"పసిఫిక్ మహాసముద్రం" కూర్పుల మధ్య తేడాలు

ట్యాగు: విశేషణాలున్న పాఠ్యం
 
1898 లో స్పెయిన్ నుండి అమెరికా సమ్యుక్తరాష్ట్రాలు గువాం, ఫిలిప్పీన్సు మీద నియంత్రణ సాధించినప్పటికీ<ref name="TewariAlvarez2008">{{cite book|last1=Tewari|first1=Nita|last2=Alvarez|first2=Alvin N.|title=Asian American Psychology: Current Perspectives|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=m8qgAi0LVj8C&pg=PA161|year=2008|publisher=CRC Press|isbn=978-1-84169-749-9|page=161}}</ref> 1914 నాటికి జపాన్ పశ్చిమ పసిఫిక్‌లో ఎక్కువ భాగాన్ని నియంత్రిస్తూ పసిఫిక్ యుద్ధంలో అనేక ఇతర ద్వీపాలను ఆక్రమించింది; అయినప్పటికీ ఆ యుద్ధం ముగిసే సమయానికి, జపాన్ ఓడిపోయింది. యు.ఎస్. పసిఫిక్ ఫ్లీట్ సముద్రం వర్చువల్ మాస్టరు అయింది. జపానీస్ పాలిత ఉత్తర మరియానా దీవులు అమెరికా సమ్యుక్తరాష్ట్రాల నియంత్రణలోకి వచ్చాయి.<ref>''The Covenant to Establish a Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands in Political Union With the United States of America'', {{USStatute|94|241|90|263|1976|03|24}}</ref> రెండవ ప్రపంచ యుద్ధం ముగిసినప్పటి నుండి, పసిఫిక్ లోని అనేక పూర్వ కాలనీలు స్వతంత్ర రాష్ట్రాలుగా మారాయి.
== Geography ==
[[File:Iss007e10807.jpg|thumb|right|Sunset over the Pacific Ocean as seen from the [[International Space Station]]. Anvil tops of [[Cumulonimbus cloud|thunderclouds]] are also visible.]]
The Pacific separates Asia and Australia from the Americas. It may be further subdivided by the equator into northern (North Pacific) and southern (South Pacific) portions. It extends from the [[Antarctic]] region in the South to the [[Arctic]] in the north.<ref name=ebc /> The Pacific Ocean encompasses approximately one-third of the Earth's surface, having an area of {{convert|165200000|km2|abbr=on}}— larger than Earth's entire landmass combined, {{convert|150000000|km2|abbr=on}}.<ref>[http://hypertextbook.com/facts/2001/DanielChen.shtml "Area of Earth's Land Surface"], ''The Physics Factbook''. Retrieved 9 June 2013.</ref>
 
Extending approximately {{convert|15500|km|abbr=on}} from the [[Bering Sea]] in the [[Arctic]] to the northern extent of the circumpolar [[Southern Ocean]] at [[60th parallel south|60°S]] (older definitions extend it to [[Antarctica]]'s [[Ross Sea]]), the Pacific reaches its greatest east–west width at about [[5th parallel north|5°N latitude]], where it stretches approximately {{convert|19800|km|abbr=on}} from Indonesia to the coast of [[Colombia]]—halfway around the world, and more than five times the diameter of the Moon.<ref name="Nuttall2005">{{cite book|last=Nuttall|first=Mark|title=Encyclopedia of the Arctic: A-F|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=LcucDSk4w3YC&pg=PA1461|date=2005|publisher=Routledge|isbn=978-1-57958-436-8|page=1461}}</ref> The lowest known point on Earth—the [[Mariana Trench]]—lies {{convert|10911|m|ft fathom|abbr=on|lk=out}} below sea level. Its average depth is {{convert|4280|m|ft fathom|abbr=on}}, putting the total water volume at roughly {{convert|710000000|km3|cumi|abbr=on}}.<ref name=ebc />
 
Due to the effects of [[plate tectonics]], the Pacific Ocean is currently shrinking by roughly {{convert |2.5|cm|in|0|abbr=on}} per year on three sides, roughly averaging {{convert|0.52|km2|sqmi|abbr=on}} a year. By contrast, the [[Atlantic Ocean]] is increasing in size.<ref>{{cite web |url = http://www.bucknell.edu/x17758.xml |title = Plate Tectonics |website = Bucknell University |archiveurl = https://web.archive.org/web/20140225224202/http://www.bucknell.edu/x17758.xml |archivedate = 25 February 2014 |access-date = 9 June 2013 |url-status = live }}</ref><ref name="Young2009">{{cite book|last=Young|first=Greg|title=Plate Tectonics|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=aqTxe74R5LwC&pg=PT9|date=2009|publisher=Capstone|isbn=978-0-7565-4232-0|page=9}}</ref>
 
