వాడుకరి:Sri Harsha Bhogi/ప్రయోగశాల

స్వలింగ సంపర్కం Page

మూస:Sexual orientation మూస:LGBT sidebar ఒక సెక్సువల్ ఓరియంటేషన్‌గా, స్వలైంగికత అనేది ఒక లింగానికి చెందినవారికి అదే లింగానికి చెందినవారిపై "భావోద్వేగ, రొమ్యాంటిక్, ఇంకా/లేదా లైంగిక ఆకర్షణల యొక్క enduring pattern". As a sexual orientation, homosexuality is "an enduring pattern of emotional, romantic, and/or sexual attractions" to people of the same sex. It "also refers to a person's sense of identity based on those attractions, related behaviors, and membership in a community of others who share those attractions."[1][2]

ద్విలైంగికత, పరలైంగికతలతో కలిపి, స్వలైంగికత స్వలైంగిక-పరలైంగిక కంటిన్యువం లోపల ఉన్న సెక్సువల్ ఓరియంటేషన్ కి సంబంధించిన మూడు ప్రధాన క్యాటగిరీలలో ఒకటి. Along with bisexuality and heterosexuality, homosexuality is one of the three main categories of sexual orientation within the heterosexual–homosexual continuum.[1] శాస్త్రవేత్తలకి ఇప్పటి దాకా sexual orientation కి గల exact కారణం తెలీదు, కానీ Scientists do not yet know the exact cause of sexual orientation, but they theorize that it is caused by a complex interplay of genetic, hormonal, and environmental influences[3][4][5] and do not view it as a choice.[3][4][6] Although no single theory on the cause of sexual orientation has yet gained widespread support, scientists favor biologically based theories.[3] There is considerably more evidence supporting nonsocial, biological causes of sexual orientation than social ones, especially for males.[7][8][9] There is no substantive evidence which suggests parenting or early childhood experiences play a role with regard to sexual orientation.[10] While some people believe that homosexual activity is unnatural,[11] scientific research shows that homosexuality is a normal and natural variation in human sexuality and is not in and of itself a source of negative psychological effects.[1][12] There is insufficient evidence to support the use of psychological interventions to change sexual orientation.[13][14]

ఇంగ్లీషులో ఆడ స్వలింగ సంపర్కుల్ని లెస్బియన్ అని, మగ స్వలింగ సంపర్కుల్ని గే అని అంటారు, అయితే‌ గే అన్న పదాన్ని సాధారణంగా అన్ని లింగాల వారికీ ఉపయోగిస్తారు. The most common adjectives for homosexual people are lesbian for females and gay for males, but the term gay also commonly refers to both homosexual females and males. The percentage of people who are gay or lesbian and the proportion of people who are in same-sex romantic relationships or have had same-sex sexual experiences are difficult for researchers to estimate reliably for a variety of reasons, including many gay and lesbian people not openly identifying as such due to prejudice or discrimination such as homophobia and heterosexism.[15] స్వలైంగిక ప్రవర్తన చాలా జంతు జాతుల్లో డాక్యుమెంట్ చెయ్యబడింది. Homosexual behavior has also been documented in many non-human animal species,[21] though humans are one of only two species known to exhibit a homosexual orientation.[7]

Many gay and lesbian people are in committed same-sex relationships. These relationships are equivalent to heterosexual relationships in essential psychological respects.[2] Homosexual relationships and acts have been admired, as well as condemned, throughout recorded history, depending on the form they took and the culture in which they occurred.[22] ఇరవయ్యో శతాబ్దపు చివరి‌నాటి నుండి, స్వలైంగికులకు ఇతరులతో సరిసాటిగా స్వేచ్ఛా సమానత్వాల కోసం ఒక ప్రపంచవ్యాప్త ఉద్యమం నడుస్తోంది. దీనిలో‌ భాగంగా‌ స్కూళ్లలో స్వలైంగికులైన పిల్లల్ని ర్యాగింగ్ నుంచి కాపాడటానికీ, స్వలింగ‌ సంపర్కులపై వివక్షను‌ సమాజం నుంచి తొలగించడానికీ చట్టాలు చెయ్యడం, సైన్యంలో పనిచెయ్యడానికీ, దత్తత తీసుకోవటానికీ ఇతరులతో సమాన అర్హత, వైవాహిక సమానత్వం వంటి వాటి కోసం పోరాడుతున్నారు. Since the end of the 20th century, there has been a global movement towards freedom and equality for gay people, including the introduction of anti-bullying legislation to protect gay children at school, legislation ensuring non-discrimination, equal ability to serve in the military, equal access to health care, equal ability to adopt and parent, and the establishment of marriage equality.

చరిత్రసవరించు

ఆఫ్రికాసవరించు

ప్రాచీన ఈజిప్టులో, రుమారుమి 2400 BC కాలంలో జీవించిన ఖ్నుంహోతెప్, నియంఖ్ఖ్నుంల జంటని చారిత్రక రికార్డులలో నమోదైన అత్యంత ప్రాచీన స్వలైంగిక జంట అయ్యుండొచ్చు అని సాధారణంగా గుర్తిస్తారు.

