విస్తృత ఆవర్తన పట్టిక

ఈ విస్తృత ఆవర్తన పట్టికలో మూలకం పేరు, సంకేతం, పరమాణు సంఖ్య, సగటు పరమాణు ద్రవ్యరాశి విలువలు ఉంటాయి. ఈ ఆవర్తన పట్టిక రసాయన మూలకాలను ఒక క్రమమైన పట్టికలో సూచించు విధానము. దీని ఆవిష్కరణ కు ఆధ్యుడు రష్యా దేశస్తుడైన డిమిట్రీ మెండలీఫ్. ఈయన 1869 వ సంవత్సరంలో మొదటి ఆవర్తన పట్టికకు రూపకల్పన చేశారు. మెండలీఫ్ రసాయన మూలకాలను వాటి ధర్మాల ఆధారంగా పట్టికలో అమర్చాడు. క్రొత్త మూలకాలు కనుగొన్న తదుపరి ఈ పట్టికను విస్తృతపరచడమైనది. ఈ ఆవర్తన పట్టిక విస్తరణ మూలకాల ధర్మములు, వాటి ఎలక్ట్రాన్ విన్యాసం ఆధారంగా తయారుచేయబడినది[1]

ఆవర్తన పట్టికసవరించు

Group → 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
Alkali
metals
Alkaline earth metals Boron
group
Carbon
group
Pnictogen Chalcogen Halogen Noble gases
CAS: IA IIA IIIA IVA VA VIA VIIA VIII IB IIB IIIB IVB VB VIB VIIB 0
old IUPAC: IA IIA IIIB IVB VB VIB VIIB VIIIB IB IIB IIIA IVA VA VIA VIIA VIIIA
↓ Period
title="Hydrogen: diatomic nonmetals; primordial; gas" style="text-align:center; padding:2px; line-height:normal;background:#e7ff8f; border:2px solid #6e6e8e; ;" |Hydrogen
1
H

1.00794(7)
isotopes

Name of element
Atomic number
Chemical symbol
Relative atomic mass
Element isotopes

Helium
2
He

4.002602(2)
isotopes
2 title="Lithium: alkali metals; primordial; solid" style="text-align:center; padding:2px; line-height:normal;background:#ff9d9d; border:2px solid #6e6e8e; ;" |Lithium
3
Li

6.941(2)
isotopes
title="Beryllium: alkaline earth metals; primordial; solid" style="text-align:center; padding:2px; line-height:normal;background:#ffdead; border:2px solid #6e6e8e; ;" |Beryllium
4
Be

9.012182(3)
isotopes
Boron
5
B

10.811(7)
isotopes
title="Carbon: polyatomic nonmetals; primordial; solid" style="text-align:center; padding:2px; line-height:normal;background:#a1ffc3; border:2px solid #6e6e8e; ;" |Carbon
6
C

12.0107(8)
isotopes
title="Nitrogen: diatomic nonmetals; primordial; gas" style="text-align:center; padding:2px; line-height:normal;background:#e7ff8f; border:2px solid #6e6e8e; ;" |Nitrogen
7
N

14.0067(2)
isotopes
title="Oxygen: diatomic nonmetals; primordial; gas" style="text-align:center; padding:2px; line-height:normal;background:#e7ff8f; border:2px solid #6e6e8e; ;" |Oxygen
8
O

15.9994(3)
isotopes
title="Fluorine: diatomic nonmetals; primordial; gas" style="text-align:center; padding:2px; line-height:normal;background:#e7ff8f; border:2px solid #6e6e8e; ;" |Fluorine
9
F

18.9984032(5)
isotopes
Neon
10
Ne

20.1797(6)
isotopes
3 title="Sodium: alkali metals; primordial; solid" style="text-align:center; padding:2px; line-height:normal;background:#ff9d9d; border:2px solid #6e6e8e; ;" |Sodium
11
Na

22.98976928(2)
isotopes
title="Magnesium: alkaline earth metals; primordial; solid" style="text-align:center; padding:2px; line-height:normal;background:#ffdead; border:2px solid #6e6e8e; ;" |Magnesium
12
Mg

24.3050(6)
isotopes
title="Aluminium: post-transition metals; primordial; solid" style="text-align:center; padding:2px; line-height:normal;background:#cccccc; border:2px solid #6e6e8e; ;" |Aluminium
13
Al