Along the Pacific Ocean's irregular western margins lie many seas, the largest of which are the [[Celebes Sea]], [[Coral Sea]], [[East China Sea]] (East Sea), [[Philippine Sea]], [[Sea of Japan]], [[South China Sea]] (South Sea), [[Sulu Sea]], [[Tasman Sea]], and [[Yellow Sea]] (West Sea of Korea). The [[Geology of Indonesia#Indonesian Seaway|Indonesian Seaway]] (including the [[Strait of Malacca]] and [[Torres Strait]]) joins the Pacific and the [[Indian Ocean]] to the west, and [[Drake Passage]] and the [[Strait of Magellan]] link the Pacific with the [[Atlantic Ocean]] on the east. To the north, the [[Bering Strait]] connects the Pacific with the [[Arctic Ocean]].<ref name="Organization1953">{{cite journal|author=International Hydrographic Organization|title=Limits of Oceans and Seas|journal=Nature|volume=172|issue=4376|page=484|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=wD0dAQAAIAAJ|date=1953|bibcode=1953Natur.172R.484.|doi=10.1038/172484b0|s2cid=36029611}}</ref>
 
As the Pacific straddles the [[180th meridian]], the ''West Pacific'' (or ''western Pacific'', near Asia) is in the [[Eastern Hemisphere]], while the ''East Pacific'' (or ''eastern Pacific'', near the Americas) is in the [[Western Hemisphere]].<ref name="Lydia">{{cite book|author=Agno, Lydia|title=Basic Geography|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=HofX9zL4YQEC&pg=PA25|date=1998|publisher=Goodwill Trading Co., Inc.|isbn=978-971-11-0165-7|page=25}}</ref>
 
The Southern Pacific Ocean harbors the [[Southeast Indian Ridge]] crossing from south of [[Australia]] turning into the [[Pacific-Antarctic Ridge]] (north of the [[South Pole]]) and merges with another ridge (south of [[South America]]) to form the [[East Pacific Rise]] which also connects with another ridge (south of [[North America]]) which overlooks the [[Juan de Fuca Ridge]].
 
For most of Magellan's voyage from the [[Strait of Magellan]] to the [[Philippines]], the explorer indeed found the ocean peaceful; however, the Pacific is not always peaceful. Many [[tropical storm]]s batter the islands of the Pacific.<ref>[http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/437703/Pacific-Ocean/36086/The-trade-winds "Pacific Ocean: The trade winds"], ''Encyclopædia Britannica''. Retrieved 9 June 2013.</ref> The lands around the [[Pacific Rim]] are full of [[volcano]]es and often affected by [[earthquake]]s.<ref name="Murphy1979">{{cite book|author=Shirley Rousseau Murphy|title=The Ring of Fire|date=1979|publisher=[[Avon (publisher)|Avon]]|isbn=978-0-380-47191-1|title-link=The Ring of Fire|author-link=Shirley Rousseau Murphy}}</ref> [[Tsunami]]s, caused by underwater earthquakes, have devastated many islands and in some cases destroyed entire towns.<ref name="Bryant2008">{{cite book|last=Bryant|first=Edward|title=Tsunami: The Underrated Hazard|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=6lvl6i7r2CcC&pg=PR26|date=2008|publisher=Springer|isbn=978-3-540-74274-6|page=26}}</ref>
 
The [[Martin Waldseemüller]] map of 1507 was the first to show the Americas separating two distinct oceans.<ref>{{cite web|title=The Map That Named America|url=https://www.loc.gov/loc/lcib/0309/maps.html|website=www.loc.gov|accessdate=3 December 2014}}</ref> Later, the [[Diogo Ribeiro]] map of 1529 was the first to show the Pacific at about its proper size.<ref>{{Citation|last=Ribero|first=Diego|title=Carta universal en que se contiene todo lo que del mundo se ha descubierto fasta agora / hizola Diego Ribero cosmographo de su magestad, ano de 1529, e[n] Sevilla|url=http://nla.gov.au/nla.obj-230692844|publisher=W. Griggs|accessdate=30 September 2017}}</ref>
 
