"పసిఫిక్ మహాసముద్రం" కూర్పుల మధ్య తేడాలు

ట్యాగు: విశేషణాలున్న పాఠ్యం
 
16వ శతాబ్దంలో యూరోపియన్లు ఈ సముద్రాన్ని తొలిసారి వీక్షించారు. తొలిసారిగా 1513 లో [[స్పెయిన్]] నావికుడు వాస్కో న్యూనెజ్ డి బాల్బొవా తరువాత తన భూప్రదక్షిణంలో భాగంగా మాగెల్లాన్ (1519-1522) ఈ సముద్రం మీద ప్రయాణించారు.
=== European exploration ===
[[File:A generall chart of the South Sea ... NYPL481132.tiff|thumb|Map of the Pacific Ocean during European Exploration, circa 1702–1707.]]
[[File:A compleat chart of the coast of Asia and America with the great South Sea - R.W. Seale del. et sculp. NYPL465242.tiff|thumb|Map of the Pacific Ocean during European Exploration, circa 1754.]]
{{Main|Exploration of the Pacific}}
The first contact of European navigators with the western edge of the Pacific Ocean was made by the Portuguese expeditions of [[António de Abreu]] and [[Francisco Serrão]], via the [[Lesser Sunda Islands]], to the [[Maluku Islands]], in 1512,<ref>{{cite book|last=Hannard|first=Willard A.|title=Indonesian Banda: Colonialism and its Aftermath in the Nutmeg Islands|publisher=Yayasan Warisan dan Budaya Banda Naira |year=1991|location=[[Bandanaira]]|page=7}}</ref><ref>{{cite book|last=Milton|first=Giles|authorlink=Giles Milton|title=Nathaniel's Nutmeg|publisher=Sceptre|date=1999|location=London|pages=5, 7|isbn= 978-0-340-69676-7}}</ref> and with [[Jorge Álvares]]'s expedition to southern China in 1513,<ref name="Porter, Jonathan 1996">Porter, Jonathan. (1996). ''Macau, the Imaginary City: Culture and Society, 1557 to the Present''. Westview Press. {{ISBN|0-8133-3749-6}}</ref> both ordered by [[Afonso de Albuquerque]] from [[Portuguese Malacca|Malacca]].
 
The eastern side of the ocean was discovered by Spanish explorer [[Vasco Núñez de Balboa]] in 1513 after his expedition crossed the [[Isthmus of Panama]] and reached a new ocean.<ref name="Ober">{{cite book|last=Ober|first=Frederick Albion|title=Vasco Nuñez de Balboa|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=98zUIbdvAYgC&pg=PT129|publisher=Library of Alexandria|isbn=978-1-4655-7034-5|page=129|year=2010}}</ref> He named it ''Mar del Sur'' (literally, "Sea of the South" or "South Sea") because the ocean was to the south of the coast of the isthmus where he first observed the Pacific.
 
[[File:SpanishPacific.svg|thumb|upright=1.6|Map showing a large number of Spanish expeditions across the Pacific Ocean from the 16th to 18th centuries including the [[Manila galleon]] route between Acapulco and Manila, the first [[Transpacific crossing|transpacific]] trade route in history.]]
 
In 1520, navigator [[Ferdinand Magellan]] and his crew were the first to [[transpacific|cross the Pacific]] in recorded history. They were part of a [[Magellan–Elcano circumnavigation|Spanish expedition]] to the [[Spice Islands]] that would eventually result in the first world [[circumnavigation]]. Magellan called the ocean ''Pacífico'' (or "Pacific" meaning, "peaceful") because, after sailing through the stormy seas off [[Cape Horn]], the expedition found calm waters. The ocean was often called the ''Sea of Magellan'' in his honor until the eighteenth century.<ref>Camino, Mercedes Maroto. ''Producing the Pacific: Maps and Narratives of Spanish Exploration (1567–1606)'', p. 76. 2005.</ref> Magellan stopped at one uninhabited Pacific island before stopping at [[Guam]] in March 1521.<ref>Guampedia entry on ''Ferdinand Magellan''| url = https://www.guampedia.com/ferdinand-magellan/</ref> Although Magellan himself died in the [[Philippines]] in 1521, Spanish navigator [[Juan Sebastián Elcano]] led the remains of the expedition back to Spain across the [[Indian Ocean]] and round the [[Cape of Good Hope]], completing the first world circumnavigation in 1522.<ref name=oceanario>[http://www.oceanario.pt/cms/1316/ "Life in the sea: Pacific Ocean"] {{dead link|date=July 2020|bot=medic}}{{cbignore|bot=medic}}, Oceanário de Lisboa. Retrieved 9 June 2013.</ref> Sailing around and east of the Moluccas, between 1525 and 1527, Portuguese expeditions discovered the [[Caroline Islands]],<ref>{{cite book|last=Galvano|first=Antonio |title=The Discoveries of the World from Their First Original Unto the Year of Our Lord 1555, issued by the Hakluyt Society|publisher=Kessinger Publishing|origyear=1563|date=2004|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=XivHTiZoMycC&lpg=1|isbn=978-0-7661-9022-1 |ref=Galvano 1563|authorlink=António Galvão|page=168}}</ref> the [[Aru Islands Regency|Aru Islands]],<ref>{{cite book|title=South East Asia, Colonial History: Imperialism before 1800, Volume 1 de South East Asia, Colonial History|last=Kratoska|first=Paul H.|publisher=Taylor & Francis|year=2001|pages=52–56}}[https://books.google.com/books?id=Z9U-FUPS3DkC]</ref> and [[Papua New Guinea]].<ref name=Whiteway>{{cite book
| last = Whiteway
| first = Richard Stephen
| title = The rise of Portuguese power in India, 1497–1550
| publisher = A. Constable
| date = 1899
| location = Westminster
| url = https://archive.org/details/riseportuguesep00whitgoog| page = [https://archive.org/details/riseportuguesep00whitgoog/page/n353 333]
}}</ref> In 1542–43 the Portuguese also reached [[Japan]].<ref>Steven Thomas, {{cite web|url=http://balagan.info/portuguese-in-japan | title = Portuguese in Japan |publisher = Steven's Balagan |accessdate=22 May 2015| date = 25 April 2006 }}</ref>
 
