"ఈ-మెయిల్" కూర్పుల మధ్య తేడాలు

చి
యంత్రము కలుపుతున్నది: be-x-old:Электронная пошта; cosmetic changes
చి (యంత్రము కలుపుతున్నది: ckb:پۆستی ئەلەکترۆنی)
చి (యంత్రము కలుపుతున్నది: be-x-old:Электронная пошта; cosmetic changes)
E-mail systems are based on a [[store-and-forward]] model in which e-mail computer server systems accept, forward, deliver and store messages on behalf of users, who only need to connect to the e-mail infrastructure, typically an e-mail server, with a network-enabled device (e.g., a personal computer) for the duration of message submission or retrieval. Rarely is e-mail transmitted directly from one user's device to another's.
 
== Spelling ==
The [[spelling]] variations ''e-mail'' and ''email'' are both common. Several prominent journalistic and technical [[style guide]]s recommend ''e-mail'',<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/CMS_FAQ/HyphensEnDashesEmDashes/HyphensEnDashesEmDashes05.html|title=Hyphens, En Dashes, Em Dashes - Q&A|accessdate=2008-05-18}}</ref><ref>[http://safari.oreilly.com/0735617465 O'Reilly - Safari Books Online - 0735617465 - Microsoft Manual of Style for Technical Publications Third Edition<!-- Bot generated title -->]</ref><ref>[http://standards.ieee.org/guides/style/annexa.html 2007 IEEE Standards Style Manual-Annex A<!-- Bot generated title -->]</ref><ref name=APStyleBook>[http://www.apstylebook.com/ask_editor.php APStylebook.com<!-- Bot generated title -->]</ref> and the spelling ''email'' is also recognized in many dictionaries.<ref>[http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/email Reference.com]</ref><ref>Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2006</ref><ref>The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition</ref><ref>Princeton University WordNet 3.0</ref><ref>The American Heritage Science Dictionary, 2002</ref> In the original [[Request for Comments|RFC]] neither spelling is used; the service is referred to as ''mail'', and a single piece of electronic mail is called a ''message''.<ref>[http://www.faqs.org/rfcs/rfc821.html RFC 821 (rfc821) - Simple Mail Transfer Protocol<!-- Bot generated title -->]</ref><ref name="11above">[http://www.faqs.org/rfcs/rfc1939.html RFC 1939 (rfc1939) - Post Office Protocol - Version 3<!-- Bot generated title -->]</ref><ref name="12above">[http://www.faqs.org/rfcs/rfc3501.html RFC 3501 (rfc3501) - Internet Message Access Protocol - version 4rev1<!-- Bot generated title -->]</ref> The plural form "e-mails" (or emails) is also recognized.<ref name=APStyleBook/>
 
[[Donald Knuth]] considers the spelling "e-mail" to be archaic and notes that it is more often spelled "email" in the UK. In some other European languages (French, German, Dutch, Romanian), "email" (ignoring diacritics) is the word for "enamel".<ref>http://www-cs-faculty.stanford.edu/~knuth/email.html - this page is undated but has been in the [[Internet Archive]] since 1997 (with a time stamp of 1996), and may be as old as 1991 according to [http://www.webmasterworld.com/content_copywriting/3107680.htm a blog post]</ref>
 
== ఆరంభం ==
{{Expand-section|date=September 2008}}
E-mail predates the inception of the [[Internet]], and was in fact a crucial tool in creating the Internet.
This was necessary because in early years UUCP computers did not maintain (or consult servers for) information about the location of all hosts they exchanged mail with, but rather only knew how to communicate with a few network neighbors; email messages (and other data such as [[Usenet|Usenet News]]) were passed along in a chain among hosts who had explicitly agreed to share data with each other.
 