26.9815386(8)
isotopes
Silicon
14
Si

28.0855(3)
isotopes
title="Phosphorus: polyatomic nonmetals; primordial; solid" style="text-align:center; padding:2px; line-height:normal;background:#a1ffc3; border:2px solid #6e6e8e; ;" |Phosphorus
15
P

30.973762(2)
isotopes
title="Sulfur: polyatomic nonmetals; primordial; solid" style="text-align:center; padding:2px; line-height:normal;background:#a1ffc3; border:2px solid #6e6e8e; ;" |Sulfur
16
S

32.065(5)
isotopes
title="Chlorine: diatomic nonmetals; primordial; gas" style="text-align:center; padding:2px; line-height:normal;background:#e7ff8f; border:2px solid #6e6e8e; ;" |Chlorine
17
Cl

35.453(2)
isotopes
Argon
18
Ar

39.948(1)
isotopes
4 title="Potassium: alkali metals; primordial; solid" style="text-align:center; padding:2px; line-height:normal;background:#ff9d9d; border:2px solid #6e6e8e; width:6em;" |Potassium
19
K

39.0983(1)
isotopes
title="Calcium: alkaline earth metals; primordial; solid" style="text-align:center; padding:2px; line-height:normal;background:#ffdead; border:2px solid #6e6e8e; width:6em;" |Calcium
20
Ca

40.078(4)
isotopes
title="Scandium: transition metals; primordial; solid" style="text-align:center; padding:2px; line-height:normal;background:#ffc0c0; border:2px solid #6e6e8e; width:6em;" |Scandium
21
Sc

44.955912(6)
isotopes
title="Titanium: transition metals; primordial; solid" style="text-align:center; padding:2px; line-height:normal;background:#ffc0c0; border:2px solid #6e6e8e; width:6em;" |Titanium
22
Ti

47.867(1)
isotopes
title="Vanadium: transition metals; primordial; solid" style="text-align:center; padding:2px; line-height:normal;background:#ffc0c0; border:2px solid #6e6e8e; width:6em;" |Vanadium
23
V

50.9415(1)
isotopes
title="Chromium: transition metals; primordial; solid" style="text-align:center; padding:2px; line-height:normal;background:#ffc0c0; border:2px solid #6e6e8e; width:6em;" |Chromium
24
Cr

51.9961(6)
isotopes
title="Manganese: transition metals; primordial; solid" style="text-align:center; padding:2px; line-height:normal;background:#ffc0c0; border:2px solid #6e6e8e; width:6em;" |Manganese
25
Mn

54.938045(5)
isotopes
title="Iron: transition metals; primordial; solid" style="text-align:center; padding:2px; line-height:normal;background:#ffc0c0; border:2px solid #6e6e8e; width:6em;" |Iron
26
Fe

55.845(2)
isotopes
title="Cobalt: transition metals; primordial; solid" style="text-align:center; padding:2px; line-height:normal;background:#ffc0c0; border:2px solid #6e6e8e; width:6em;" |Cobalt
27
Co

58.933195(5)
isotopes
title="Nickel: transition metals; primordial; solid" style="text-align:center; padding:2px; line-height:normal;background:#ffc0c0; border:2px solid #6e6e8e; width:6em;" |Nickel
28
Ni

58.6934(4)
isotopes
title="Copper: transition metals; primordial; solid" style="text-align:center; padding:2px; line-height:normal;background:#ffc0c0; border:2px solid #6e6e8e; width:6em;" |Copper
29
Cu

63.546(3)
isotopes
title="Zinc: transition metals; primordial; solid" style="text-align:center; padding:2px; line-height:normal;background:#ffc0c0; border:2px solid #6e6e8e; width:6em;" |Zinc
30
Zn

65.38(2)
isotopes
title="Gallium: post-transition metals; primordial; solid" style="text-align:center; padding:2px; line-height:normal;background:#cccccc; border:2px solid #6e6e8e; width:6em;" |Gallium
31
Ga

69.723(1)
isotopes
Germanium
32
Ge

72.63(1)
isotopes
Arsenic
33
As

74.92160(2)
isotopes
title="Selenium: polyatomic nonmetals; primordial; solid" style="text-align:center; padding:2px; line-height:normal;background:#a1ffc3; border:2px solid #6e6e8e; width:6em;" |Selenium
34
Se

