"స్మార్తం" కూర్పుల మధ్య తేడాలు

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'''''స్మార్తం''''' (లేదా '''స్మార్త సాంప్రదాయం''') [[హిందూమతం]] యొక్క ప్రధాన శాఖలలో ఒకటి. [[వేదాలు|వేదాల]]ను మరియు శాస్త్రాలను అనుసరించే వారిని స్మార్తులు అంటారు. స్మార్తులు ప్రధానంగా [[ఆది శంకరాచార్యుడు]] ప్రవచించిన [[అద్వైతం|అద్వైత]] వేదాంత తత్త్వాన్ని అనుసరిస్తారు. అయితే వీరు ఇతర తత్త్వాలను ప్రవచించి, అనుసరించిన కొన్ని సందర్భాలు ఉన్నాయి.
 
[[సంస్కృతం]]లో ''స్మార్త'' అంటే "హిందూ స్మృతులపై ఆధారపడినవి లేదా స్మృతులలో పొందుపరచబడిన వాటికి సంబంధించిన, సాంప్రదాయంపై ఆధారపడిన లేదా సాంప్రదాయ న్యాయము లేదా వాడుకకు సంబంధించినవి" అని అర్ధం. ఈ పదం స్మృ (గుర్తుకు తెచ్చుకొనటం) అన్న మూల సంస్కృత ధాతువునుండి ఏర్పడింది. ''[[శ్రుతి]]'' యొక్క వృద్ధి కారకం ''[[శ్రౌత]]'' అయినట్టే ''[[స్మృతి]]'' యొక్క [[వృద్ధి]] కారకం ''స్మార్త''.
 
 
==స్మార్త సాంప్రదాయం యొక్క ముఖ్య లక్షణములు==
Smartas are followers and propagators of ''[[Smriti]]'' or religious texts derived from [[Vedas|Vedic scriptures]]. It is from this that the name ''smarta'' is derived. This term is used with respect to a certain specialized category of Brahmins. Propagating texts derived directly from the Vedas, they are followers of [[Apastamba]] Sutra (as opposed to others following [[Manu Smriti]]). When a detractor tells a Smarta that their beliefs are madness, the Smarta responds: ''Madness? This is Smarta!''
It was [[Adi Sankara|Adi Shankaracharya]] who brought all the Vedic communities together. He removed the un-Vedic aspects that had crept into them. He said that any of the different Hindu gods could be worshipped, according to the prescriptions given in the smriti texts. He established that worship of various deities are compatible with Vedas and is not contradictory, since all are different manifestations of ''Brahman''. His ideas were accepted as he succeeded in convincing brahmins of his day, that this is exactly what was indicated by the [[Vedas]].
 
===అద్వైత వేదాంతము===
{{main|అద్వైత వేదాంతము}}
God, according to Smartas who happen to follow Advaita philosophy, is both [[Saguna]] and [[Nirguna]]. As a Nirguna he is pure consciousness dissociated from matter. He (the gender itself is meaningless here) has no attributes, and has no form. As a Saguna, there is quality that can be attributed. He is infinite and thus can have a multitude of attributes. Accordingly, the scriptures hold that [[Vishnu]] and [[Shiva]] are ultimately the same. The Smarta theologians have cited many references to support this point. For example, they interpret verses in both the [[Shri Rudram]], the most sacred mantra in [[Shaivism]], and the [[Vishnu Sahasranama]], one of the most sacred prayers in [[Vaishnavism]], to show this unity. [[Vishnu Purana]] carries a story about how [[Maha Vishnu]] becomes [[Brahma]], Vishnu and Shiva. In other words, these forms and names are just different manifestations of Nirguna Brahman — the Ultimate Reality.
 
One of the previous Shankaracharya of Sringeri Math, [[Sri Chandrasekhara Bharati]] (1892 - 1954), commentating on this, said. "you cannot see the feet of the Lord, why do you waste your time debating about the nature of His face?" <ref name="Advaita Vedanta FAQ">[http://www.advaita-vedanta.org/avhp/ad_faq.html#8 Advaita Vedanta FAQ]</ref>
 
It is most essential for Smarta Brahmins to specialize in the [[Karma Kanda]] of the [[Vedas]] and associated rituals diligently, and to teach the subsequent generations. This is the only reason that these families continue to be called Smartas.
 