The first record of a possible homosexual couple in history is commonly regarded as Khnumhotep and Niankhkhnum, an ancient Egyptian male couple, who lived around 2400 BCE. The pair are portrayed in a nose-kissing position, the most intimate pose in Egyptian art, surrounded by what appear to be their heirs. The anthropologists Stephen Murray and Will Roscoe reported that women in Lesotho engaged in socially sanctioned "long term, erotic relationships" called motsoalle.[23] The anthropologist E. E. Evans-Pritchard also recorded that male Azande warriors in the northern Congo routinely took on young male lovers between the ages of twelve and twenty, who helped with household tasks and participated in intercrural sex with their older husbands.[24]

ఉత్తర, దక్షిణ అమెరికాలుసవరించు

Indigenous సంసృతులుసవరించు

 
Dance to the Berdache
Sac and Fox Nation ceremonial dance to celebrate the two-spirit person. George Catlin (1796–1872); Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.

As is true of many other non-Western cultures, it is difficult to determine the extent to which Western notions of sexual orientation and gender identity apply to Pre-Columbian cultures. Evidence of homoerotic sexual acts and transvestism has been found in many pre-conquest civilizations in Latin America, such as the Aztecs, Mayas, Quechuas, Moches, Zapotecs, the Incas, and the Tupinambá of Brazil.[25][26][27]

స్పానిష్ ఆక్రమణదారులు The Spanish conquerors were horrified to discover sodomy openly practiced among native peoples, and attempted to crush it out by subjecting the berdaches (as the Spanish called them) under their rule to severe penalties, including public execution, burning and being torn to pieces by dogs.[28] The Spanish conquerors talked extensively of sodomy among the natives to depict them as savages and hence justify their conquest and forceful conversion to Christianity. As a result of the growing influence and power of the conquerors, many native cultures started condemning homosexual acts themselves.[citation needed]

Among some of the indigenous peoples of the Americas in North America prior to European colonization, a relatively common form of same-sex sexuality centered around the figure of the Two-Spirit individual (the term itself was coined only in 1990).[citation needed] Typically, this individual was recognized early in life, given a choice by the parents to follow the path and, if the child accepted the role, raised in the appropriate manner, learning the customs of the gender it had chosen. Two-Spirit individuals were commonly shamans and were revered as having powers beyond those of ordinary shamans. Their sexual life was with the ordinary tribe members of the same sex.[citation needed]

During the colonial times following the European invasion, homosexuality was prosecuted by the Inquisition, sometimes leading to death sentences on the charges of sodomy, and the practices became clandestine. Many homosexual individuals went into heterosexual marriages to maintain appearances, and many joined the (unmarried) Catholic clergy to escape public scrutiny of their lack of interest in the opposite sex.[citation needed]

కెనడాసవరించు

During the colonial period, both the French and the British criminalised same-sex sexual relations. Anal sex between males was a capital offence.[29] Post-Confederation, anal sex and acts of "gross indecency" continued to be criminal offences, but were no longer capital offences.[30] Individuals were prosecuted for same-sex sexual activity as late as the 1960s, which led to the federal Parliament amending the Criminal Code in 1969 to provide that anal sex between consenting adults in private (defined as only two persons) was not a criminal offence. In advocating for the law, the then-Minister of Justice, Pierre Trudeau, said: "The state has no place in the bedrooms of the nation."[31]

In 1995, the Supreme Court of Canada held that sexual orientation is a protected personal characteristic under the equality clause of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms.[32] The federal Parliament and provincial legislatures began to amend their laws to treat same-sex relations in the same way as opposite-sex relations. Beginning in 2003, the courts in Canada began to rule that excluding same-sex couples from marriage violated the equality clause of the Charter. In 2005, the federal Parliament enacted the Civil Marriage Act, which legalised same-sex marriage across Canada.[33]

Canada has been referred to as the most gay-friendly country in the world, ranked first in the Gay Travel Index chart in 2018, and among the five safest in Forbes magazine in 2019.[34][35] It was also ranked first in Asher & Lyric's LGBTQ+ Danger Index in a 2021 update.[36]

అమెరికా సంయుక్త రాష్ట్రాలుసవరించు

In 1986, the Supreme Court of the United States ruled in Bowers v. Hardwick that a state could criminalize sodomy, but, in 2003, overturned itself in Lawrence v. Texas and thereby legalized homosexual activity throughout the United States of America.

It is only since the 2010s that census forms and political conditions have facilitated the visibility and enumeration of same-sex relationships.[37]

Same-sex marriage in the United States expanded from one state in 2004 to all 50 states in 2015, through various state court rulings, state legislation, direct popular votes (referendums and initiatives), and federal court rulings.