78.96(3)
isotopes
title="Bromine: diatomic nonmetals; primordial; liquid" style="text-align:center; padding:2px; line-height:normal;background:#e7ff8f; border:2px solid #6e6e8e; width:6em;" |Bromine
35
Br

79.904(1)
isotopes
Krypton
36
Kr

83.798(2)
isotopes
5 title="Rubidium: alkali metals; primordial; solid" style="text-align:center; padding:2px; line-height:normal;background:#ff9d9d; border:2px solid #6e6e8e; ;" |Rubidium
37
Rb

85.4678(3)
isotopes
title="Strontium: alkaline earth metals; primordial; solid" style="text-align:center; padding:2px; line-height:normal;background:#ffdead; border:2px solid #6e6e8e; ;" |Strontium
38
Sr

87.62(1)
isotopes
title="Yttrium: transition metals; primordial; solid" style="text-align:center; padding:2px; line-height:normal;background:#ffc0c0; border:2px solid #6e6e8e; ;" |Yttrium
39
Y

88.90585(2)
isotopes
title="Zirconium: transition metals; primordial; solid" style="text-align:center; padding:2px; line-height:normal;background:#ffc0c0; border:2px solid #6e6e8e; ;" |Zirconium
40
Zr

91.224(2)
isotopes
title="Niobium: transition metals; primordial; solid" style="text-align:center; padding:2px; line-height:normal;background:#ffc0c0; border:2px solid #6e6e8e; ;" |Niobium
41
Nb

92.90638(2)
isotopes
title="Molybdenum: transition metals; primordial; solid" style="text-align:center; padding:2px; line-height:normal;background:#ffc0c0; border:2px solid #6e6e8e; ;" |Molybdenum
42
Mo

95.96(2)
isotopes
title="Technetium: transition metals; from decay; solid" style="text-align:center; padding:2px; line-height:normal;background:#ffc0c0; border:2px dashed #6e6e8e; ;" |Technetium
43
Tc

[98]
isotopes
title="Ruthenium: transition metals; primordial; solid" style="text-align:center; padding:2px; line-height:normal;background:#ffc0c0; border:2px solid #6e6e8e; ;" |Ruthenium
44
Ru

101.07(2)
isotopes
title="Rhodium: transition metals; primordial; solid" style="text-align:center; padding:2px; line-height:normal;background:#ffc0c0; border:2px solid #6e6e8e; ;" |Rhodium
45
Rh

102.90550(2)
isotopes
title="Palladium: transition metals; primordial; solid" style="text-align:center; padding:2px; line-height:normal;background:#ffc0c0; border:2px solid #6e6e8e; ;" |Palladium
46
Pd

106.42(1)
isotopes
title="Silver: transition metals; primordial; solid" style="text-align:center; padding:2px; line-height:normal;background:#ffc0c0; border:2px solid #6e6e8e; ;" |Silver
47
Ag

107.8682(2)
isotopes
title="Cadmium: transition metals; primordial; solid" style="text-align:center; padding:2px; line-height:normal;background:#ffc0c0; border:2px solid #6e6e8e; ;" |Cadmium
48
Cd

112.411(8)
isotopes
title="Indium: post-transition metals; primordial; solid" style="text-align:center; padding:2px; line-height:normal;background:#cccccc; border:2px solid #6e6e8e; ;" |Indium
49
In

114.818(3)
isotopes
title="Tin: post-transition metals; primordial; solid" style="text-align:center; padding:2px; line-height:normal;background:#cccccc; border:2px solid #6e6e8e; ;" |Tin
50
Sn

118.710(7)
isotopes
Antimony
51
Sb

121.760(1)
isotopes
Tellurium
52
Te

127.60(3)
isotopes
title="Iodine: diatomic nonmetals; primordial; solid" style="text-align:center; padding:2px; line-height:normal;background:#e7ff8f; border:2px solid #6e6e8e; ;" |Iodine
53
I

126.90447(3)
isotopes
Xenon
54
Xe

131.293(6)
isotopes
6 title="Caesium: alkali metals; primordial; solid" style="text-align:center; padding:2px; line-height:normal;background:#ff9d9d; border:2px solid #6e6e8e; ;" |Caesium
55
Cs