== పనిచేయు విధానం ==
కుడి ప్రక్క చుపిన పటంలో అలీస్ మెయిల్ యుజర్ ఏజెంట్ ([[E-mail client|mail user agent]] (MUA)). ఉపయొగించి మెసెజ్ కంపొజ్ చెసెటప్పుడు జరిగె పరిణమాన్ని చూపించటమైనది. అలీస్([[Placeholder names in cryptography|Alice]] ) తన ఇ-మెయిల్ అడ్రస్ ([[e-mail address]]) టైప్ చేసి “send” బటన్ నోక్కినప్పుడు ఈ క్రిందవి జరుగుతాయి.
<ref>{{cite video | title = How E-mail Works | medium = internet video | publisher = howstuffworks.com | year = 2008 | url = http://www.webcastr.com/videos/informational/how-email-works.html}}</ref>
<span style="float:right">[[Fileఫైలు:email.svg|400px|How e-mail works]]</span>
# Her MUA formats the message in e-mail format and uses the [[Simple Mail Transfer Protocol]] (SMTP) to send the message to the local [[mail transfer agent]] (MTA), in this case <tt>smtp.a.org</tt>, run by Alice's [[Internet Service Provider]] (ISP).
# The MTA looks at the destination address provided in the SMTP protocol (not from the message header), in this case <tt>bob@b.org</tt>. An Internet e-mail address is a string of the form <tt>localpart@exampledomain</tt>. The part before the @ sign is the '''local part''' of the address, often the [[username]] of the recipient, and the part after the @ sign is a [[domain name]] or a [[fully qualified domain name]]. The MTA resolves a domain name to determine the fully qualified domain name of the [[mail exchange server]] in the [[Domain Name System]].
Many MTAs use to accept messages for any recipient on the Internet and do their best to deliver them. Such MTAs are called ''[[open mail relay]]s''. This was very important in the early days of the Internet when network connections were unreliable. If an MTA couldn't reach the destination, it could at least deliver it to a relay closer to the destination. The relay stood a better chance of delivering the message at a later time. However, this mechanism proved to be exploitable by people sending [[e-mail spam|unsolicited bulk e-mail]] and as a consequence very few modern MTAs are open mail relays, and many MTAs don't accept messages from open mail relays because such messages are very likely to be spam.
 
== మెస్సేజ్ ఫార్మాట్ ==
The Internet e-mail message format is defined in RFC 5322 and a series of [[Request for Comments|RFCs]], RFC 2045 through RFC 2049, collectively called, ''[[Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions]]'', or ''MIME''. Although as of July 13, 2005, RFC 2822 is technically a proposed [[Internet Engineering Task Force|IETF]] standard and the MIME RFCs are draft IETF standards,<ref>{{citeweb|title=RFC Index|url=http://www.ietf.org/iesg/1rfc_index.txt}}</ref> these documents are the standards for the format of Internet e-mail. Prior to the introduction of RFC 2822 in 2001, the format described by RFC 822 was the standard for Internet e-mail for nearly 20 years; it is still the official IETF standard. The IETF reserved the numbers 5321 and 5322 for the updated versions of RFC 2821 (SMTP) and RFC 2822, as it previously did with RFC 821 and RFC 822, honoring the extreme importance of these two RFCs. RFC 822 was published in 1982 and based on the earlier RFC 733 (see<ref>Ken Simpson, "An update to the email standards" (October 3, 2008), ''blog.mailchannels.com'', web: [http://blog.mailchannels.com/2008/10/update-to-email-standards.html MailChannels Blog Entry].
</ref>).
The header is separated from the body by a blank line.
 
=== మెస్సేజ్ హెడ్డర్ ===
<!-- This section is linked from [[Bracket]] -->
 
Each message has exactly one [[Header (computing)|header]], which is structured into [[Field (computer science)|fields]]. Each field has a name and a value. RFC 5322 specifies the precise syntax.
 
Informally, each line of text in the header that begins with a [[ASCII#ASCII_printable_charactersASCII printable characters|printable character]] begins a separate field. The field name starts in the first character of the line and ends before the separator character ":". The separator is then followed by the field value (the "body" of the field). The value is continued onto subsequent lines if those lines have a space or tab as their first character. Field names and values are restricted to 7-bit [[ASCII]] characters. Non-ASCII values may be represented using MIME [[MIME#Encoded-Word|encoded words]].
 
==== హెడ్డర్ ఫీల్డ్స్ ====
The message header should include at least the following fields:
* From: The [[e-mail address]], and optionally the name of the sender. In many e-mail clients not changeable except through changing account settings.
[[Internet Assigned Numbers Authority|IANA]] maintains [http://www.iana.org/assignments/message-headers/perm-headers.html a list of standard header fields].
 