జంతువుల్లో స్వలైంగిక ప్రవర్తనసవరించు

 
Roy and Silo, two New York Central Park Zoo male chinstrap penguins similar to those pictured, became internationally known when they coupled and later were given an egg that needed hatching and care, which they successfully provided.[38]

Homosexual and bisexual behaviors occur in a number of other animal species. Such behaviors include sexual activity, courtship, affection, pair bonding, and parenting,[19] and are widespread; a 1999 review by researcher Bruce Bagemihl shows that homosexual behavior has been documented in about 500 species, ranging from primates to gut worms.[19][20] Animal sexual behavior takes many different forms, even within the same species. The motivations for and implications of these behaviors have yet to be fully understood, since most species have yet to be fully studied.[39] According to Bagemihl, "the animal kingdom [does] it with much greater sexual diversity—including homosexual, bisexual and nonreproductive sex—than the scientific community and society at large have previously been willing to accept".[40] According to Bailey et al., humans and domestic sheep are the only animals conclusively proven to exhibit a homosexual orientation.[7]

A review paper by N. W. Bailey and Marlene Zuk looking into studies of same-sex sexual behaviour in animals challenges the view that such behaviour lowers reproductive success, citing several hypotheses about how same-sex sexual behavior might be adaptive; these hypotheses vary greatly among different species. Bailey and Zuk also suggest future research needs to look into evolutionary consequences of same-sex sexual behaviour, rather than only looking into origins of such behaviour.[41]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 "Sexual orientation, homosexuality and bisexuality". అమెరికన్ సైకలాజికల్ అసోసియేషన్. Archived from the original on 8 ఆగస్టు 2013. Retrieved 10 ఆగస్టు 2013.
  2. 2.0 2.1 "Case No. S147999 in the Supreme Court of the State of California, In re Marriage Cases Judicial Council Coordination Proceeding No. 4365... – APA California Amicus Brief — As Filed" (PDF). p. 30. Retrieved 21 డిసెంబరు 2010.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 Frankowski BL; American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Adolescence (జూన్ 2004). "Sexual orientation and adolescents". పీడియాట్రిక్స్. 113 (6): 1827–32. doi:10.1542/peds.113.6.1827. PMID 15173519.
  4. 4.0 4.1 Mary Ann Lamanna; Agnes Riedmann; Susan D Stewart (2014). Marriages, Families, and Relationships: Making Choices in a Diverse Society. సెంగేజ్ లర్నింగ్. p. 82. ISBN 978-1305176898. Retrieved 11 ఫిబ్రవరి 2016. The reason some individuals develop a gay sexual identity has not been definitively established  – nor do we yet understand the development of heterosexuality. The American Psychological Association (APA) takes the position that a variety of factors impact a person's sexuality. The most recent literature from the APA says that sexual orientation is not a choice that can be changed at will, and that sexual orientation is most likely the result of a complex interaction of environmental, cognitive and biological factors...is shaped at an early age...[and evidence suggests] biological, including genetic or inborn hormonal factors, play a significant role in a person's sexuality (American Psychological Association 2010).
  5. Gail Wiscarz Stuart (2014). Principles and Practice of Psychiatric Nursing. ఎల్సెవియర్ హెల్త్ సైన్సెస్. p. 502. ISBN 978-0323294126. Retrieved 11 ఫిబ్రవరి 2016. No conclusive evidence supports any one specific cause of homosexuality; however, most researchers agree that biological and social factors influence the development of sexual orientation.
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  8. LeVay, Simon (2017). Gay, Straight, and the Reason Why: The Science of Sexual Orientation. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780199752966.
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  12. "'Therapies' to change sexual orientation lack medical justification and threaten health". Pan American Health Organization. Archived from the original on 23 మే 2012. Retrieved 26 మే 2012.
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  20. 20.0 20.1 Harrold, Max (16 ఫిబ్రవరి 1999). "Biological Exuberance: Animal Homosexuality and Natural Diversity". The Advocate, reprinted in Highbeam Encyclopedia. Retrieved 10 సెప్టెంబరు 2007.
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  25. Pablo, Ben (2004), "Latin America: Colonial", glbtq.com, archived from the original on 11 డిసెంబరు 2007, retrieved 1 ఆగస్టు 2007
  26. Murray, Stephen (2004). "Mexico". In Claude J. Summers (ed.). glbtq: An Encyclopedia of Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender, and Queer Culture. glbtq, Inc. Archived from the original on 2 నవంబరు 2007. Retrieved 1 ఆగస్టు 2007.
  27. Sigal, Pete (2003). Infamous Desire: Male Homosexuality in Colonial Latin America. The University of Chicago Press. ISBN 9780226757049.
  28. Mártir de Anglería, Pedro. (1530). Décadas del Mundo Nuevo. Quoted by Coello de la Rosa, Alexandre. "Good Indians", "Bad Indians", "What Christians?": The Dark Side of the New World in Gonzalo Fernández de Oviedo y Valdés (1478–1557), Delaware Review of Latin American Studies, Vol. 3, No. 2, 2002.
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  33. మూస:Cite canlaw
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  37. *Census statistics show quarter of California same-sex couples raising kids
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