ అల్ ఖత్తాబ్===
{{main|ఉమర్ ఇబ్న్ ఖత్తాబ్}}
Umar was named caliph through the same deliberation process that had brought Abu Bakr into leadership. During Umar's reign Muslims conquered [[Mesopotamia]], parts of [[Persian Empire|Persia]], [[Egypt]], [[Palestine]], [[Syria]], [[North Africa]] and [[Armenia]].
 
Umar (in English usually called Omar) was known for his simple, austere lifestyle. Rather than adopt the pomp and display affected by the rulers of the time, he continued to live much as he had when Muslims were poor and persecuted. In [[639]], his fourth year as caliph and the seventeenth year 17 since the Hijra, he decreed that the years of the Islamic era should be counted from the year of the Hijraand.
 
`Umar died in 644, after he was stabbed by [[Abu-Lu'lu'ah]] in the [[Masjid al Nabawi]] mosque in Medina.
 
Whilst on his deathbed, he was urged to select a successor, which he refused to do. He did however put a process in place for selection of a successor. This comprised the remaining members of the ten companions promised paradise ([[Al-Asharatu Mubashshirun]]) to elect from amongst themselves a Caliph within 3 days. The result of this process following his death was Uthman ibn Affan.
 
=== ఉస్మాన్ ఇబ్న్ అఫ్ఫాన్ ===
{{main|ఉస్మాన్ ఇబ్న్ అఫ్ఫాన్}}
Uthman (in English often called Othman) reigned for twelve years, and during his rule, all of [[Iran]], most of North Africa, the [[Caucasus]] and [[Cyprus]] were conquered and incorporated into the Islamic empire. His rule was characterized by increasingly centralized control of revenues from the provinces, aided by governors drawn largely from his kinsmen in the Umayyad clan. Uthman appointed many of his kinsmen as governors of the new domains. Some of his governors were accused of corruption and misrule.
 
Uthman is perhaps best known for forming the committee which compiled the basic text of the [[Qur'an]] as it exists today. During the end of his reign, Uthman ordered the compilation of the text. He sent copies of the sacred text to each of the Muslim cities and garrison towns, and destroyed alternative versions. Some Companions of the prophet, who resisted this imposition, were flogged.
 
===అలీ ఇబ్న్ అబీ తాలిబ్===
{{main|అలీ ఖిలాఫత్|మొదటి ఫిత్నా}}
అలీ కాలంలో, ఫిత్నా (ఖలీఫాల పట్ల ద్రోహం) బయలుదేరింది.
After the death of Uthman, Medina was in political chaos for a number of days. Many of the companions approached Ali to take the role of Caliph, which he refused to do initially.
 
After his appointment as caliph, Ali dismissed several provincial governors, some of whom were relatives of Uthman, and replaced them with trusted aides such as [[Malik ibn Ashter]] . Ali then transferred his capital from Medina to [[Kufa]], the Muslim garrison city in what is now [[Iraq]]. The capital of the province of [[Syria]], [[Damascus]], was held by [[Muawiyah I|Mu'awiyah]], the governor of [[Syria]] and a kinsman of [[Uthman]], Ali's slain predecessor.<ref>[http://www.wsu.edu:8080/~dee/SHIA/ALI.HTM Shi'a: 'Ali<!-- Bot generated title -->]</ref>
 
His caliphate coincided with [[First Fitna]]. The First Fitna, 656&ndash;661 CE, followed the assassination of the third [[caliph]] ,[[Uthman Ibn Affan]], continued during the caliphate of [[Ali]], and was ended, on the whole, by [[Muawiyah I|Muawiyah]]'s assumption of the caliphate. This civil war is often called the [[Fitna (word)|Fitna]], and regretted as the end of the early unity of the Islamic [[ummah]] (nation). This civil war created permanent divisions within the Muslim community and Muslims were divided over who had the legitimate right to occupy the caliphate.<ref>See:
* Lapidus (2002), p.47
* Holt (1977a), pp. 70-72
* Tabatabaei (1979), pp.50-57</ref>
 
According to tradition, three Muslim zealots (purists later termed [[Kharijites]]) attempted to assassinate Ali, Mu'awiyah and `Amr, as the authors of disastrous feuds among the faithful. However, only the assassination of Ali succeeded. He died on the 21st of [[Ramadan]] in the city of Kufa (Iraq) in [[661]] CE.
 
==మిలిటరీ విస్తరణలు==
రాషిదూన్ ఖలీఫాల కాలంలో మధ్య ప్రాచ్యం, ఓ శక్తివంతమైన రాజ్యంగా రూపొందింది.
 
During the period of the ''rashidun'', Islam became one of the most powerful states in the Middle East.
 
==సామాజిక పాలసీలు==
During his reign, Abu Bakr established the ''Bayt al-Mal'' or the state treasury. Umar expanded the treasury and established government building to administer the state finances.<ref>Nadvi (2000), pg. 411</ref>
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