=== Bordering countries and territories ===
[[File:Pacific Basin Island Geography.jpg|thumb|upright=1.25|The island geography of the Pacific Ocean Basin]]
[[File:Pacific Culture Areas.png|thumb|upright=1.25|Regions, island nations and territories of [[Oceania]]]]
 
==== Sovereign nations ====
{{div col|colwidth=20em}}
* [[Australia]]
* [[Brunei]]
* [[Cambodia]]
* [[Canada]]
* [[Chile]]
* [[China]]
* [[Colombia]]
* [[Cook Islands]]
* [[Costa Rica]]
* [[Ecuador]]
* [[El Salvador]]
* [[Federated States of Micronesia]]
* [[Fiji]]
* [[Guatemala]]
* [[Honduras]]
* [[Indonesia]]
* [[Japan]]
* [[Kiribati]]
* [[Malaysia]]
* [[Marshall Islands]]
* [[Mexico]]
* [[Nauru]]
* [[New Zealand]]
* [[Nicaragua]]
* [[Niue]]
* [[North Korea]]
* [[Palau]]
* [[Panama]]
* [[Papua New Guinea]]
* [[Peru]]
* [[Philippines]]
* [[Russia]]
* [[Samoa]]
* [[Singapore]]
* [[Solomon Islands]]
* [[South Korea]]
* [[Taiwan]]
* [[Thailand]]
* [[Timor-Leste]]
* [[Tonga]]
* [[Tuvalu]]
* [[United States]]
* [[Vanuatu]]
* [[ Vietnam]]
{{div col end}}
 
==== Territories ====
{{div col|colwidth=20em}}
* [[American Samoa]] (US)
* [[Baker Island]] (US)
* [[Clipperton Island]] (France)
* [[Coral Sea Islands]] (Australia)
* [[French Polynesia]] (France)
* [[Guam]] (US)
* [[Hong Kong]] (China)
* [[Howland Island]] (US)
* [[Jarvis Island]] (US)
* [[Johnston Island]] (US)
* [[Kingman Reef]] (US)
* [[Macau]] (China)
* [[Midway Atoll]] (US)
* [[New Caledonia]] (France)
* [[Norfolk Island]] (Australia)
* [[Northern Mariana Islands]] (US)
* [[Palmyra Atoll]] (US)
* [[Pitcairn Islands]] (UK)
* [[Tokelau]] (New Zealand)
* [[Wallis and Futuna]] (France)
* [[Wake Island]] (US)
{{div col end}}
 
=== Landmasses and islands ===
{{Main|Pacific Islands}}
[[File:South Tarawa from the air.jpg|thumb|[[Tarawa Atoll]] in the Republic of [[Kiribati]]]]
The Pacific Ocean has most of the islands in the world. There are about 25,000 islands in the Pacific Ocean.<ref>{{cite web|last1=K|first1=Harsh|title=This ocean has most of the islands in the world|url=http://mysticalroads.com/pacific-ocean-facts/|website=Mysticalroads|accessdate=6 April 2017|date=19 March 2017|url-status=dead|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20170802153519/http://mysticalroads.com/pacific-ocean-facts/|archivedate=2 August 2017}}</ref><ref>{{cite book|last1=Ishihara|first1=Masahide|last2=Hoshino|first2=Eiichi|last3=Fujita|first3=Yoko|title=Self-determinable Development of Small Islands|date=2016|publisher=Springer|isbn=978-981-10-0132-1|page=180|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=3hNkDAAAQBAJ&pg=PA180|language=en}}</ref><ref>{{cite book|last1=United States. [[National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration]]|last2=Western Pacific Regional Fishery Management Council|title=Toward an Ecosystem Approach for the Western Pacific Region: from Species-based Fishery Management Plans to Place-based Fishery Ecosystem Plans: Environmental Impact Statement|date=2009|publisher=Northwestern University|location=Evanston, IL|page=60|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=3Tw3AQAAMAAJ&pg=PA60|language=en|author2-link=Western Pacific Regional Fishery Management Council}}</ref> The islands entirely within the Pacific Ocean can be divided into three main groups known as [[Micronesia]], [[Melanesia]] and [[Polynesia]]. Micronesia, which lies north of the equator and west of the [[International Date Line]], includes the [[Mariana Islands]] in the northwest, the [[Caroline Islands]] in the center, the [[Marshall Islands]] to the east and the islands of [[Kiribati]] in the southeast.<ref name="AAE">{{cite book|title=Academic American encyclopedia|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=cF8NAQAAMAAJ|date=1997|publisher=Grolier Incorporated|isbn=978-0-7172-2068-7|page=8}}</ref><ref name="LalFortune2000p63">{{cite book|last1=Lal|first1=Brij Vilash|last2=Fortune|first2=Kate|title=The Pacific Islands: An Encyclopedia|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=T5pPpJl8E5wC&pg=PA63|date=2000|publisher=University of Hawaii Press|isbn=978-0-8248-2265-1|page=63}}</ref>
 
