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==Demographics==
{{Main article|Demographics of Belarus}}
According to the National Statistical Committee, as of January 2016, the population is 9.49 million people.<ref name="2009census">{{cite web|url=http://www.belstat.gov.by/en/perepis-naseleniya/perepis-naseleniya-2009-goda/main-demographic-and-social-characteristics-of-population-of-the-republic-of-belarus/changes-in-the-populations-of-the-majority-ethnic-groups/|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20160728160107/http://www.belstat.gov.by/en/perepis-naseleniya/perepis-naseleniya-2009-goda/main-demographic-and-social-characteristics-of-population-of-the-republic-of-belarus/changes-in-the-populations-of-the-majority-ethnic-groups/|archive-date=28 July 2016 |title=Changes in the populations of the majority ethnic groups |website=Belstat.gov.by|accessdate=28 July 2016}}</ref> Ethnic [[Belarusians]] constitute 83.7% of Belarus's total population.<ref name="2009census"/> The next largest ethnic groups are: [[Russians]] (8.3%), [[Poles]] (3.1%), and [[Ukrainians]] (1.7%).<ref name="2009census"/>
Belarus has a population density of about 50 people per square kilometer (127 per sq&nbsp;mi); 70% of its total population is concentrated in urban areas.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://un.by/en/aboutbelarus/population|title=About Belarus&nbsp;– Population|accessdate=7 October 2007|year=2003|publisher=United Nations Office in Belarus|archiveurl= https://web.archive.org/web/20071017223223/http://un.by/en/aboutbelarus/population|archivedate=17 October 2007|deadurl=no}}</ref> [[Minsk]], the nation's capital and largest city, was home to 1,937,900 residents {{as of|2015|alt=in 2015}}.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://belstat.gov.by/ofitsialnaya-statistika/otrasli-statistiki/naselenie/demografiya_2/operativnaya-informatsiya_1/o-demograficheskoi-situatsii/o-demograficheskoi-situatsii-v-yanvare-marte-2015-g/|title=О демографической ситуации в январе-марте 2015 г.|trans-title=About demographic situation in January–March 2015|language=Russian|deadurl=yes|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20150504020547/http://belstat.gov.by/ofitsialnaya-statistika/otrasli-statistiki/naselenie/demografiya_2/operativnaya-informatsiya_1/o-demograficheskoi-situatsii/o-demograficheskoi-situatsii-v-yanvare-marte-2015-g/|archivedate=4 May 2015|df=dmy-all}}</ref> [[Gomel]], with a population of 481,000, is the second-largest city and serves as the capital of the [[Homiel Voblast]]. Other large cities are [[Mogilev]] (365,100), [[Vitebsk]] (342,400), [[Hrodna]] (314,800) and [[Brest, Belarus|Brest]] (298,300).<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.world-gazetteer.com/wg.php?x=&men=gcis&lng=en&dat=32&geo=-43&srt=npan&col=aohdq&pt=c&va=&srt=pnan|title=Largest Cities of Belarus (2007)|publisher=World-gazetteer.com|accessdate=29 April 2013|deadurl=yes|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20071001000814/http://www.world-gazetteer.com/wg.php?x=&men=gcis&lng=en&dat=32&geo=-43&srt=npan&col=aohdq&pt=c&va=&srt=pnan|archivedate=1 October 2007|df=dmy-all}}</ref>
 
Like many other eastern European countries, Belarus has a negative population growth rate and a negative natural growth rate. In 2007, Belarus's population declined by 0.41% and its [[Total fertility rate|fertility rate]] was 1.22,<ref name="demographics">{{cite web|url=https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/bo.html|title=CIA World Factbook (2007)&nbsp;– Belarus&nbsp;– People|accessdate=7 November 2007|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20071114004238/https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/bo.html|archivedate= 14 November 2007|deadurl=no}}</ref> well [[Sub-replacement fertility|below the replacement rate]]. Its [[net migration rate]] is +0.38 per 1,000, indicating that Belarus experiences slightly more immigration than emigration. {{As of|2015}}, 69.9% of Belarus's population is aged 14 to 64; 15.5% is under 14, and 14.6% is 65 or older. Its population is also aging; the median age of 30–34 is estimated to rise to between 60 and 64 in 2050.<ref>{{cite web|url=https://www.census.gov/population/international/data/idb/informationGateway.php|title=International Programs: International Data Base|accessdate=9 February 2017|publisher=U.S. Census Bureau|deadurl=yes|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20170208114205/http://www.census.gov/population/international/data/idb/informationGateway.php|archivedate=8 February 2017|df=dmy-all}}</ref> There are about 0.87 males per female in Belarus.<ref name="demographics"/> The average life expectancy is 72.15 (66.53 years for men and 78.1 years for women).<ref name="demographics"/> Over 99% of Belarusians aged 15 and older are [[literate]].<ref name="demographics"/>
 