132.9054519(2)
isotopes
title="Barium: alkaline earth metals; primordial; solid" style="text-align:center; padding:2px; line-height:normal;background:#ffdead; border:2px solid #6e6e8e; ;" |Barium
56
Ba

137.327(7)
isotopes
Lanthanides
57–71
*
title="Hafnium: transition metals; primordial; solid" style="text-align:center; padding:2px; line-height:normal;background:#ffc0c0; border:2px solid #6e6e8e; ;" |Hafnium
72
Hf

178.49(2)
isotopes
title="Tantalum: transition metals; primordial; solid" style="text-align:center; padding:2px; line-height:normal;background:#ffc0c0; border:2px solid #6e6e8e; ;" |Tantalum
73
Ta

180.94788(2)
isotopes
title="Tungsten: transition metals; primordial; solid" style="text-align:center; padding:2px; line-height:normal;background:#ffc0c0; border:2px solid #6e6e8e; ;" |Tungsten
74
W

183.84(1)
isotopes
title="Rhenium: transition metals; primordial; solid" style="text-align:center; padding:2px; line-height:normal;background:#ffc0c0; border:2px solid #6e6e8e; ;" |Rhenium
75
Re

186.207(1)
isotopes
title="Osmium: transition metals; primordial; solid" style="text-align:center; padding:2px; line-height:normal;background:#ffc0c0; border:2px solid #6e6e8e; ;" |Osmium
76
Os

190.23(3)
isotopes
title="Iridium: transition metals; primordial; solid" style="text-align:center; padding:2px; line-height:normal;background:#ffc0c0; border:2px solid #6e6e8e; ;" |Iridium
77
Ir

192.217(3)
isotopes
title="Platinum: transition metals; primordial; solid" style="text-align:center; padding:2px; line-height:normal;background:#ffc0c0; border:2px solid #6e6e8e; ;" |Platinum
78
Pt

195.084(9)
isotopes
title="Gold: transition metals; primordial; solid" style="text-align:center; padding:2px; line-height:normal;background:#ffc0c0; border:2px solid #6e6e8e; ;" |Gold
79
Au

196.966569(4)
isotopes
title="Mercury: transition metals; primordial; liquid" style="text-align:center; padding:2px; line-height:normal;background:#ffc0c0; border:2px solid #6e6e8e; ;" |Mercury
80
Hg

200.59(2)
isotopes
title="Thallium: post-transition metals; primordial; solid" style="text-align:center; padding:2px; line-height:normal;background:#cccccc; border:2px solid #6e6e8e; ;" |Thallium
81
Tl

204.3833(2)
isotopes
title="Lead: post-transition metals; primordial; solid" style="text-align:center; padding:2px; line-height:normal;background:#cccccc; border:2px solid #6e6e8e; ;" |Lead
82
Pb

207.2(1)
isotopes
title="Bismuth: post-transition metals; primordial; solid" style="text-align:center; padding:2px; line-height:normal;background:#cccccc; border:2px solid #6e6e8e; ;" |Bismuth
83
Bi

208.98040(1)
isotopes
title="Polonium: post-transition metals; from decay; solid" style="text-align:center; padding:2px; line-height:normal;background:#cccccc; border:2px dashed #6e6e8e; ;" |Polonium
84
Po

[210]
isotopes
Astatine
85
At

[210]
isotopes
Radon
86
Rn

[222]
isotopes
7 title="Francium: alkali metals; from decay; solid" style="text-align:center; padding:2px; line-height:normal;background:#ff9d9d; border:2px dashed #6e6e8e; ;" |Francium
87
Fr

[223]
isotopes
title="Radium: alkaline earth metals; from decay; solid" style="text-align:center; padding:2px; line-height:normal;background:#ffdead; border:2px dashed #6e6e8e; ;" |Radium
88
Ra

[226]
isotopes
Actinides
89–103
**
title="Rutherfordium: transition metals; synthetic; unknown phase" style="text-align:center; padding:2px; line-height:normal;background:#ffc0c0; border:2px dotted #6e6e8e; ;" |Rutherfordium
104
Rf

[267]
isotopes
title="Dubnium: transition metals; synthetic; unknown phase" style="text-align:center; padding:2px; line-height:normal;background:#ffc0c0; border:2px dotted #6e6e8e; ;" |Dubnium
105
Db

