"ఐర్లాండ్" కూర్పుల మధ్య తేడాలు

140 bytes removed ,  1 సంవత్సరం క్రితం
[[Shelta language|Shelta]], the language of the nomadic [[Irish Travellers]] is native to Ireland.<ref name=McArthur>{{cite book |editor-last=McArthur |editor-first=Tom |title=The Oxford Companion to the English Language |publisher=[[Oxford University Press]] |date=1992 |pages= |isbn=978-0-19-214183-5}}</ref>
==సంస్కృతి ==
{{Main|Culture of Ireland|Culture of Northern Ireland}}
[[File:Ardboe Cross.jpg|upright|thumb|[[Ardboe High Cross]], [[County Tyrone]]|alt=Tall stone cross, with intricate carved patterns, protected by metal railings surrounded by short cut grass. Trees are to either side, cows in open countryside are in the middle distance.]]
Ireland's culture comprises elements of the culture of ancient peoples, later immigrant and broadcast cultural influences (chiefly [[Gaels|Gaelic culture]], [[Anglicisation]], [[Americanisation]] and aspects of broader [[European culture]]). In broad terms, Ireland is regarded as one of the [[Celtic nations]] of Europe, alongside [[Scotland]], [[Wales]], [[Cornwall]], [[Isle of Man]] and [[Brittany]]. This combination of cultural influences is visible in the intricate designs termed ''Irish [[Interlace (visual arts)|interlace]]'' or ''[[Celtic knot]]work.'' These can be seen in the ornamentation of medieval religious and secular works. The style is still popular today in jewellery and graphic art,<ref name="BBC 1">{{cite news |title=Tionchar na gCeilteach |url= http://www.bbc.co.uk/irish/articles/view/720/english/ |access-date=23 January 2010 |date=23 May 2009 |work=BBC News Online}}</ref> as is the distinctive style of [[traditional Irish music]] and dance, and has become indicative of modern "Celtic" culture in general.
The Republic of Ireland's national theatre is the [[Abbey Theatre]], which was founded in 1904, and the national Irish-language theatre is [[An Taibhdhearc]], which was established in 1928 in [[Galway]].<ref>{{cite web |title=Stair na Taibhdheirce |publisher=An Taibhdheirce |date=2014 |url= http://antaibhdhearc.com/theatre-info/fuinn/ |access-date= 28 May 2014}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=An Taibhdhearc |publisher=Fodor's |url= http://www.fodors.com/world/europe/ireland/county-clare-galway-and-the-aran-islands |access-date=4 October 2014 |dead-url=yes |archive-url= https://web.archive.org/web/20141002060446/http://www.fodors.com/world/europe/ireland/county-clare-galway-and-the-aran-islands/ |archive-date=2 October 2014}}</ref> Playwrights such as [[Seán O'Casey]], [[Brian Friel]], [[Sebastian Barry]], [[Conor McPherson]] and [[Billy Roche]] are internationally renowned.<ref>{{Cite book |last=Houston |first=Eugenie |title=Working and Living in Ireland |publisher=Working and Living Publications |date=2001 |isbn=978-0-9536896-8-2 |page=253}}</ref>
===Artsకళలు ===
{{Main|Music of Ireland|Irish dance|Irish literature|Irish art|Irish theatre}}
[[File:KellsFol032vChristEnthroned.jpg|thumb|upright|Illuminated page from [[Book of Kells]]]]
Ireland has made a large contribution to world literature in all its branches, both in Irish and English. Poetry in Irish is among the oldest [[vernacular literature|vernacular poetry]] in Europe, with the earliest examples dating from the 6th century.
Irish remained the dominant literary language down to the nineteenth century, despite the spread of English from the seventeenth century on. Prominent names from the medieval period and later include [[Gofraidh Fionn Ó Dálaigh]] (fourteenth century), [[Dáibhí Ó Bruadair]] (seventeenth century) and [[Aogán Ó Rathaille]] (eighteenth century). [[Eibhlín Dubh Ní Chonaill]] (c. 1743 – c. 1800) was an outstanding poet in the oral tradition. The latter part of the nineteenth century saw a rapid replacement of Irish by English. By 1900, however, cultural nationalists had begun the [[Gaelic revival]], which saw the beginnings of a modern literature in Irish. This was to produce a number of notable writers, including [[Máirtín Ó Cadhain]], [[Máire Mhac an tSaoi]] and others. Irish-language publishers such as [[Coiscéim]] and [[Cló Iar-Chonnacht]] continue to produce scores of titles every year.