=== సందేశ శరీరం ===
{{Refimprovesect|date=November 2007}}
 
==== కంటెంట్ ఎన్కోడింగ్ ====
E-mail was originally designed for 7-bit [[ASCII]].<ref>{{citebook|title=TCP/IP Network Administration|year=2002|isbn=978-0596002978|author=Craig Hunt|publisher=[[O'Reilly Media]]|pages=70}}</ref> Much e-mail software is [[8-bit clean]] but must assume it will communicate with 8-bit servers and mail readers. The [[MIME]] standard introduced character set specifiers and two content transfer encodings to enable transmission of non-ASCII data: [[quoted printable]] for mostly 7 bit content with a few characters outside that range and [[base64]] for arbitrary binary data. The [[8BITMIME]] extension was introduced to allow transmission of mail without the need for these encodings but many [[mail transport agent]]s still do not support it fully. In some countries, several encoding schemes coexist; as the result, by default, the message in a non-Latin alphabet language appears in non-readable form (the only exception is coincidence, when the sender and receiver use the same encoding scheme). Therefore, for international [[character set]]s, [[Unicode]] is growing in popularity.
 
==== ప్లైయిన్ తెక్శట్ మరియు హెచ్టిఎమ్మెల్ ====
Both [[plain text]] and [[HTML]] are used to convey e-mail. While text is certain to be read by all users without problems, there is a perception{{Fact|date=June 2009}} that [[HTML e-mail|HTML-based e-mail]] has a higher aesthetic value, assuming the recipient uses an e-mail client that will properly show the HTML markup. This is not always the case, especially among the technological savvy and bandwidth-constrained users. Advantages of HTML include the ability to include inline links and images, set apart previous messages in [[block quote]]s, wrap naturally on any display, use emphasis such as [[underline]]s and [[italics]], and change [[font]] styles. HTML e-mail messages often include an automatically-generated plain text copy as well, for compatibility reasons. Disadvantages include the increased size of the email, privacy concerns about [[web bug]]s, abuse of HTML email as a vector for [[phishing]] attacks and the spread of [[malware|malicious software]].<ref>{{citeweb|title=Email policies that prevent viruses|url=http://advosys.ca/papers/mail-policies.html}}</ref>
 
== Servers and client applications ==
[[Fileఫైలు:Mozilla thunderbird empty screenshot.png|thumb|right|300px|The interface of an e-mail client, [[Mozilla Thunderbird|Thunderbird]].]]
<!-- This section is linked from [[Catch-all (Mail)]]. See [[WP:MOS#Section management]] -->
Messages are exchanged between hosts using the [[SMTP|Simple Mail Transfer Protocol]] with software programs called [[mail transfer agent]]s. Users can retrieve their messages from servers using standard protocols such as [[Post Office Protocol|POP]] or [[IMAP]], or, as is more likely in a large [[corporation|corporate]] environment, with a [[Proprietary software|proprietary]] protocol specific to [[Lotus Notes]] or [[Microsoft Exchange Server]]s. [[Webmail]] interfaces allow users to access their mail with any standard [[web browser]], from any computer, rather than relying on an e-mail client.
Accepting a message obliges an MTA to deliver it, and when a message cannot be delivered, that MTA must send a [[bounce message]] back to the sender, indicating the problem.
 
=== కవిల(ఫైలు) పేర్లు మరియు పొడిగింతలు ===
Upon reception of e-mail messages, e-mail client applications save message in operating system files in the filesystem. Some clients save individual messages as separate files, while others use various database formats, often proprietary, for collective storage. A historical standard of storage is the ''[[mbox]]'' format. The specific format used is often indicated by special [[filename extension]]s:{{Expand|date=May 2009}}
;<tt>.eml</tt>
Some applications (like [[Mail (application)|Apple Mail]]) also encode attachments into messages for searching while also producing a physical copy of the files on a disk. Others separate attachments from messages by depositing them into designated folders on disk.
 
=== URI scheme ''mailto:'' ===
The [[URI scheme]], as registered with the [[Internet Assigned Numbers Authority|IANA]], defines the <tt>mailto:</tt> scheme for SMTP email addresses. Though its use is not strictly defined, URLs of this form are intended to be used to open the new message window of the user's mail client when the URL is activated, with the address as defined by the URL in the "To:" field.
<ref>
</ref>
 
== ఉపయోగం ==
{{Refimprovesect|date=November 2007}}
 
=== సమాజంలో ===
There are numerous ways in which people have changed the way they communicate in the last 50 years; e-mail is certainly one of them. Traditionally, social interaction in the local community was the basis for communication – face to face. Yet, today face-to-face meetings are no longer the primary way to communicate as one can use a landline telephone or any number of the computer mediated communications such as e-mail.
 