In 1564, five Spanish ships carrying 379 explorers crossed the ocean from Mexico led by [[Miguel López de Legazpi]], and sailed to the [[Philippines]] and [[Mariana Islands]].<ref name="HendersonDelpar2000">{{cite book|last1=Henderson|first1=James D.|last2=Delpar|first2=Helen|last3=Brungardt|first3=Maurice Philip|author4=Weldon, Richard N. |title=A Reference Guide to Latin American History|url=https://archive.org/details/referenceguideto00hend|url-access=registration|year=2000|publisher=M.E. Sharpe|isbn=978-1-56324-744-6|page=[https://archive.org/details/referenceguideto00hend/page/28 28]}}</ref> For the remainder of the 16th century, Spanish influence was paramount, with ships sailing from [[Mexico]] and [[Peru]] across the Pacific Ocean to the Philippines via [[Guam]], and establishing the [[Spanish East Indies]]. The [[Manila galleon]]s operated for two and a half centuries, linking [[Manila]] and [[Acapulco]], in one of the longest trade routes in history. Spanish expeditions also discovered [[Tuvalu]], the [[Marquesas Islands|Marquesas]], the [[Cook Islands]], the [[Solomon Islands]], and the [[Admiralty Islands]] in the South Pacific.<ref name="Fernandez-Armesto 2006 305–307">{{cite book |last= Fernandez-Armesto |first= Felipe |title= Pathfinders: A Global History of Exploration |date= 2006 |publisher= W.W. Norton & Company |isbn= 978-0-393-06259-5 |pages= [https://archive.org/details/pathfindersgloba00fern/page/305 305–307] |url= https://archive.org/details/pathfindersgloba00fern/page/305 }}</ref>
 
Later, in the quest for [[Terra Australis]] ("the [great] Southern Land"), Spanish explorations in the 17th century, such as the expedition led by the Portuguese navigator [[Pedro Fernandes de Queirós]], discovered the [[Pitcairn Islands|Pitcairn]] and [[Vanuatu]] archipelagos, and sailed the [[Torres Strait]] between [[Australia]] and New Guinea, named after navigator [[Luís Vaz de Torres]]. Dutch explorers, sailing around southern Africa, also engaged in discovery and trade; [[Willem Janszoon]], made the first completely documented European landing in Australia (1606), in [[Cape York Peninsula]],<ref>J.P. Sigmond and L.H. Zuiderbaan (1979) ''Dutch Discoveries of Australia''.Rigby Ltd, Australia. pp. 19–30 {{ISBN|0-7270-0800-5}}</ref> and [[Abel Tasman|Abel Janszoon Tasman]] circumnavigated and landed on parts of the [[Australia]]n continental coast and discovered [[Tasmania]] and [[New Zealand]] in 1642.<ref>{{cite book|title=Primary Australian History: Book F [B6] Ages 10–11|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=_i98Pu5dDhkC&pg=PA6|date=2008|publisher=R.I.C. Publications|isbn=978-1-74126-688-7|page=6}}</ref>
 
In the 16th and 17th centuries, Spain considered the Pacific Ocean a ''[[mare clausum]]''—a sea closed to other naval powers. As the only known entrance from the Atlantic, the [[Strait of Magellan]] was at times patrolled by fleets sent to prevent entrance of non-Spanish ships. On the western side of the Pacific Ocean the Dutch threatened the [[the Philippines|Spanish Philippines]].<ref name=lytle>{{Citation
| last = Lytle Schurz
| first = William
| title = The Spanish Lake
| journal = The Hispanic American Historical Review
| volume = 5
| issue = 2
| date = 1922
| pages = 181–194
| jstor = 2506024
| doi = 10.2307/2506024
}}</ref>
 
The 18th century marked the beginning of major exploration by the Russians in [[Alaska]] and the [[Aleutian Islands]], such as the [[First Kamchatka expedition]] and the [[Great Northern Expedition]], led by the Danish Russian navy officer [[Vitus Bering]]. Spain also sent [[Spanish expeditions to the Pacific Northwest|expeditions to the Pacific Northwest]], reaching [[Vancouver Island]] in southern Canada, and Alaska. The French explored and settled [[Polynesia]], and the British made three voyages with [[James Cook]] to the South Pacific and [[Australia]], [[Hawaii]], and the North American [[Pacific Northwest]]. In 1768, [[Pierre-Antoine Véron]], a young [[astronomer]] accompanying [[Louis Antoine de Bougainville]] on his voyage of exploration, established the width of the Pacific with precision for the first time in history.<ref name="Williams2004">{{cite book|last=Williams|first=Glyndwr|title=Captain Cook: Explorations And Reassessments|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=VqDHGru-zcIC&pg=PA143|date=2004|publisher=Boydell Press|isbn=978-1-84383-100-6|page=143}}</ref> One of the earliest voyages of scientific exploration was organized by Spain in the [[Malaspina Expedition]] of 1789–1794. It sailed vast areas of the Pacific, from Cape Horn to Alaska, Guam and the Philippines, New Zealand, Australia, and the South Pacific.<ref name="Fernandez-Armesto 2006 305–307" />
 
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