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===సూడాన్ లో మహదీలు===
During the 1870s, European initiatives against the [[slave trade]] caused an economic crisis in northern [[Sudan]], precipitating the rise of [[Mahdist]] forces.<ref>[http://www.american.edu/ted/ice/sudan.htm Civil War in the Sudan: Resources or Religion?]</ref><ref>[http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1G1-20649477.html Slave trade in the Sudan in the nineteenth century and its suppression in the years 1877-80.]</ref> [[Muhammad Ahmad|Muhammad Ahmed Al Mahdi]] was a religious leader, who proclaimed himself the [[Mahdi]] - the prophesied redeemer of Islam who will appear at [[end times]] - in 1881, and declared a Jihad against [[Ottoman]] rulers. He declared all "[[Turkish people|Turks]]" infidels and called for their [[execution]].<ref>Holt, P.M., ''The Mahdist State in Sudan,'' Clarendon Press, Oxford 1958, p.51</ref> The Mahdi raised an army and led a successful religious war to topple the [[Ottoman Empire|Ottoman]]-[[Egypt]]ian occupation of Sudan. Victory created an Islamic state, one that quickly reinstituted slavery. In the West he is most famous for defeating and later killing [[Great Britain|British]] general [[Charles George Gordon]], in the [[battle of Khartoum|fall of Khartoum]].<ref>[httphttps://archive.is/20120630181108/lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/sdtoc.html US Library of Congress, A Country Study: Sudan]</ref>
 
===వహాబీలు===
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