Research has shown that people actively use e-mail to maintain core social networks, particularly when alters live at a distance. However, contradictory to previous research, the results suggest that increases in Internet usage are associated with decreases in other modes of communication, with proficiency of Internet and e-mail use serving as a mediating factor in this relationship. <ref>Stern, Michael J.Information, Communication & Society; Oct2008, Vol. 11 Issue 5, p591-616, 26p. CLB Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK, USA. </ref>
 
==== Flaming ====
[[Flaming (Internet)|Flaming]] occurs when a person sends a message with angry or antagonistic content. Flaming is assumed to be more common today because of the ease and impersonality of e-mail communications: confrontations in person or via telephone require direct interaction, where social norms encourage civility, whereas typing a message to another person is an indirect interaction, so civility may be forgotten.{{Fact|date=June 2009}} Flaming is generally looked down upon by Internet communities as it is considered rude and non-productive.
 
==== ఈ-మెయిల్ దివాళా ====
Also known as "ఈ-మెయిల్ అలసట", ఈ-మెయిల్ దివాళా is when a user ignores a large number of e-mail messages after falling behind in reading and answering them. The reason for falling behind is often due to information overload and a general sense there is so much information that it is not possible to read it all. As a solution, people occasionally send a boilerplate message explaining that the e-mail inbox is being cleared out. [[Stanford University]] law professor [[Lawrence Lessig]] is credited with coining this term, but he may only have popularized it.<ref>{{cite news |title=All We Are Saying. |url=http://www.nytimes.com/2007/12/23/weekinreview/23buzzwords.html?ref=weekinreview |publisher=[[New York Times]] |date=[[December 23]] [[2007]]|accessdate=2007-12-24 }}</ref>
 
=== వ్యాపారంలో ===
E-mail was widely accepted by the business community as the first broad electronic communication medium and was the first ‘e-revolution’ in business communication. E-mail is very simple to understand and like postal mail, e-mail solves two basic problems of communication: logistics and synchronization (see below).
LAN based email is also an emerging form of usage for business. It not only allows the business user to download mail when ''offline'', it also provides the small business user to have multiple users e-mail ID's with just ''one e-mail connection''.
 
==== లాభాలు ====
* '''The problem of logistics'''
 
With [[Real-time computing|real time]] communication by meetings or phone calls, participants have to work on the same schedule, and each participant must spend the same amount of time in the meeting or call. E-mail allows [[asynchrony]]: each participant may control their schedule independently.
 
==== నష్టాలు ====
{{Original research|section|date=June 2009}}
Most business workers today spend from one to two hours of their working day on e-mail: reading, ordering, sorting, ‘re-contextualizing’ fragmented information, and writing e-mail.<ref>{{Cite web|url= http://www.smallbiztrends.com/2007/06/email-has-right-to-privacy-why-small-businesses-care.html|title= Email Right to Privacy - Why Small Businesses Care| date=2007-06-19| publisher= Anita Campbell}}</ref> The use of e-mail is increasing due to increasing levels of globalization&mdash;labourglobalization—labour division and outsourcing amongst other things. E-mail can lead to some well-known problems:
* '''Loss of Context''': which means that the context is lost forever , there is no way to get the text back.
Information in context (as in a newspaper) is much easier and faster to understand than unedited and sometimes unrelated fragments of information. Communicating in context can only be achieved when both parties have a full understanding of the context and issue in question.
Despite these disadvantages, e-mail has become the most widely used medium of communication within the business world.
 
== అపరిష్కృత సమస్యలు ==
{{Refimprovesect|date=November 2007}}
 
=== అతి సమాచారం ===
A December 2007 [[New York Times]] blog post described E-mail as "a $650 Billion Drag on the Economy"<ref>{{Cite web|url= http://bits.blogs.nytimes.com/2007/12/20/is-information-overload-a-650-billion-drag-on-the-economy|title= Is Information Overload a $650 Billion Drag on the Economy?| date=2007-12-20| publisher= New York Times}}</ref>, and the New York Times reported in April 2008 that "E-MAIL has become the bane of some people’s professional lives" due to information overload, yet "none of the current wave of high-profile Internet start-ups focused on e-mail really eliminates the problem of e-mail overload because none helps us prepare replies".<ref>{{Cite web|url= http://www.nytimes.com/2008/04/20/technology/20digi.html?_r=2&oref=slogin&oref=slogin|title= Struggling to Evade the E-Mail Tsunami| date=2008-04-20| publisher= New York Times}}</ref>
 
Technology investors reflect similar concerns.<ref>{{Cite web|url= http://www.foundrygroup.com/blog/archives/2008/04/did-darwin-skip-over-email.php|title= Did Darwin Skip Over Email?| date=2008-04-28| publisher= Foundry Group}}</ref>
 
=== చెత్త వేగులు, వైరస్లు ===
The usefulness of e-mail is being threatened by four phenomena: [[ఈ-మెయిల్ bomb]]ardment, [[ఈ-మెయిల్ spam|spamming]], [[phishing]], and [[ఈ-మెయిల్ worm]]s.
 