[268]
isotopes
title="Seaborgium: transition metals; synthetic; unknown phase" style="text-align:center; padding:2px; line-height:normal;background:#ffc0c0; border:2px dotted #6e6e8e; ;" |Seaborgium
106
Sg

[269]
isotopes
title="Bohrium: transition metals; synthetic; unknown phase" style="text-align:center; padding:2px; line-height:normal;background:#ffc0c0; border:2px dotted #6e6e8e; ;" |Bohrium
107
Bh

[270]
isotopes
title="Hassium: transition metals; synthetic; unknown phase" style="text-align:center; padding:2px; line-height:normal;background:#ffc0c0; border:2px dotted #6e6e8e; ;" |Hassium
108
Hs

[269]
isotopes
Meitnerium
109
Mt

[278]
isotopes
Darmstadtium
110
Ds

[281]
isotopes
Roentgenium
111
Rg

[281]
isotopes
title="Copernicium: transition metals; synthetic; unknown phase" style="text-align:center; padding:2px; line-height:normal;background:#ffc0c0; border:2px dotted #6e6e8e; ;" |Copernicium
112
Cn

[285]
isotopes
Ununtrium
113
Uut

[286]
isotopes
Flerovium
114
Fl

[289]
isotopes
Ununpentium
115
Uup

[288]
isotopes
Livermorium
116
Lv

[293]
isotopes
Ununseptium
117
Uus

[294]
isotopes
Ununoctium
118
Uuo

[294]
isotopes

Lanthanides  title="Lanthanum: lanthanides; primordial; solid" style="text-align:center; padding:2px; line-height:normal;background:#ffbfff; border:2px solid #6e6e8e; ;" |Lanthanum
57
La

138.90547(7)
isotopes
title="Cerium: lanthanides; primordial; solid" style="text-align:center; padding:2px; line-height:normal;background:#ffbfff; border:2px solid #6e6e8e; ;" |Cerium
58
Ce

140.116(1)
isotopes
title="Praseodymium: lanthanides; primordial; solid" style="text-align:center; padding:2px; line-height:normal;background:#ffbfff; border:2px solid #6e6e8e; ;" |Praseodymium
59
Pr

140.90765(2)
isotopes
title="Neodymium: lanthanides; primordial; solid" style="text-align:center; padding:2px; line-height:normal;background:#ffbfff; border:2px solid #6e6e8e; ;" |Neodymium
60
Nd

144.242(3)
isotopes
title="Promethium: lanthanides; from decay; solid" style="text-align:center; padding:2px; line-height:normal;background:#ffbfff; border:2px dashed #6e6e8e; ;" |Promethium
61
Pm

[145]
isotopes
title="Samarium: lanthanides; primordial; solid" style="text-align:center; padding:2px; line-height:normal;background:#ffbfff; border:2px solid #6e6e8e; ;" |Samarium
62
Sm

150.36(2)
isotopes
title="Europium: lanthanides; primordial; solid" style="text-align:center; padding:2px; line-height:normal;background:#ffbfff; border:2px solid #6e6e8e; ;" |Europium
63
Eu

151.964(1)
isotopes
title="Gadolinium: lanthanides; primordial; solid" style="text-align:center; padding:2px; line-height:normal;background:#ffbfff; border:2px solid #6e6e8e; ;" |Gadolinium
64
Gd

157.25(3)
isotopes
title="Terbium: lanthanides; primordial; solid" style="text-align:center; padding:2px; line-height:normal;background:#ffbfff; border:2px solid #6e6e8e; ;" |Terbium
65
Tb

158.92535(2)
isotopes
title="Dysprosium: lanthanides; primordial; solid" style="text-align:center; padding:2px; line-height:normal;background:#ffbfff; border:2px solid #6e6e8e; ;" |Dysprosium
66
Dy

162.500(1)
isotopes
title="Holmium: lanthanides; primordial; solid" style="text-align:center; padding:2px; line-height:normal;background:#ffbfff; border:2px solid #6e6e8e; ;" |Holmium
67
Ho

164.93032(2)
isotopes
title="Erbium: lanthanides; primordial; solid" style="text-align:center; padding:2px; line-height:normal;background:#ffbfff; border:2px solid #6e6e8e; ;" |Erbium
68
Er