===శణ్మతము మరియు హిందూధర్మము మీద దాని ప్రభావము===
[[ఆది శంకరాచార్యులు|ఆది శంకరులు]] propagated the tradition of ''[[Shanmata]]'' ([[Sanskrit]], meaning Six Opinions). In this six major deities are worshipped. This is based on the belief in the essential sameness of all [[deities]], the [[Divine oneness|unity]] of [[Godhead]], and their conceptualization of the myriad [[deities of India]] as various manifestations of the one divine power, [[Brahman]]. Smartas accept and worship the six manifestations of [[God]], ([[Ganesha]], [[Shiva]], [[Shakti]], [[Vishnu]], [[Surya]] and [[Skanda]]) and the choice of the nature of God is up to the individual worshipper since different manifestations of God are held to be equivalent.
Many Hindus, who may not understand or follow Advaita philosophy, in contemporary Hinduism, invariably follow the Shanmata belief worshiping many forms of God. One commentator, noting the influence of the Smarta tradition, remarked that although many Hindus may not strictly identify themselves as Smartas but, by adhering to [[Advaita Vedanta]] as a foundation for non-sectarianism, are indirect followers.
<ref>[http://hinduism.iskcon.com/tradition/1204.htm Heart of Hinduism: The Smarta Tradition<!-- Bot generated title -->]</ref> Additionally, many of the Hindu teachers of the modern era such as [[Ramakrishna]], with the notable exception of [[A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada]], the Vaishnava founder of the Hare Krishna movement, all had teachings that were in accord with this tradition. The Smarta view dominates the view of [[Hinduism]] in the West. Smartas believe that [[Brahman]] is essentially attribute-less ([[nirguna]]), all attributes ([[gunas]]) equally belong to It, within empirical reality<ref name="Advaita Vedanta FAQ"/>.
 
===మిగతా హైందవ ధర్మాలతో కల తేడాలు===
Smartas believe that the worshipper is free to chose a particular aspect of God to worship. By contrast, a [[Vaishnavism|Vaishnavite]] considers [[Vishnu]] or [[Krishna]] to be the true God who is worthy of worship and other forms as his subordinates. Accordingly, Vaishnavites, for example, believe that only Vishnu or Krishna can grant the ultimate salvation for mankind, [[moksha]]. Similarly, many Shaivites also hold similar beliefs about [[Shiva]]. Notably, many Shaivites believe that [[Shakti]] is worshipped to reach Shiva, whom for Shaktas is the impersonal [[The Absolute|Absolute]]. In [[Shaktism]], emphasis is given to the feminine manifest through which the male unmanifested, Lord Shiva, is realized.
 
Smartas, like many Shaivites and Vaishnavites, consider [[Surya]] to be an aspect of God. Many Shaivites and Vaishnavites, for example, differ from Smartas, in that they regard Surya as an aspect of Shiva and Vishnu, respectively. For example, the sun is called [[Surya Narayana]] by Vaishnavites. In Saivite theology, the sun is said to be one of eight forms of Shiva, the [[Astamurti]]. Additionally, Ganesh and Skanda, for many Shaivites, would be aspects of Shakti and Shiva, respectively.
 
==స్మార్త సంప్రదాయములు==
===నిత్య కర్మ===
The Smartas hold practice of [[Dharma]] more important than beliefs. This is a distinct feature of the [[Dharmic religions]]. The practices include mainly [[Yajnas]]. The daily routine<ref>[http://www.kamakoti.org/hindudharma/part19/chap10.htm A day in the life of a Brahmin]</ref> includes performing
*స్నానము(bathing)
*[[సంద్యావందనము]]
*[[జపము]]
*[[పూజ]] (see Panchayatana Puja, below)
*[[ఔపాసన]]
*[[అగ్నిహోత్రము]]
 
The last two named [[యజ్ఞములు]] are performed in only a few households today.
 
[[Brahmacharis]] perform:
*[[Agnikaryam]]
instead of [[Agnihotra]] or [[Aupasana]].
 
The other rituals followed include [[అమావాస్య|అమావాస్య తర్పణము]] and [[శ్రాద్ధము]].
 
{{See also|నిత్య కర్మ|కామ్య కర్మ}}
 
===పంచాయతన పూజ===
Most Smartas worship at least one of the following Gods: [[Shiva]], [[Vishnu]], [[Devi]] (e.g.-[[Lakshmi]], [[Saraswati]], [[Durga]], [[Kali]]), [[Ganesha]], [[Surya]], and/or [[Skanda]].
 