[[File:Revolutionary Joyce.jpg|thumb|upright|[[James Joyce]] one of the most significant writers of the 20th century]]
Music has been in evidence in Ireland since prehistoric times.<ref>O'Dwyer, Simon: ''Prehistoric Music in Ireland'' (Stroud, Gloucestershire: Tempus Publishing, 2004), {{ISBN|0-7524-3129-3}}.</ref> Although in the [[early Middle Ages]] the church was "quite unlike its counterpart in continental Europe",<ref>Brannon, Patrick V.: "Medieval Ireland: Music in Cathedral, Church and Cloister", in: ''Early Music'' 28.2 (May 2000), p. 193.</ref> there was considerable interchange between monastic settlements in Ireland and the rest of Europe that contributed to what is known as [[Gregorian chant]]. Outside religious establishments, musical genres in early Gaelic Ireland are referred to as a triad of weeping music (''goltraige''), laughing music (''geantraige'') and sleeping music (''suantraige'').<ref>Buckley, Ann: "Medieval Ireland, Music in", in: ''The Encyclopaedia of Music in Ireland'', ed. by Harry White and Barra Boydell (Dublin: UCD Press, 2013), {{ISBN|978-1-906359-78-2}}, p. 659.</ref> Vocal and instrumental music (e.g. for the harp, pipes, and various [[string instrument]]s) was transmitted orally, but the [[Irish harp]], in particular, was of such significance that it became Ireland's national symbol. Classical music following European models first developed in urban areas, in establishments of Anglo-Irish rule such as [[Dublin Castle]], [[St Patrick's Cathedral, Dublin|St Patrick's Cathedral]] and [[Christ Church Cathedral, Dublin|Christ Church]] as well as the country houses of the Anglo-Irish ascendancy, with the first performance of [[George Frideric Handel|Handel]]'s ''[[Messiah (Handel)|Messiah]]'' (1742) being among the highlights of the baroque era. In the 19th century, public concerts provided access to classical music to all classes of society. Yet, for political and financial reasons Ireland has been too small to provide a living to many musicians, so the names of the better-known [[List of Irish classical composers|Irish composers]] of this time belong to emigrants.
Irish [[folk music|traditional music]] and [[dance]] has seen a surge in popularity and global coverage since the 1960s. In the middle years of the 20th century, as Irish society was modernising, traditional music had fallen out of favour, especially in urban areas.<ref>{{Cite book |last=Geraghty |first=Des |title=Luke Kelly: A Memoir |publisher=Basement Press |date=1994 |pages=26–30 |isbn=978-1-85594-090-1}}</ref> However during the 1960s, there was a revival of interest in Irish traditional music led by groups such as [[The Dubliners]], [[The Chieftains]], [[The Wolfe Tones]], the [[Clancy Brothers]], [[Sweeney's Men]] and individuals like [[Seán Ó Riada]] and [[Christy Moore]]. Groups and musicians including [[Horslips]], [[Van Morrison]] and [[Thin Lizzy]] incorporated elements of Irish traditional music into contemporary [[rock music]] and, during the 1970s and 1980s, the distinction between traditional and rock musicians became blurred, with many individuals regularly crossing over between these styles of playing. This trend can be seen more recently in the work of artists like [[Enya]], [[The Saw Doctors]], [[The Corrs]], [[Sinéad O'Connor]], [[Clannad (musical group)|Clannad]], [[The Cranberries]] and [[The Pogues]] among others.
The earliest known Irish graphic art and sculpture are Neolithic carvings found at sites such as [[Newgrange]]<ref>{{Cite book |last1=O'Kelly |first1=Michael J. |last2=O'Kelly |first2=Claire |title=Newgrange: Archaeology Art and Legend |publisher=Thames and Hudson |date=1982 |location=London |url= https://books.google.com/?id=bGiMHQAACAAJ |isbn=978-0-500-27371-5}}</ref> and is traced through [[Bronze age]] artefacts and the religious carvings and [[illuminated manuscripts]] of the medieval period. During the course of the 19th and 20th centuries, a strong tradition of painting emerged, including such figures as [[John Butler Yeats]], [[William Orpen]], [[Jack Yeats]] and [[Louis le Brocquy]]. Contemporary Irish visual artists of note include [[Sean Scully]], [[Kevin Abosch]], and [[Alice Maher]].