Melanesia, to the southwest, includes [[New Guinea]], the world's second largest island after [[Greenland]] and by far the largest of the Pacific islands. The other main Melanesian groups from north to south are the [[Bismarck Archipelago]], the [[Solomon Islands]], [[Santa Cruz Islands|Santa Cruz]], [[Vanuatu]], [[Fiji]] and [[New Caledonia]].<ref name="West2009">{{cite book|last=West|first=Barbara A.|title=Encyclopedia of the Peoples of Asia and Oceania|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=pCiNqFj3MQsC&pg=PA521|date=2009|publisher=Infobase Publishing|isbn=978-1-4381-1913-7|page=521}}</ref>
 
The largest area, [[Polynesia]], stretching from [[Hawaii]] in the north to [[New Zealand]] in the south, also encompasses [[Tuvalu]], [[Tokelau]], [[Samoa]], [[Tonga]] and the [[Kermadec Islands]] to the west, the [[Cook Islands]], [[Society Islands]] and [[Austral Islands]] in the center, and the [[Marquesas Islands]], [[Tuamotus|Tuamotu]], [[Mangareva Islands]], and [[Easter Island]] to the east.<ref name="DunfordRidgell1996">{{cite book|last1=Dunford|first1=Betty|last2=Ridgell|first2=Reilly|title=Pacific Neighbors: The Islands of Micronesia, Melanesia, and Polynesia|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=3n2z7E1zH3MC|date=1996|publisher=Bess Press|isbn=978-1-57306-022-6|page=125}}</ref>
 
Islands in the Pacific Ocean are of four basic types: continental islands, high islands, coral reefs and uplifted coral platforms. Continental islands lie outside the andesite line and include New Guinea, the islands of New Zealand, and the Philippines. Some of these islands are structurally associated with nearby continents. High islands are of volcanic origin, and many contain active volcanoes. Among these are [[Bougainville Island|Bougainville]], Hawaii, and the Solomon Islands.<ref name="GillespieClague2009">{{cite book|last1=Gillespie|first1=Rosemary G.|last2=Clague|first2=David A.|title=Encyclopedia of Islands|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=g9ZogGs_fz8C&pg=PA706|date=2009|publisher=University of California Press|isbn=978-0-520-25649-1|page=706}}</ref>
 
The [[coral reef]]s of the South Pacific are low-lying structures that have built up on basaltic lava flows under the ocean's surface. One of the most dramatic is the [[Great Barrier Reef]] off northeastern [[Australia]] with chains of reef patches. A second island type formed of coral is the uplifted coral platform, which is usually slightly larger than the low coral islands. Examples include [[Banaba Island|Banaba]] (formerly Ocean Island) and [[Makatea]] in the Tuamotu group of [[French Polynesia]].<ref>[http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/137072/coral-island "Coral island"], ''Encyclopædia Britannica''. Retrieved 22 June 2013.</ref><ref>[http://www.abc.net.au/ra/pacific/places/country/nauru.htm "Nauru"], Charting the Pacific. Retrieved 22 June 2013.</ref>
 
<gallery>
File:Ladrilleros Beach Colombia.jpg|Ladrilleros Beach in [[Colombia]] on the coast of [[Pacific/Chocó natural region|Chocó natural region]]
File:Chimney Rock Trail Point Reyes December 2016 panorama.jpg|[[Point Reyes]] headlands, [[Point Reyes National Seashore]], California
File:Tahuna maru islet Raroia.jpg|Tahuna maru islet, [[French Polynesia]]
File:Los Molinos.JPG|[[Los Molinos, Chile|Los Molinos]] on the coast of [[Zona Sur|Southern Chile]]
</gallery>
 
== వెలుపలి లింకులు ==
"https://te.wikipedia.org/wiki/ప్రత్యేక:MobileDiff/3060791" నుండి వెలికితీశారు