[[ఆది శంకరాచార్యులు]] can be credited to have re-structured the present day practice of the Smarthas. He is accordingly revered by the Smarthas as their Guru. The Acharya recommended the Smartas to follow [[Panchayatana]] worship. This [[Puja (Hinduism)|puja]] or worship includes the worship of the first five deities mentioned above. (In Tamil Nadu Skanda is also worshipped). In this form of worship, the favorite family deity is placed in the center. All other Gods were placed around this central God in a particular order and worshipped.
 
There are different sets of rules for each stage of an individual's life. The [[Vedic ashram system|stages of life]] prescribed in the Vedic scriptures are [[Brahmacharya]] [[Vedic ashram system|Ashrama]], [[Grihastha]] Ashrama, [[Vanaprastha]] Ashrama and [[Sannyasa]] Ashrama. These four orders normally proceed one after the other, depending upon one's age, maturity, mental dispositiona and qualification. Each stage has its own set of rules within which it is conducted.
 
===మిగతా సాంప్రదాయాలు===
All Smartas who take up the [[Brahmacharya]] [[Ashrama]] by undergoing [[Upanayana]], are expected to learn the [[Vedas]] and [[Shastras]] besides leading a strict celibate Life. They are expected to adhere to a [[sattvic diet]] and adhere to other rules of the [[Smriti]] tradition of their respective families. In modern days, the SmArthas contend with learning at least the select portions (called Suktas) and other portions from the Aranyaka of the Veda.
 
Smartas are recommended to follow the ''Brahma'' form of Vedic marriage (a type of arranged marriage). The marriage ceremony is derived from Vedic prescriptions. Women acquire the traditions of her husband's family upon marriage.
 
Lienage is an important continuity for the SmArthas. It is called the ''Gotra''. Each smArtha family belongs to a particular ''Gotra'' which is the progeny of an identified Rishi. People belonging to the same ''Gotra'' are deemed brothers & sisters and hence cannot marry each other.
 
==శ్రౌత సాంప్రదాయము==
{{main|శ్రౌత}}
 
Traditionally the Smartas also follow the [[Shrauta]] tradition. The Shrauta tradition emphasises on performance of [[Yajnas]] which are described in the [[Vedas]]. Today there are not many Smartas who follow Shrauta tradition. However in the southern states the Shrauta tradition is believed to be strong.{{Fact|date=April 2008}}
 
==మతపరమైన సంస్థలు==
 
కొన్నై సాంప్రదాయక స్మార్త మత సంస్థలు:
*[[శృంగేరీ శారదా పీఠము]]
*[[జ్యోతిర్మఠము|జ్యోతిర్మఠ పీఠము]]
*[[గోవర్ధన మఠము|గోవర్ధన పీఠము]]
*[[ద్వారకా పీఠము]]
*[[కంచి కామకోటి పీఠము]]
 
స్మార్త సాంప్రదాయమును పాటిస్తున్న కొన్ని ఆధునిక [[హిందూ]] మిషన్లు:
*[[చిన్మయ మిషను]]
*[[డివైన్ లైఫ్ సొసైటీ]]
 
==Contributions ==
===అద్వైత వేదాంతము===
 
The Smarta worldview is influenced by [[Advaita Vedanta|Advaita philosophy]]. [[ఆది శంకరాచార్యులు]] , who founded the Advaita [[Mathas]] in [[Sringeri]] ([[Sringeri Sharada Peetham|Sharada Pītha]]), [[Dvaraka]] ([[Dwaraka Pītha]]), [[Puri]] ([[Govardhana matha|Govardhana Pītha]]) and [[Badrinath]] ([[Jyotirmath|Jyotirmaţha Pītha]])kama, is considered to be the fountainhead of the Smarta tradition as it stands today. All the ''[[Jagadgurus]]'' (heads) of the [[Advaita Mathas]] (also known as ''Shankara Mathas'') are Smartas.
 