[[File:Robert Boyle 0001.jpg|thumb|upright|[[Robert Boyle]] formulated Boyle's Law.]]
The Irish philosopher and theologian [[Johannes Scotus Eriugena]] was considered one of the leading intellectuals of the early Middle Ages. Sir [[Ernest Henry Shackleton]], an Irish explorer, was one of the principal figures of Antarctic exploration. He, along with his expedition, made the first ascent of [[Mount Erebus]] and the discovery of the approximate location of the [[South Magnetic Pole]]. [[Robert Boyle]] was a 17th-century natural philosopher, chemist, physicist, inventor and early [[gentleman scientist]]. He is largely regarded one of the founders of modern chemistry and is best known for the formulation of [[Boyle's law]].<ref name="ucc boyle boi">{{cite web |last=Reville |first=William |title=Ireland's Scientific Heritage |website=Understanding Science: Famous Irish Scientists |publisher=[[University College Cork]], Faculty of Science |date=14 December 2000 |url= http://undersci.ucc.ie/wp-content/uploads/sites/12/2014/11/Robert_Boyle.pdf |access-date=30 August 2015}}</ref>
Ireland has nine universities, seven in the Republic of Ireland and two in Northern Ireland, including [[Trinity College, Dublin]] and the [[University College Dublin]], as well as numerous third-level colleges and institutes and a branch of the Open University, the [[Open University in Ireland]].
{{Main|Sport in Ireland}}
{{See also|Irish people#Sports|l1=List of Irish sports people}}
[[Gaelic football]] is the most popular sport in Ireland in terms of match attendance and community involvement, with about 2,600 clubs on the island. In 2003 it represented 34% of total sports attendances at events in Ireland and abroad, followed by [[hurling]] at 23%, soccer at 16% and [[rugby football|rugby]] at 8%.<ref name="esri">{{cite web |url= http://www.esri.ie/pdf/BKMNINT180_Main%20Text_Social%20and%20Economic%20Value%20of%20Sport.pdf |publisher=Economic and Social Research Institute |format=PDF |title=The Social Significance of Sport |access-date=21 October 2008 |archive-url= https://web.archive.org/web/20150712134834/http://www.esri.ie/pdf/BKMNINT180_Main%20Text_Social%20and%20Economic%20Value%20of%20Sport.pdf |archive-date=12 July 2015}}</ref> The [[All-Ireland Football Final]] is the most watched event in the sporting calendar.<ref>{{cite web |url= http://www.finfacts.com/irelandbusinessnews/publish/article_10004396.shtml |title=Initiative's latest ViewerTrack study shows that in Ireland GAA and soccer still dominate the sporting arena, while globally the Superbowl (sic) was the most watched sporting event of 2005 |website=FinFacts.com |publisher=Finfacts Multimedia |date=4 January 2006 |access-date=24 January 2010}}</ref> Soccer is the most widely played team game on the island, and the most popular in [[Northern Ireland]].<ref name="esri"/><ref name="FootballSoccer">{{cite web |url= http://www.culturenorthernireland.org/article/709/soccer-in-northern-ireland |title=Soccer in Northern Ireland |website=Culture Northern Ireland |publisher=Nerve Centre |location=Derry/Londonderry |date=14 July 2008 |access-date=8 June 2011}}</ref>
The island fields a single international team in most sports. One notable exception to this is association football, although both associations continued to field international teams under the name "Ireland" until the 1950s. The sport is also the most notable exception where the [[Republic of Ireland national football team|Republic of Ireland]] and [[Northern Ireland national football team|Northern Ireland]] field separate international teams. Northern Ireland has produced two World Snooker Champions.
====Field sports====
[[File:Tyrone Blanket Defence.jpg|thumb|[[Tyrone GAA|Tyrone]] v [[Kerry GAA|Kerry]] in the [[2005 All-Ireland Senior Football Championship Final]]]]
"https://te.wikipedia.org/wiki/ప్రత్యేక:MobileDiff/2480863" నుండి వెలికితీశారు