{{Largest cities of Belarus}}
 
===Languages===
{{Main article|Languages of Belarus}}
Belarus' two official languages are Russian and [[Belarusian language|Belarusian]];<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.bbc.co.uk/languages/european_languages/languages/belarusian.shtml|title=Languages across Europe.|publisher=Bbc.co.uk|accessdate=29 April 2013}}</ref> Russian is the main language, used by 72% of the population, while Belarusian, the official first language, is spoken by 11.9%.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.informador.com.mx/cultura/2009/139096/6/tres-de-cada-cuatro-bielorrusos-emplean-en-su-vida-cotidiana-el-ruso.htm|language=Spanish|title=Tres de cada cuatro bielorrusos emplean en su vida cotidiana el ruso (''Three of every four Belarusians use Russian in their daily lives'')|accessdate=25 October 2009|quote=According to results announced today from an investigation by The Center for Information and Analysis of the Presidency of Belarus&nbsp;... [f]or 72% of the population, Russian in the primary language used in everyday life&nbsp;... According to the study, only 11.9% of inhabitants primarily speaks Belarusian, while the rest uses a mix of Russian and Belarusian. 29.4%&nbsp;... speaks, reads, and writes in Belarusian, while 52.5% only speaks and reads it&nbsp;... [O]ne in ten does not understand Belarusian [at all]. (quote translated)}}</ref> Minorities also speak [[Polish language|Polish]], [[Ukrainian language|Ukrainian]] and [[Eastern Yiddish]].<ref>Gordon, Raymond G., Jr. (ed.), 2005. Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Fifteenth edition. Dallas, TX: SIL International. Online version: [http://www.ethnologue.com/ Ethnologue.com].</ref> Belarusian, although not as widely used as Russian, is the mother tongue of 53.2% of the population, whereas Russian is the mother tongue of only 41.5%.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://belstat.gov.by/en/perepis-naseleniya/perepis-naseleniya-2009-goda/main-demographic-and-social-characteristics-of-population-of-the-republic-of-belarus/population-classified-by-knowledge-of-the-belarusian-and-russian-languages-by-region-and-minsk-city|title=Population classified by knowledge of the Belarusian and Russian languages by region and Minsk City|website=Belstat.gov.by|accessdate=3 August 2017}}</ref>
 
===Religion===
{{Main article|Religion in Belarus}}
{{Bar box
| title=Religion in Belarus (2011)<ref name=mfa>{{cite web|title=Religion and denominations in the Republic of Belarus|url=http://www.mfa.gov.by/upload/pdf/religion_eng.pdf|publisher=Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Belarus|accessdate=17 February 2013}}</ref>
| float=right
| bars=
{{Bar percent|[[Eastern Orthodox Church|Eastern Orthodoxy]]|DeepPink|48.3}}
{{Bar percent|[[Irreligion]]|SlateGray|41.1}}
{{Bar percent|Roman Catholicism|DarkOrchid|7.1}}
{{Bar percent|Other religions|LimeGreen|3.3}}
}}
[[File:Belarus-Polatsk-Cathedral of Sophia-2.jpg|thumb|upright|left|[[Saint Sophia Cathedral in Polotsk]]]]
According to the census of {{as of|November 2011|lc=on}}, 58.9% of all Belarusians adhere to some kind of religion; out of those, [[Belarusian Orthodox Church|Eastern Orthodoxy]] (Belarusian Exarchate of the [[Russian Orthodox Church]]) makes up about 82%.<ref name=mfa/> [[Roman Catholicism in Belarus|Roman Catholicism]] is practiced mostly in the western regions, and there are also different denominations of Protestantism.<ref>{{cite web|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=00B6wxgftH8C&pg=PA39&dq=belarus+catholics&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwi279SjkMnLAhVR9mMKHTj0ADQQ6AEIJzAC#v=onepage&q=belarus%20catholics&f=false|title=Understanding Belarus and how Western Foreign Policy Misses the Mark|publisher=}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.nationmaster.com/country/bo-belarus/rel-religion|title=Belarusian Religion statistics, definitions and sources|publisher=Nationmaster.com|accessdate=29 April 2013}}</ref> Minorities also practice [[Greek Catholicism]], Judaism, Islam and Neopaganism. Overall, 48.3% of the population is Orthodox Christian, 41.1% is not religious, 7.1% is Catholic and 3.3% follows other religions.<ref name=mfa/>
 
Belarus's Catholic minority is concentrated in the western part of the country, especially around [[Hrodna]], is made up of a mixture of Belarusians and the country's [[Poles|Polish]] and [[Lithuanian people|Lithuanian]] minorities.<ref name="Belarus – Religion">{{cite web|url=http://countrystudies.us/belarus/20.htm|title=Belarus – Religion|publisher=countrystudies.us}}</ref> In a statement to the media regarding Belarusian-Vatican ties, President Lukashenko stated that Orthodox and Catholic believers are the "two main confessions in our country".<ref>{{cite web|url=http://news.belta.by/en/news/president?id=363517|title=Belarus, Roman Catholic Church may ink cooperation agreement – President|publisher=News.belta.by|date=25 April 2009|accessdate=4 October 2012|deadurl=yes|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20120326123631/http://news.belta.by/en/news/president?id=363517|archivedate=26 March 2012|df=dmy-all}}</ref>
 
Belarus was once a major center of European Jews, with 10% of the population being [[history of the Jews in Belarus|Jewish]]. But since the mid-20th century, the number of Jews has been reduced by the [[Holocaust]], deportation, and emigration, so that today it is a very small minority of less than one percent.<ref>Minsk Jewish Campus [http://www.meod.by/en/belarus-info/jewish-belarus.html Jewish Belarus] {{webarchive|url=https://archive.is/20130824171216/http://www.meod.by/en/belarus-info/jewish-belarus.html|date=24 August 2013}}; retrieved {{Nowrap|9 July}} 2007.</ref> The [[Lipka Tatars]], numbering over 15,000, are predominantly [[Islam in Belarus|Muslims]]. According to Article 16 of the [[Constitution of Belarus|Constitution]], Belarus has no official religion. While the [[freedom of religion|freedom of worship]] is granted in the same article, religious organizations deemed harmful to the government or social order can be prohibited.<ref name="s1"/>
 
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