====ప్రముఖ అద్వైతులు====
Some of the prominent Smarta Advaitins are:
*[[ఆది శంకరాచార్యులు]] మరియు వారి నలుగురు శిష్యులు,
*[[Hastamalakacharya]]
*[[Sureśvara|Sureshwaracharya]]
*[[Padmapāda|Padmapadacharya]]
*[[Totakacharya]]
 
Some of the later advaitins who were all SmArthas include:
 
*[[Madhusudana Saraswati]]
*[[Appaiah Dikshitar]]
*[[Neelankanta Dikshtar]]
*[[Vachaspati Mishra]]
*[[Jagadguru Sri Sachidananda Shivabhinava Nrusimha Bharati]], Jagadguru of the Sringeri Sharada Peetam
*[[Swami Sachidanandendra Saraswati]] of Holenarsipur, Adhyatma Prakasha Karyala
*[[Chandrashekarendra Saraswati]], Jagadguru of Kanchi Kamakoti Peetham
*[[Ramana Maharishi|Bhagawan Sri Ramana Maharshi]]
*Shree Shree Jagadguru Sri Shankaracharya Srimad [[Raghaveshwara Bharathi]] Swamiji of [[Ramachandrapura Mutt]], Hosanagara
 
{{See also|శృంగేరీ పీఠము యొక్క జగద్గురువు}}
 
===కర్ణాటక సంగీతము===
 
SmArta community has been very particular in carrying down through ages in various difficult times, two vocal tradition - (1) The Vedas and (2) Sangeeta.
 
SmArthas have normally considered both as very important part of their tradition and they both have hence survived over centuries. During the reign of Sringeri Jagadguru Sri Vidyaranya, Carnatic Sangeeta had many good works. The Vijayanagar partronage was always prominent for the carnatic music tradition. Later under the Tanjore Marahta house, there was a new bloom.
 
Three Musical Trinities have come up in the Tanjore soil, situated along the banks of river Cauvery. The first starting from Govindaraja Deekshita, Venkatanatha Makhi and Ramaswamy Dikshitar. Carnatic music saw its practical pinnacle under the Trinity - (''Sangeetha Mummoorthigal'', in [[Tamil language|Tamil]]) Sri [[Muthuswamy Dikshitar]], Sri [[Shyama Shastry]], Sri [[Tyagaraja]]. The later were Maha VaidhyanAdaiyar, Patnam Subrahmanya Iyer and Konerirajapuram Vishwanatha Iyer. All were SmArthas.
 
Famous songs on [[Krishna]], ''alaipayude'' is by Utthukadu Sri Venkatasubba Iyer, a Smarta. Swami Narayana Thirta has composed many songs, who again is a smArtha. Many major carnatic musicians including [[Chembai]], [[Semmangudi Srinivassa Iyer]], [[Lalgudi Jayaraman]], [[Violin]] maestro Kunnakudi Vaidiyanathan, [[Veena Balachandar]], [[Balamuralikrishna]], [[Maharajapuram Santhanam]], [[D.K Pattamal]] and [[Mandolin]] Srinivas are all Smartas.
 
Practically over the centuries, the SmArtha community has protected Carnatic tradition and handed over to the present. generation, again were leading artistes are SmArtha Brahmins
 
===మిగతా వేదాంతాలు===
*శివ అద్వైతమును శ్రీకంఠుడు కనుగొన్నాడు.
 
*[[Tyagaraja]], a Smarta, was a Bhakti Saint and musical genius who inspired Hindus of many different sects. Deeply immersed in Bhakti, this devotee of Lord Rama, was acceptable to even non Smartas. In his compositions, the Saint is a simple and humble Bhakta. In one of his compositions he asks which one is better "[[Dvaita]] or [[Advaita]]?". He leaves the question open. He belonged to that category of saints who believe in Bhakti as the path to God. In this sense his teachings were suitable to people of all the three major south Indian sects- Smartas, Sri Vaishanavas and Madhvas. His music was said to be so enchanting that even people of all sects, castes and creeds flocked to listen to him.
<!-- Tulsidas, a Bhakti saint of the north, may have been a Smarta. ''Give references'' -->
 
*The modern philosopher [[Jiddu Krishnamurti]], who was born in a Smarta [[Niyogi]] family, refused to be tied down by his own tradition. Initially influenced by [[theosophy]], he later moved away from even this. He believed in independently evaluating all spiritual questions and refusing to be tied down by any sect or tradition.
 
