"హరప్పా" కూర్పుల మధ్య తేడాలు

ట్యాగు: విశేషణాలున్న పాఠ్యం
సింధు లోయ నాగరికత (హరప్పా నాగరికత అనికూడా పిలువబడుతుంది) చరిత్ర మెహరుగఢు నాగరికత, దాదాపు 6000 క్రీ.పూ. వరకూ వెళుతుంది. రెండు ప్రసిద్ధ నగరాలు [[మొహంజో దారో]], హరప్పాలు, [[పంజాబ్|పంజాబు]], సింధు ప్రాంతాలలో క్రీ.పూ. 2600 లో వెలసిల్లాయి.<ref>{{cite book | last = Beck | first = Roger B. | authorlink = | coauthors = Linda Black, Larry S. Krieger, Phillip C. Naylor, Dahia Ibo Shabaka, | title = World History: Patterns of Interaction | publisher = McDougal Littell | date = 1999 | location = Evanston, IL | pages = | url = | doi = | id = | isbn = 0-395-87274-X }}</ref> ఈ [[నాగరికత]]<nowiki/>లో [[వ్రాత]] విధానం, నగర కేంద్రాలు, వైవిధ్యభరిత సామాజిక ఆర్థిక విధానాలు మున్నగునవి క్రీ.శ. 20వ శతాబ్దంలో చేపట్టబడిన పురాతత్వ త్రవ్వకాలలో కనుగొనబడినవి. ఈ త్రవ్వకాలలో ఇవి "మొహంజో దారో" (అర్థం: చనిపోయిన వారి సమాధి శిథిలాలు) సింధు ప్రాంతంలో సుక్కురు వద్ద, హరప్పా, పశ్చిమ పంజాబు [[లాహోరు]]కు దక్షిణాన కనుగొనబడ్డాయి.<ref>[[Jonathan Mark Kenoyer|Kenoyer, J.M.]], 1997, Trade and Technology of the Indus Valley: New insights from Harappa Pakistan, World Archaeology, 29(2), pp. 260-280, High definition archaeology</ref>
[[దస్త్రం:WellAndBathingPlatforms-Harappa.jpg|thumb|232px|హరప్పాలో కనుగొనబడిన శిథిలాలు; ఓ పెద్ద బావి మరియు స్నానఘట్టాలు.]]
==Culture and economy==
 
The Indus Valley civilization was mainly an urban culture sustained by surplus agricultural production and commerce, the latter including trade with [[Sumer]] in southern [[Mesopotamia]]. Both [[Mohenjo-Daro]] and Harappa are generally characterized as having "differentiated living quarters, flat-roofed brick houses, and fortified administrative or religious centers."<ref name=loc>Library of Congress: Country Studies. 1995. [http://ancienthistory.about.com/od/indusvalleyciv/a/harappanculture.htm Harappan Culture]. Retrieved 13 January 2006.</ref> Although such similarities have given rise to arguments for the existence of a standardized system of urban layout and planning, the similarities are largely due to the presence of a semi-orthogonal type of civic layout, and a comparison of the layouts of [[Mohenjo-Daro]] and Harappa shows that they are in fact, arranged in a quite dissimilar fashion.
 
The weights and measures of the Indus Valley Civilization, on the other hand, were highly standardized, and conform to a set scale of gradations. Distinctive seals were used, among other applications, perhaps for identification of property and shipment of goods. Although copper and [[bronze]] were in use, [[Iron (material)|iron]] was not yet employed. "Cotton was woven and dyed for clothing; wheat, rice, and a variety of vegetables and fruits were [[Agriculture|cultivated]]; and a number of animals, including the [[Brahman (cattle)|humped bull]], were [[Domestication|domesticated]],"<ref name="loc" /> as well as "[[fighting cock|fowl for fighting]]".<ref>[https://books.google.com/books?id=Q8xHK6ibUMYC&pg=PA16&lpg=PA16&dq=Harappa+cock+fight&source=bl&ots=0iVMnkD9m5&sig=RBt1SvGwwTAgeu-PqZzEhvY-bAk&hl=en&sa=X&ei=JiEfUL35CYSQ9gTL3oDwAw&ved=0CDUQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=Harappa%20cock%20fight&f=false] Poultry: Identification, Fabrication, Utilization by Thomas Schneller – Cengage Learning, 28 September 2009 – page 16</ref> Wheel-made pottery—some of it adorned with animal and geometric motifs—has been found in profusion at all the major Indus sites. A centralized administration for each city, though not the whole civilization, has been inferred from the revealed cultural uniformity; however, it remains uncertain whether authority lay with a commercial [[oligarchy]]. Harappans had many trade routes along the Indus River that went as far as the Persian Gulf, Mesopotamia, and Egypt. Some of the most valuable things traded were [[carnelian]] and [[lapis lazuli]].<ref>{{Cite book|title = Worlds Together, Worlds Apart|last = Pollard|first = Elizabeth|publisher = Norton|year = 2015|isbn = 978-0-393-92207-3|location = New York|page = 67}}</ref>
 
What is clear is that Harappan society was not entirely peaceful, with the human skeletal remains demonstrating some of the highest rates of injury (15.5%) found in South Asian prehistory.<ref>{{cite journal|url = | doi=10.1016/j.ijpp.2012.09.012 | pmid=29539378 | volume=2 | issue=2–3 | title=A peaceful realm? Trauma and social differentiation at Harappa | year=2012 | journal=International Journal of Paleopathology | pages=136–147 | last1 = Robbins Schug | first1 = Gwen}}</ref> Paleopathological analysis demonstrated that leprosy and tuberculosis were present at Harappa, with the highest prevalence of both disease and trauma present in the skeletons from Area G (an ossuary located south-east of the city walls).<ref name="plosone.org">{{cite journal | doi = 10.1371/journal.pone.0084814 | volume=8 | issue=12 | title=Infection, Disease, and Biosocial Processes at the End of the Indus Civilization | year=2013 | journal=PLoS ONE | page=e84814 | last1 = Robbins Schug | first1 = Gwen| pmc=3866234 }}</ref> Furthermore, rates of cranio-facial trauma and infection increased through time demonstrating that the civilization collapsed amid illness and injury. The bioarchaeologists who examined the remains have suggested that the combined evidence for differences in mortuary treatment and epidemiology indicate that some individuals and communities at Harappa were excluded from access to basic resources like health and safety, a basic feature of hierarchical societies worldwide.<ref name="plosone.org"/>
 
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