167.259(3)
isotopes
title="Thulium: lanthanides; primordial; solid" style="text-align:center; padding:2px; line-height:normal;background:#ffbfff; border:2px solid #6e6e8e; ;" |Thulium
69
Tm

168.93421(2)
isotopes
title="Ytterbium: lanthanides; primordial; solid" style="text-align:center; padding:2px; line-height:normal;background:#ffbfff; border:2px solid #6e6e8e; ;" |Ytterbium
70
Yb

173.054(5)
isotopes
title="Lutetium: lanthanides; primordial; solid" style="text-align:center; padding:2px; line-height:normal;background:#ffbfff; border:2px solid #6e6e8e; ;" |Lutetium
71
Lu

174.9668(1)
isotopes
** Actinides  title="Actinium: actinides; from decay; solid" style="text-align:center; padding:2px; line-height:normal;background:#ff99cc; border:2px dashed #6e6e8e; ;" |Actinium
89
Ac

[227]
isotopes
title="Thorium: actinides; primordial; solid" style="text-align:center; padding:2px; line-height:normal;background:#ff99cc; border:2px solid #6e6e8e; ;" |Thorium
90
Th

232.03806(2)
isotopes
title="Protactinium: actinides; from decay; solid" style="text-align:center; padding:2px; line-height:normal;background:#ff99cc; border:2px dashed #6e6e8e; ;" |Protactinium
91
Pa

231.03588(2)
isotopes
title="Uranium: actinides; primordial; solid" style="text-align:center; padding:2px; line-height:normal;background:#ff99cc; border:2px solid #6e6e8e; ;" |Uranium
92
U

238.02891(3)
isotopes
title="Neptunium: actinides; from decay; solid" style="text-align:center; padding:2px; line-height:normal;background:#ff99cc; border:2px dashed #6e6e8e; ;" |Neptunium
93
Np

[237]
isotopes
title="Plutonium: actinides; primordial; solid" style="text-align:center; padding:2px; line-height:normal;background:#ff99cc; border:2px solid #6e6e8e; ;" |Plutonium
94
Pu

[244]
isotopes
title="Americium: actinides; from decay; solid" style="text-align:center; padding:2px; line-height:normal;background:#ff99cc; border:2px dashed #6e6e8e; ;" |Americium
95
Am

[243]
isotopes
title="Curium: actinides; from decay; solid" style="text-align:center; padding:2px; line-height:normal;background:#ff99cc; border:2px dashed #6e6e8e; ;" |Curium
96
Cm

[247]
isotopes
title="Berkelium: actinides; from decay; solid" style="text-align:center; padding:2px; line-height:normal;background:#ff99cc; border:2px dashed #6e6e8e; ;" |Berkelium
97
Bk

[247]
isotopes
title="Californium: actinides; from decay; solid" style="text-align:center; padding:2px; line-height:normal;background:#ff99cc; border:2px dashed #6e6e8e; ;" |Californium
98
Cf

[251]
isotopes
title="Einsteinium: actinides; synthetic; solid" style="text-align:center; padding:2px; line-height:normal;background:#ff99cc; border:2px dotted #6e6e8e; ;" |Einsteinium
99
Es

[252]
isotopes
title="Fermium: actinides; synthetic; unknown phase" style="text-align:center; padding:2px; line-height:normal;background:#ff99cc; border:2px dotted #6e6e8e; ;" |Fermium
100
Fm

[257]
isotopes
title="Mendelevium: actinides; synthetic; unknown phase" style="text-align:center; padding:2px; line-height:normal;background:#ff99cc; border:2px dotted #6e6e8e; ;" |Mendelevium
101
Md

[258]
isotopes
title="Nobelium: actinides; synthetic; unknown phase" style="text-align:center; padding:2px; line-height:normal;background:#ff99cc; border:2px dotted #6e6e8e; ;" |Nobelium
102
No

[259]
isotopes
title="Lawrencium: actinides; synthetic; unknown phase" style="text-align:center; padding:2px; line-height:normal;background:#ff99cc; border:2px dotted #6e6e8e; ;" |Lawrencium
103
Lr

[262]
isotopes



Notesసవరించు

  1. "The periodic table of the elements". International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry. 2007-07-22. Archived from the original on 2008-02-13. Retrieved 2008-02-08.



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