*Besides these there were a number of other Non Advaitic Scholars among Smartas prior to Shankaracharya. [[Ramanujacharya]], [[Madhavacharya]], [[Vallabhacharya]] were only some of the Smartas who broke away from the parent group and founded their own sects. The philosophy of the new sects was directed against the teachings of Advaita philosophy. The new sects distinguished themselves and separated from Smartas. These new groups followed different philosophies like [[Dvaita]] (dualism) and [[Vishishtadvaita]] (qualified monism) and also changed their rituals. [[Appaiah Deekshita]], a Smarta [[Iyer]], followed [[Sreekanta]]'s [[Sivadvaita]] philosophy in his early days. This philosophy was similar to [[Vishishtadvaita]] of the [[Sri Vaishnava]]s. Siva Advaita, however, considers Shiva to be the supreme God. Communities like the ''Sri Vaishnavas'', ''Madhvas'' and ''Veera Saivas'' are some of the other Hindu sects which have branched/broken away from the Smarta stream. A distinctive feature of these communities is the fact that none of them subscribe to Advaita. Some of these sects have also accepted people who came from outside the Smarta Brahmin fold; indeed, the [[Virasaivism|Veera Saiva]] community includes non-Brahmins. Another feature of these sects is that they follow rituals recommended by their lineage of Gurus, which are different from the rituals of the Smartas.
 
==పాటించే గ్రంధాలు==
Smartas follow the [[Hindu scriptures]]. These include:
 
The [[Vedas]] ([[Rig Veda]], [[Yajur Veda]], [[Sama Veda]] and [[Atharva Veda]]). These are considered primary spiritual resources; every [[Brahmin]] family is affiliated to one or more of the Vedas.
The [[Upanishads]], which are part of the [[Vedas]], are often mentioned separately, given their especial importance as products of past intellectual ferment.
The ''Smritis"'' are religious books based on Vedas and are written by important Sages/[[Rishi]]s of the past. Each of them contains recommendations and practices unique to itself. The Book an individual followed depended on his family. Thus, ritual practices sometimes varied from family to family, depending on family tradition. Some of the more common religious law books were the [[Manu Smriti]], the [[Apastamba Smriti]] and the [[Bodhyayana Smriti]].
The [[Puranas]] contain the lore and explanations of the theology of the [[Vedas]]. They are basically a collection of sacred historical events that were passed from one generation to the next in the form of mythological stories. Smarta philosophers use the puranas to get a better understanding of Vedas, but do not consider them as completely authentic texts. However, the eighteen Puranas are revered by Smartas, just like any other Hindus. Today the Puranas are the main inspiration for many Smartas.
 
Smartas also recite [[Shloka]]s or [[Stotra]]s (devotional hymns) composed by various [[Hindu]] saints and poets.
 
{{See also|శాస్త్రాలు}}
 
==[[జాతులు]]==
ఆంధ్ర దేశములో స్మార్తులు:
*[[వైదీకి]]
**[[వెలనాడు]]
**[[ములుకునాడు]]
**[[తెలగాణ్యులు]]
**[[వెంగినాడు]]
**[[కరణకమ్మల్లు]]
**[[కాసలనాట్లు]]
**[[మురికినాట్లు]]
*నందవారీకులు
*[[నియోగులు]]
**ఆరువేల నియోగులు
**ప్రధమశాఖ నియోగులు
 
==ఇవి కూడా చూడండి==
*[[అద్వైత వేదాంతము]]
*[[హిందూమతము]]
*[[ఇష్టదైవము]]
 
==మూలాలు==
<references/>
 
==బయటి లింకులు==
*[http://www.sankaracharya.org [[ఆది శంకరాచార్యులు|ఆది శంకరాచార్య]] and Advaita Vedanta Library]
*[http://www.advaita-vedanta.org Advaita Vedanta Homepage]
*[http://www.sringeri.net/ Jagadguru Mahasamsthanam, Sringeri Sharada Peetam]
*[http://www.advaita-vedanta.org/series/shankara_sampradaya/sankara_sampradayam_top.htm Shankara Sampradayam]
*[http://www.hinduism-today.com/archives/2003/10-12/44-49_four_sects.shtml Hinduism Today - Description of Smartism among the four major divisions of Hinduism.]
*[http://www.ikashmir.org/hindudharma/7.html Overview of the three major divisions, from the book, ''Hindu Dharma'', [[Saivism]], [[Shaktism]], [[Vaishnavism]], and the three other schools devoted to [[Ganesh]], [[Skanda]] and [[Surya]].]
* [http://www.geocities.com/srigant/sitemap.html Six schools of smarta hinduism]
*[http://www.kamakoti.org/hindudharma/part14/chap9.htm Oneness of God]
*[http://hinduism.iskcon.com/tradition/1204.htm Description of smarta tradition.]
 
[[వర్గం:హిందూ మతము]]
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