పొదుపు: కూర్పుల మధ్య తేడాలు

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అనువాదం కోసం ఆంగ్ల వికీ నుండి కాపీ
(కొత్త పేజీ: '''పొదుపు''' ఒక విధమైన ఆలోచనా విధానం. en:Saving)
 
(అనువాదం కోసం ఆంగ్ల వికీ నుండి కాపీ)
సామాన్యమైన వాడుకలో '''పొదుపు''' అంటే [[డబ్బు]]ను ఖర్చు పెట్టకుండా అట్టేపెట్టుకోవడం. - ఉదాహరణకు బీరువాలో దాచుకోవడం, బ్యాంకు ఖాతాలో వేసుకోవడం వంటివి. <ref>"Random House Unabridged Dictionary." Random House, 2006</ref>. [[ఆర్ధిక శాస్త్రం]] పరిభాషలో [[ఆదాయం]]లో [[వినియోగం]] చేయగా మిగిలిందే పొదుపు. <!-- పొదుపులో రకాలు, పొదుపును నిర్ణయించే కారకాలు. పొదుపు సిద్ధాంతాలు, ఆర్థిక వ్యవస్థపై పొదుపు ప్రభావము తదితర అంశాలు కూడా --> మరింత విస్తృతమైన అర్ధంలో "పొదుపు" అంటే ఖర్చును తగ్గించుకోవడం, ధనాన్ని లాభకరంగా [[పెట్టుబడి]] పెట్టడం. అయితే పెట్టుబడిలో "రిస్క్" ఉంటుంది. కనుక ధనాన్ని ఖర్చుపెట్టకుండా ఉండడమే పొదుపుకు సరైన అర్ధం. వ్యావహారికంగా '''పొదుపు''' ఒక విధమైన ఆలోచనా విధానం, జీవన విధానం కూడాను. (ఉదాహరణకు - "పొదుపుగా బ్రతుకు గడపడం, దుబారాను వ్యతిరేకించడం" వంటి అర్ధాలలో)
'''పొదుపు''' ఒక విధమైన ఆలోచనా విధానం.
 
 
== ఆర్ధిక శాస్త్రంలో పొదుపు ==
In [[economics]], personal saving has been defined as personal [[disposable income]] minus [[Consumption (economics)|personal consumption expenditure]].<ref>Keynes, J: "The General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money", Chapter 6, Section II. Macmillan Cambridge University Press, for Royal Economic Society, 1936</ref> In other words, income that is not consumed by immediately buying goods and services is saved. Other kinds of saving can occur, as with corporate retained earnings (profits ''minus'' dividend and tax payments) and a government budget surplus.
 
There is some disagreement about what counts as saving. For example, the part of a person's income that is spent on [[mortgage loan]] repayments is not spent on present consumption and is therefore saving by the above definition, even though people do not always think of repaying a loan as saving. However, in the U.S. measurement of the numbers behind its [[gross national product]] (i.e., the [[National Income and Product Accounts]]), personal interest payments are not treated as "saving" unless the institutions and people who receive them save them.
 
"Saving" differs from "savings." The former refers to an increase in one's assets, an increase in net worth, whereas the latter refers to one part of one's assets, usually deposits in savings accounts, or to all of one's assets. Saving refers to an activity occurring over time, a [[stock and flow|flow]] variable, whereas savings refers to something that exists at any one time, a [[stock and flow|stock]] variable.
 
Saving is closely related to [[investment]]. By not using income to buy consumer goods and services, it is possible for resources to instead be invested by being used to produce [[fixed capital]], such as factories and machinery. Saving can therefore be vital to increase the amount of fixed capital available, which contributes to [[economic growth]].
 
However, increased saving does not always correspond to increased [[investment]], if savings are stashed in a mattress or otherwise not deposited into a financial intermediary like a bank there is no chance for those savings to be recycled as investment by business. This means that saving may increase without increasing investment, possibly causing a short-fall of demand (a pile-up of inventories, a cut-back of production, employment, and income, and thus a [[recession]]) rather than to economic growth. In the short term, if saving falls below investment, it can lead to a growth of [[aggregate demand]] and an economic boom. In the long term if saving falls below investment it eventually reduces investment and detracts from future growth. Future growth is made possible by foregoing present consumption to increase investment.
 
In a primitive agricultural economy savings might take the form of holding back the best of the corn harvest as seed corn for the next planting season. If the whole crop were consumed the economy would deteriorate to hunting and gathering the next season.
 
== వడ్డీ రేటులు ==
[[Classical economics]] posited that [[interest rates]] would adjust to equate saving and investment, avoiding a pile-up of inventories (general overproduction). A rise in saving would cause a fall in interest rates, stimulating investment. But [[John Maynard Keynes|Keynes]] argued that neither saving nor investment were very responsive to interest rates (i.e., that both were interest inelastic) so that large interest rate changes were needed. Further, it was the demand for and supplies of stocks of [[money]] that determined interest rates in the short run. Thus, saving could exceed investment for significant amounts of time, causing a [[general glut]] and a recession.
 
== వ్యక్తిగతమైన పొదుపు ==
(Saving in personal finance)
Within [[personal finance]] the act of ''saving'' corresponds to nominal ''preservation'' of money for future use, although [[inflation]] can still erode its real value. A [[deposit account]] paying [[interest]] is typically used to hold money for future needs, ''i.e.'' an emergency fund, to make a capital purchase (car, house, vacation, etc.) or to give to someone else (children, tax bill etc.).
 
''Savings'' within personal finance refers to the accumulated money put aside by saving.
 
Within personal finance, money used to purchase [[shares]], put in a [[collective investment scheme]] or used to buy any asset where there is an element of capital risk is deemed an [[investment]]. This distinction is important as the [[investment risk]] can cause a capital loss when an investment is realised, unlike cash saving(s). Lower levels of risk normally apply to savings ''e.g.'' real value is lost when [[inflation]] exceeds [[interest]] rates, or in extreme cases loss can occur due to [[Bank#Bank crises|bank failure]].
 
In many instances the term saving and investment are used interchangeably which confuses this distinction. For example many [[deposit account]]s are labeled as ''investment accounts'' by banks for marketing purposes. To help establish whether an asset is saving(s) or an investment you should ask yourself, "where is my money invested?" If the answer is cash then it is savings, if it is a type of asset which can fluctuate in nominal value then it is investment.
 
== వడ్డీ రేటులు ==
The ''[[real interest rate]]'' is the rate after tax is deducted less the rate of [[inflation]]. In some instances the real rate can be negative - this is known as [[inflation]] risk.
 
== మూలాలు ==
{{మూలాలజాబితా}}
 
 
[[en:Saving]]
[[de:Sparen]]
[[es:Ahorro]]
[[eo:Monŝparaĵo]]
[[fr:Épargne]]
[[fi:Säästö]]
[[hr:Štednja]]
[[it:Risparmio]]
[[he:חיסכון]]
[[nl:Sparen]]
[[pt:Poupança]]
[[sv:Sparande]]
[[zh:‎储蓄]]
[[ja:節約]]
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