Spamming is unsolicited commercial (or bulk) e-mail. Because of the very low cost of sending e-mail, spammers can send hundreds of millions of e-mail messages each day over an inexpensive Internet connection. Hundreds of active spammers sending this volume of mail results in [[information overload]] for many computer users who receive voluminous unsolicited e-mail each day.<ref name="R"> Rich Kawanagh. The top ten e-mail spam list of 2005.
A number of [[anti-spam techniques (e-mail)|anti-spam techniques]] mitigate the impact of spam. In the [[United States]], [[Congress of the United States|U.S. Congress]] has also passed a law, the [[Can Spam Act of 2003]], attempting to regulate such e-mail. Australia also has very strict spam laws restricting the sending of spam from an Australian ISP,<ref>{{citeweb|title=Spam Bill 2003|url=http://www.aph.gov.au/library/pubs/bd/2003-04/04bd045.pdf|format=PDF}}</ref> but its impact has been minimal since most spam comes from regimes that seem reluctant to regulate the sending of spam.
 
=== ఈ-మెయిల్ spoofing ===
[[ఈ-మెయిల్ spoofing]] occurs when the header information of an email is altered to make the message appear to come from a known or trusted source. It is often used as a ruse to collect personal information.
 
=== ఈ-మెయిల్ బాంబింగ్ ===
ఉద్దేశపూర్వకంగా ఒక అడ్రసుకు పెద్ద పరిమాణం గల సందేశాలను పంపించుటను [[ఈ-మెయిల్ బాంబింగ్]] అంటారు. ఆధికంగా సందేశాలను నింపటం వలన ఆ ఈ-మెయిల్ అడ్రసు ఉపయోగించని విదముగా అవుతుంది మరియు మెయిల్ సర్వర్ పాడైపోవటానికి కారణం అవుతుంది.
 
=== గోప్యతా సమస్యలు ===
{{main|ఈ-మెయిల్ privacy}}
 
Finally, attached files share many of the same hazards as those found in [[Peer-to-peer|peer-to-peer filesharing]]. Attached files may contain [[Trojan horse (computing)|trojans]] or [[Computer virus|viruses]].
 
=== పంపిన ఉత్తరం చేరిందో లేదో చూడటం ===
మొట్టమొదట వచ్చిన SMTP మెయిల్ సర్విసులో పంపిన ఉత్తరము వెళ్ళే మార్గము తెలుసుకోవడానికి చాలా తక్కువ విధానాలు ఉండేవి. ఉత్తరము చేరిందో లేదో కూడా అవతల వారు సమాధానము ఇచ్చే దాక తెలిసేది కాదు. ఇది ఒక రకంగా లాభం అయితే,(సమాధానం చెప్పడం ఇష్టం లేక పొతే ఉత్తరం అందలేదు అని తప్పించుకోవచ్చు), మరొక విధం గా చాల పెద్ద ఇబ్బంది. అత్యవసరమైనవి, ముఖ్యమైనవి చేరాయో లేదో తెలియక, అలానే, చదవకూడని వాడి చేతి లో అది పడిందేమో అని ఆందోళన, ఇలా వుండేది. ప్రతి మెయిల్ సర్వర్ వుత్తరం అందజేయాలి, లేదా అందచేయలేదు అని తిరిగు సమాధానం చెప్పాలి. చాల మటుకు, సాఫ్టువేరు లో తప్పులతోను, లేదా చతికిలపడ్డ సర్వర్ల మూలంగా ఇవి జరిగేవి కాదు. ఐ పరిస్థితిని కెక్క దిద్దడము కోసము, [[ఇంటర్నెట్ ఇంజనీరింగ్ టాస్క్ ఫోర్స్| IETF ]] వారు [[డెలివరీ స్టేటస్ నోటిఫికేషన్]] లను (డెలివరీ రేసీప్ట్) మరియు [[రిటర్న్ రేసీప్ట్#ఈ-మెయిల్|ఉత్తరము పంపించే నోటిఫికేషన్స్ ]] (రిటర్న్ రేసీప్ట్] లను ప్రవేశ పెట్టారు. అయితే, వీటిని అమలుపరచలేదు.
 
== అమెరికా ప్రభుత్వం ==
The US Government has been involved in ఈ-మెయిల్ in several different ways.
 
In the late 1990s, the [[Federal Trade Commission]] grew concerned with fraud transpiring in ఈ-మెయిల్ , and initiated a series of procedures on spam, fraud, and phishing.<ref>[http://www.cybertelecom.org/spam/Spamref.htm Cybertelecom : SPAM Reference]</ref> In 2004, FTC jurisdiction over spam was codified into law in the form of the [[Can Spam Act|CAN SPAM Act.]]<ref>[http://www.cybertelecom.org/spam/canspam.htm Cybertelecom : Can Spam Act]</ref> Several other US Federal Agencies have also exercised jurisdiction including the Department of Justice and the Secret Service.
 
== ఇవీ చూడండి ==
{{portal|Internet|Internet_Kiosk_VTBS.JPG}}
 
=== Enhancements ===
* [[ఈ-మెయిల్ ఎంక్రిప్షన్]]
* [[HTML ఈ-మెయిల్ ]]
* [[Internet fax]]
* [[ఈ-మెయిల్ Letter|L- or letter mail, ఈ-మెయిల్ letter and letter ఈ-మెయిల్ ]]
* [[Privacy-enhanced Electronic Mail]]
* [[Push ఈ-మెయిల్ ]]
* [[Google Wave]]
 
=== ఈ-మెయిల్ social issues ===
{{top}}
* [[Anti-spam techniques (ఈ-మెయిల్)]]
* [[Computer virus]]
* [[E-card]]
* [[ఈ-మెయిల్ art]]
* [[ఈ-మెయిల్ jamming]]
* [[ఈ-మెయిల్ spam]]
* [[ఈ-మెయిల్ spoofing]]
* [[ఈ-మెయిల్ storm]]
 
{{middle}}
{{bottom}}
 
=== క్లయింట్లు మరియు సర్వర్లు ===
{{top}}
* [[Biff (computing)|Biff]]
* [[ఈ-మెయిల్ address]]
* [[ఈ-మెయిల్ authentication]]
* [[ఈ-మెయిల్ client]], [[Comparison of ఈ-మెయిల్ lients]]
* [[ఈ-మెయిల్ hosting service]]
 
{{middle}}
* [[Mail transfer agent]]
* [[Mail user agent]]
* [[Unicode and ఈ-మెయిల్ ]]
* [[Webmail]]
 
{{bottom}}
 
=== Mailing list ===
* [[ఎనానిమస్ రిమైలర్]]
* [[డిస్పోసబుల్ ఈ-మెయిల్ అడ్రస్]]
* [[ఈ-మెయిల్ ఎంక్రిప్షన్]]
* [[ఈ-మెయిల్ ట్రాకింగ్]]
* [[Electronic mailing list]]
* [[Mailer-Daemon]]
* [[Mailing list archive]]
 
=== Protocols ===
* [[ఐ.మాప్]]
* [[పాప్3]]
* [[X400]]
 
== మూలాలు ==
=== పీఠికలు ===
{{reflist|2}}
 
=== Bibliography ===
* [[కంప్యూటింగ్ గురించి ఆన్లైన్ లో ఉచిత డిక్షనరీ ]]
* Microsoft Manual of Style for Technical Publications Version 3.0
 
== బయటి లింకులు ==
 
* [http://www.iana.org/assignments/message-headers/perm-headers.html IANA's వారి standard header fields జాబితా]
* [http://www.multicians.org/thvv/mail-history.html ఎలక్ట్రానిక్ ఉత్తరము చరిత్ర] ఒకప్పటి ఈ-మెయిల్ ను ఇంప్లిమెంట్ చేసిన వారి స్వానుభవము.
 
 
 
[[వర్గం:ఇంటర్నెట్]]
[[bat-smg:Alektruonėnis pašts]]
[[be:Электронная пошта]]
[[be-x-old:Электронная пошта]]
[[bg:Електронна поща]]
[[bn:ই-মেইল]]
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